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The Lady Gardiner
Director Muriel Box.jpg
Violette Muriel Baker

(1905-09-22)22 September 1905
Tolworth, Surrey, England, UK
Died18 May 1991(1991-05-18) (aged 85)
Hendon, London, England, UK
OccupationDirector, writer, screenwriter
Spouse(s)Sydney Box (1935–1969; divorced)
Gerald Gardiner, Baron Gardiner (1970–1990; his death)
Children1 daughter

Violette Muriel Box, Baroness Gardiner, (22 September 1905 – 18 May 1991) was an English screenwriter and director,[1] Britain's most prolific female director, having directed 12 feature films and one featurette.[2] Her screenplay for The Seventh Veil (co-written with husband Sydney Box) won an Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay.

Life and career

Born Violette Muriel Baker in Tolworth, Surrey, in 1905,[1] and educated at Surbiton High School.[3] After her attempts at acting and dancing proved fruitless, she accepted work as a continuity girl for British International Pictures. In 1935, she met and married journalist Sydney Box, with whom she collaborated on nearly forty plays with mainly female roles for amateur theatre groups. Their production company, Verity Films, first released short wartime propaganda films, including The English Inn (1941), her first directing effort, after which it branched into fiction. The couple achieved their greatest joint success with The Seventh Veil (1945) for which they gained the Academy Award for Best Writing, Original Screenplay in the following year.[4][5]

After the war, the Rank Organisation hired her husband to head Gainsborough Pictures, where she was in charge of the scenario department, writing scripts for a number of light comedies, including two for child star Petula Clark, Easy Money and Here Come the Huggetts (both 1948). She occasionally assisted as a dialogue director, or re-shot scenes during post-production. Her extensive work on The Lost People (1949) gained her a credit as co-director, her first for a full-length feature.[5] In 1951, her husband created London Independent Producers, allowing Box more opportunities to direct. Many of her early films were adaptations of plays, and as such felt stage-bound. They were noteworthy more for their strong performances than they were for a distinctive directorial style. She favoured scripts with topical and frequently controversial themes, including Irish politics, teenage sex, abortion, illegitimacy and syphilis consequently several of her films were banned by local authorities.[5]

She pursued her favourite subject – the female experience – in a number of films, including Street Corner (1953) about women police officers, Somerset Maugham's The Beachcomber (1954), with Donald Sinden and Glynis Johns as a resourceful missionary, again working with Donald Sinden on Eyewitness (1956) and a series of comedies about the battle of the sexes, including The Passionate Stranger (1957), The Truth About Women (1958) and her final film, Rattle of a Simple Man (1964).[6]

Box often experienced prejudice in a male-dominated industry, especially hurtful when perpetrated by another woman. Jean Simmons had her replaced on So Long at the Fair (1950), and Kay Kendall unsuccessfully attempted to do the same with Simon and Laura (1955). Many producers questioned her competence to direct large-scale feature films, and while the press was quick to note her position as one of very few women directors in the British film industry, their tone tended to be condescending rather than filled with praise.[5]

Later years

Muriel Box left film-making to write novels and created a successful publishing house, Femina, which proved to be a rewarding outlet for her feminism.[7]

Personal life

She married Sydney Box in 1935 and gave birth to a daughter, Leonora the following year, they divorced in 1969.[8] In 1970, she married Gerald Austin Gardiner, who had been Lord Chancellor, who died in 1990. She died in Hendon, Barnet,[citation needed] London, on 18 May 1991, aged 85.[1]


Leonora went on to study at the Royal Academy from 30 September 1957 until December 1960, exhibiting at both the 1959[9] and 1960[10] Royal Academy of Arts Exhibitions, while living at Pond Cottage, Nan-Clark's Lane, Mill Hill NW7.[11] She married in Hendon in 1965.[12]


Screenwriting credits

Directing credits


  1. ^ a b c "Muriel Box". British Film Institute. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016.
  2. ^ Young, Neil (24 October 2018). "The delights of Muriel Box". British Film Institute.
  3. ^ Burnett, John; Vincent, David; Mayall, David (2 March 1984). The Autobiography of the Working Class: An Annotated, Critical Bibliography. Harvester Press. ISBN 9780710809704 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ "Muriel Box - Biography, Movie Highlights and Photos - AllMovie". AllMovie.
  5. ^ a b c d "BFI Screenonline: Box, Muriel (1905-1991) Biography".
  6. ^ Rachel Cooke. "Power women of the 1950s: Muriel and Betty Box". the Guardian.
  7. ^ "Muriel Box Films - Muriel Box Filmography - Muriel Box Biography - Muriel Box Career - Muriel Box Awards". Archived from the original on 8 December 2015.
  8. ^ "Power women of the 1950s: Muriel and Betty Box". the Guardian. 5 October 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  9. ^ "1959 Changing Times". Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  10. ^ "1960 Dod Procter's Jamaican Girl". Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  11. ^ "Leonora Box | Artist | Royal Academy of Arts". Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  12. ^ "FreeBMD Entry Info". Retrieved 15 July 2021.


  • Odd Woman Out by Muriel Box, published by Leslie Frewin, London, 1974
  • Gainsborough Melodrama, edited by Sue Aspinall and Robert Murphy, published by the British Film Institute, London, 1983

External links

This page was last edited on 31 July 2022, at 03:43
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