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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The N-I rocket[1]
FunctionCarrier rocket
ManufacturerMcDonnell Douglas (design)
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (production)
Country of originUnited States (design)
Japan (production)
Height34 metres (112 ft)[1]
Diameter2.44 metres (8.0 ft)
Mass131,330 kilograms (289,530 lb)[1]
Stages2 or 3
Payload to LEO
Mass1,200 kilograms (2,600 lb)[1]
Payload to GTO
Mass360 kilograms (790 lb)[1]
Associated rockets
Launch history
Launch sitesLA-N, Tanegashima
Total launches7
Partial failure(s)1
First flight9 September 1975
Last flight3 September 1982
Boosters – Castor 2
No. boosters3[2]
Engines1 TX-354-3
Thrust258.9 kilonewtons (58,200 lbf)
Specific impulse262 sec
Burn time37 seconds
First stage – Thor-ELT
Engines1 MB-3-3
Thrust866.7 kilonewtons (194,800 lbf)
Specific impulse290 sec
Burn time270 seconds
Second stage
Engines1 LE-3
Thrust52.9 kilonewtons (11,900 lbf)
Specific impulse290 sec
Burn time246 seconds
Third stage (optional) – Star-37N
Engines1 solid
Thrust45 kilonewtons (10,000 lbf)
Specific impulse290 sec
Burn time42 seconds
Mock up of N-1
Mock up of N-1

The N-I or N-1 was a derivative of the American Thor-Delta rocket, produced under license in Japan. The N stood for "Nippon" (Japan). It used a Long Tank Thor first stage, a Mitsubishi Heavy Industries-designed LE-3 engine on the second stage,[3][4][5] and three Castor SRMs.[2][6] Seven were launched between 1975 and 1982, before it was replaced by the N-II. Six of the seven launches were successful, however on the fifth flight, there was recontact between the satellite and the third stage, which caused the satellite to fail.

On 29 February 1976, the second N-I conducted the only orbital launch to occur on a leap day.[7]

Launch history

Flight No. Date / time (UTC) Rocket,
Launch site Payload Payload mass Orbit Customer Launch
1(F) 9 September 1975
Tanegashima ETS-1 (JETS-1/Kiku-1)[9] LEO Success
2(F) 29 February 1976
Tanegashima ISS-1 (JISS-1/Ume-1)[10] LEO Success
3(F) 23 February 1977
Tanegashima ETS-2 (Kiku-2)[11] GTO Success
3rd stage used
4(F) 16 February 1978
Tanegashima ISS-2 (JISS-2/Ume-2)[10] LEO Success
5(F) 6 February 1979
Tanegashima ECS-A (Ayame-1)[12] GTO Partial failure
3rd stage used; Recontact between satellite and upper stage.
6(F) 22 February 1980
Tanegashima ECS-B (Ayame-2)[12] GTO Success
3rd stage used
9(F) 3 September 1982
Tanegashima ETS-3 (Kiku-4)[13] LEO Success

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e Wade, Mark. "Delta". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2008.
  2. ^ a b "JAXA Digital Archives". Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Archived from the original on 9 September 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2009.
  3. ^ "N-Iロケット開発の歩み". Yukihiko Takenaka, NASDA. Retrieved 10 February 2011.[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ "三菱重工 名古屋誘導推進システム製作所 事業所紹介 沿革". Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Archived from the original on 4 July 2011. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
  5. ^ "第1部 創造性豊かな科学技術を求めて 第2章 自主技術開発への展開 第3節 先導的・基盤的科学技術分野における自主技術開発の展開 2.宇宙開発". Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Archived from the original on 15 June 2008. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
  6. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "N-1". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  7. ^ Pearlman, Robert. "Space Station Command Change Is One Giant Leap (Day) for Space History". Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g McDowell, Jonathan. "Thor". Orbital and Suborbital Launch Database. Jonathan's Space Report. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  9. ^ "JAXA | Engineering Test Satellite I "KIKU-1" (ETS-I)". JAXA | Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  10. ^ a b "JAXA | Ionosphere Sounding Satellite "UME" (ISS)". JAXA | Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  11. ^ "JAXA | Engineering Test Satellite II "KIKU-2" (ETS-II)". JAXA | Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  12. ^ a b "JAXA | Experimental Communications Satellites "Ayame" (ECS)". JAXA | Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  13. ^ "JAXA | Engineering Test Satellite III "KIKU-4" (ETS-III)". JAXA | Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 16 March 2020.

This page was last edited on 13 March 2021, at 08:36
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