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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Moulin Rouge!
Moulin rouge poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed byBaz Luhrmann
Written by
Produced by
Starring
CinematographyDonald M. McAlpine
Edited byJill Bilcock
Music byCraig Armstrong
Production
company
Distributed by20th Century Fox
Release date
Running time
128 minutes[3]
Countries
  • Australia
  • United States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$50 million[4]
Box office$179.2 million[4]

Moulin Rouge! (/ˌmlæ̃ˈrʒ/, French: [mulɛ̃ ʁuʒ][5]) is a 2001 jukebox musical romantic drama film directed, co-produced, and co-written by Baz Luhrmann. It follows a young English poet, Christian, who falls in love with the star of the Moulin Rouge, cabaret actress and courtesan Satine. The film uses the musical setting of the Montmartre Quarter of Paris and is the final part of Luhrmann's "Red Curtain Trilogy," following Strictly Ballroom (1992) and Romeo + Juliet (1996). A co-production of Australia and the United States, it stars Nicole Kidman and Ewan McGregor. John Leguizamo, Jim Broadbent, and Richard Roxburgh feature in supporting roles.

Moulin Rouge! premiered at the 2001 Cannes Film Festival and was released in theaters on 18 May 2001 in North America and on 25 May 2001 in Australia. The film was praised for Luhrmann's direction, the performances (particularly from Kidman), its soundtrack, costume design, and production values. It was also a commercial success, grossing $179.2 million on a $50 million budget. At the 74th Academy Awards, the film received eight nominations, including Best Picture, and won two (Best Production Design and Best Costume Design). In BBC's 2016 poll of the 21st century's 100 greatest films, Moulin Rouge! ranked 53rd.[6]

Plot

In 1899 Paris, a young man named Christian, who is suffering from depression, begins writing his story ("Nature Boy"). One year earlier, he moves to the Montmartre district to join the Bohemian movement. Meeting a troupe of performers led by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Christian helps them finish their show, Spectacular Spectacular, to sell to Harold Zidler, owner of the Moulin Rouge. They arrive at the Moulin Rouge as Zidler and his "Diamond Dog Dancers" perform ("Zidler's Rap Medley/Can Can Dance"). Toulouse arranges for Christian to present the work to Satine, the star courtesan, unaware that Zidler has promised Satine to the Duke of Monroth, his potential investor ("Sparkling Diamonds").

Satine mistakes Christian for the Duke, and they dance before retiring to her chamber ("Rhythm of the Night", "Meet Me in the Red Room"), but she learns he is merely a writer ("Your Song"). The Duke interrupts, and Christian and Satine claim they were rehearsing Spectacular Spectacular. Aided by Zidler, Toulouse, and the troupe, they pitch the show to the Duke, improvising a plot about an evil maharajah attempting to woo an Indian courtesan who loves a poor sitar player ("The Pitch (Spectacular Spectacular)"). The Duke backs the show, provided that only he may court Satine. Satine contemplates Christian and her longing to become "a real actress" ("One Day I'll Fly Away"). Christian returns, and he and Satine fall for each other ("Elephant Love Medley").

As the cabaret is converted to a theater, Christian and Satine meet under the pretense of rehearsing. When the suspicious Duke threatens to stop financing the show, Zidler arranges for Satine to dine with the Duke, but she falls ill from tuberculosis ("If I should die (Górecki)"). Zidler tells the Duke that Satine has gone to confession ("Like a Virgin"). Zidler learns from the doctor treating Satine that she does not have long to live, but keeps this from Christian. Satine tells Christian their relationship endangers the show, but he writes a song to affirm their love ("Come What May").

Nini, a jealous performer, reveals to the Duke that the play is a metaphor for Christian, Satine, and the Duke. The Duke demands the ending be changed to the courtesan choosing the maharajah; Satine offers to spend the night with him to keep the original ending. At the Duke's quarters, Satine sees Christian on the streets below, and realizes she cannot sleep with the Duke ("El Tango de Roxanne (Roxanne)"). The Duke attempts to rape her, but the dancer Le Chocolat saves her. Christian urges Satine to run away with him. The Duke tells Zidler he will have Christian killed if Satine is not his. Zidler warns Satine, but when she refuses, he informs her that she is dying ("A Fool to Believe"). Zidler explains that to save Christian's life, Satine must reject him ("The Show Must Go On"). Barred from the Moulin Rouge, Christian is heartbroken, though Toulouse insists Satine does love him.

The night of the show, Christian sneaks into the Moulin Rouge, intending to pay Satine her fee as a courtesan ("Hindi Sad Diamonds"). He confronts her backstage, but they find themselves in the spotlight; Zidler convinces the audience that Christian is the sitar player in disguise. Christian denounces Satine and walks off the stage. From the rafters, Toulouse declares, "The greatest thing you'll ever learn is just to love and be loved in return", spurring Satine to sing the song Christian wrote to express their love. Christian returns to the stage, joining her in the song. The Duke orders his bodyguard to kill Christian, but is thwarted, while Zidler stops the Duke's own attempt. The Duke storms out as Christian and Satine complete their song ("Come What May (Reprise)", "Coup d'État (Finale)").

After the curtain closes, Satine succumbs to tuberculosis. Before she dies, Christian and Satine affirm their love and she tells him to write their story. A year later, the Moulin Rouge has closed down and is left in disrepair, and Christian finishes writing the tale of his love for Satine, a "love that will live forever" ("Nature Boy (Reprise)").

Cast

Production

Writing and inspiration

Moulin Rouge! was influenced by an eclectic variety of comic and melodramatic musical sources, including the Hollywood musical, "vaudeville, cabaret culture, stage musicals, and operas." Its musical elements also allude to Luhrmann's earlier film Strictly Ballroom.[8]

Giacomo Puccini's opera La bohème, which Luhrmann directed at the Sydney Opera House in 1993, was a key source of the plot for Moulin Rouge!.[9] Further stylistic inspiration came from Luhrmann's encounter with Bollywood films during his visit to India while conducting research for his 1993 production of Benjamin Britten's opera A Midsummer Night's Dream.[10] According to Luhrmann:

. . . we went to this huge, ice cream picture palace to see a Bollywood movie. Here we were, with 2,000 Indians watching a film in Hindi, and there was the lowest possible comedy and then incredible drama and tragedy and then break out in songs. And it was three-and-a-half hours! We thought we had suddenly learnt Hindi, because we understood everything! We thought it was incredible. How involved the audience were. How uncool they were – how their coolness had been ripped aside and how they were united in this singular sharing of the story. The thrill of thinking, 'Could we ever do that in the West? Could we ever get past that cerebral cool and perceived cool.' It required this idea of comic-tragedy. Could you make those switches? Fine in Shakespeare – low comedy and then you die in five minutes. . . . In Moulin Rouge!, we went further. Our recognisable story, though Orphean in shape, is derived from Camille, La Boheme – whether you know those texts or not, you recognise those patterns and character types.[11]

In the DVD's audio commentary, Luhrmann revealed that he also drew from the Greek tragedy of Orpheus and Eurydice. The filmmakers projected the Orpheus figure onto Christian by characterizing the latter as a musical genius whose talent surpassed that of everyone else in his world. The film's use of songs from the mid- to late 20th century in the 1899 setting makes Christian appear ahead of his time as a musician and writer. Moulin Rouge!′s plot also parallels that of the myth: "McGregor, as a poet who spouts deathless verse . . . , descends into a hellish underworld of prostitution and musical entertainment in order to retrieve Kidman, the singing courtesan who loves him but is enslaved to a diabolical duke. He rescues her but looks back and . . . cue Queen's 'The Show Must Go On.'"[12]

Commentators have also noted the similarities between the film's plot and those of the opera La Traviata[13] and Émile Zola's novel Nana.[14] Other cinematic elements appear to have been borrowed from the musical films Cabaret,[15] Folies Bergère de Paris, and Meet Me in St. Louis.[16]

The character of Satine was based on the French can-can dancer Jane Avril.[17] The character of Harold Zidler shares his last name with Charles Zidler, one of the owners of the real Moulin Rouge. Satie was loosely based on the French composers Erik Satie and Maurice Ravel. Môme Fromage, Le Pétomane, and Le Chocolat share their names with performers at the actual cabaret. Marlene Dietrich, Greta Garbo and Rita Hayworth were cited as inspirations for the film's "look."[16]

Development

Leonardo DiCaprio, who worked with Luhrmann on Romeo + Juliet, auditioned for the role of Christian.[18] Luhrmann also considered younger actors for the role, including Heath Ledger and Jake Gyllenhaal, before Ewan McGregor won the part. Courtney Love auditioned for the role of Satine and gave approval for "Smells Like Teen Spirit" to be used in the film.[19]

Filming

Production began in November 1999 and was completed in May 2000,[20] with a budget of $50 million.[4] It was shot on the sound stages at Fox Studios in Sydney.[21] Filming generally went smoothly, but Kidman broke her ribs twice when she was lifted into the air during the dance sequences. She also suffered from a torn knee cartilage resulting from a fall during the "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend" production song.[16] Kidman later stated in an interview with Graham Norton that she broke a rib while getting into a corset by tightening it as much as possible to achieve an 18-inch waist, and that she fell down the stairs while dancing in heels.[22] The production overran its shooting schedule and had to be out of the sound stages to make way for Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones. This necessitated the filming of some pick-up shots in Madrid.[23][24]

In the liner notes to the film's Special Edition DVD, Luhrmann writes that "[the] whole stylistic premise has been to decode what the Moulin Rouge was to the audiences of 1899 and express that same thrill and excitement in a way to which contemporary movie-goers can relate."[25] Both Roger Ebert and The New York Times compared the film’s editing and cinematography to that of a music video and noted its visual homage to early Technicolor films.[26][15]

Music

Marsha Kinder describes Moulin Rouge! as a "brilliant," "celebratory," and "humorous" musical and aural pastiche due to its use of diverse songs.[27] Moulin Rouge! takes well-known popular music, mostly drawn from the MTV Generation, and anachronizes it into a tale set in a turn-of-the-century Paris cabaret.[25] Kinder holds that keeping borrowed lyrics and melodies intact "makes it almost impossible for spectators to miss the poaching [of songs] (even if they cannot name the particular source)."[28]

The film uses so much popular music that it took Luhrmann two and a half years to secure the rights to all of the songs.[29] Some of the songs sampled include "Chamma Chamma" from the Hindi movie China Gate, Queen's "The Show Must Go On" (arranged in operatic format), David Bowie's rendition of Nat King Cole's "Nature Boy", "Lady Marmalade" by Labelle (in the Christina Aguilera/P!nk/Mýa/Lil' Kim cover commissioned for the film), Madonna's "Material Girl" and "Like a Virgin", Elton John's "Your Song", the titular number of The Sound of Music, "Roxanne" by The Police (in a tango format using the composition "Tanguera" by Mariano Mores), and "Smells Like Teen Spirit" by Nirvana.

Luhrmann had intended to incorporate songs by The Rolling Stones and Cat Stevens into the film, but could not obtain the necessary rights from these artists. When Stevens denied consent for the use of "Father and Son" due to religious objections to the film's content, "Nature Boy" was chosen as its replacement.[16]

Release and reception

Originally set for release on Christmas 2000, 20th Century Fox eventually moved the release of Moulin Rouge! to Summer 2001 to allow Luhrmann more time in post-production.[30][31] Moulin Rouge! premiered at the 2001 Cannes Film Festival on May 9, 2001 as the festival's opening title.[1]

Moulin Rouge! opened in the United States at two theaters in New York and Los Angeles on May 18, 2001.[1] It grossed US$167,540 on its opening weekend.[4][2] The film then expanded to a national release on June 1, 2001.[1] Moulin Rouge! has grossed $57,386,369 in the United States and Canada and another $121,813,167 internationally[2] (including $26 million in the United Kingdom[32] and $3,878,504 in Australia[33]).

Moulin Rouge! received generally positive reviews from critics. Roger Ebert rated the film 3.5 stars out of 4, remarking that "the movie is all color and music, sound and motion, kinetic energy, broad strokes, operatic excess."[26] Newsweek praised McGregor’s and Kidman’s performances, stating that "both stars hurl themselves into the movie's reckless spirit, unafraid of looking foolish, adroitly attuned to Luhrmann's abrupt swings from farce to tragedy. (And both sing well.)"[34] The New York Times wrote that "the film is undeniably rousing, but there is not a single moment of organic excitement because Mr. Luhrmann is so busy splicing bits from other films" but conceded that "there's nothing else like it, and young audiences, especially girls, will feel as if they had found a movie that was calling them by name."[15] All Things Considered commented the film was "not gonna be for all tastes" and that "you either surrender to this sort of flamboyance or you experience it as overkill."[35][36]

Moulin Rouge! holds a rating of 66/100 at Metacritic based on 35 reviews.[37] At Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds a 76% "Fresh" rating based on 199 reviews, with the critics’ consensus saying, "A love-it-or-hate-it experience, Moulin Rouge is all style, all giddy, over-the-top spectacle. But it's also daring in its vision and wildly original."[38] In December 2001, the film was named the best film of the year by viewers of Film 2001.[39] Entertainment Weekly ranked it #6 on its list of the top ten movies of the decade, saying, "Baz Luhrmann's trippy pop culture pastiche from 2001 was an aesthetically arresting ode to poetry, passion, and Elton John. It was so good, we'll forgive him for Australia."[40][41] In 2008, Moulin Rouge! was ranked #211 on Empire's 500 Greatest Movies of All Time.[42] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "B+" on an A+ to F scale.[43]

Home Theater Forum rated the DVD release of Moulin Rouge! as the best DVD of 2001.[44] Luhrmann had hand-picked the features and behind-the scenes footage for the two-disc DVD edition.[45]

Analysis

Several commentators have interpreted Moulin Rouge! as an exemplar postmodern film. Kathryn Conner Bennett and Mina Yang hold that the film satisfies the postmodern paradigm described by Jim Collins through its aesthetic expression. Elaborating on this, Conner Bennett states that Moulin Rouge! utilizes Collins' concept of "the array," in which signs and symbols are recycled to engender "postmodern cultural life."[46] She argues that Luhrmann’s use of familiar "narrative elements" (such as popular songs) in the film requires viewers to employ "hypertextuality" to understand and interpret the work, and that not all audiences would be able to make the "cognitive leap" required to create meaning from the narrative.[47] According to Yang, Moulin Rouge! "serve[s] as [a critique] of both avant-garde élitism and stuffy traditionalism"[48] by combining and alluding to different forms of "élite" and "pop" art.[49]

The film’s music forms the foundation of its postmodern aesthetic. Marsha Kinder and Mina Yang have noted Moulin Rouge!’s reflexivity as a movie musical, holding that the film incorporates a variety of genre conventions (including "comedy, parody, and satire")[50] along with a significant amount of added irony.[49] Notably, Moulin Rouge! combines mid-to-late 20th Century melodies and lyrics with a narrative set in fin de siècle France, a locale Kinder identifies as "the proverbial international center for modernism." "The gap in historical periods (between the supposed vintage of [Luhrmann’s] characters and the obvious youth of their songs) freely acknowledges the contemporary nature of this vision of Parisian modernism without any trace of nostalgia."[28] Yang notes that Luhrmann "delights in pointing out the difference between the original and the simulation" with regard to the film’s soundtrack.[51] Kinder contends that Moulin Rouge!’s "renarrativized lyrics are never disturbing, for they are usually more innocent here than in their original source, and that’s precisely the point."[28] The use of famous popular songs in a new, original context requires audiences to reinterpret their significance within the framework of the narrative and challenge the assumption that music’s symbolism is static.[46][52]

Moulin Rouge! also makes ample use of other postmodern filmmaking techniques, including fragmentation and juxtaposition. As the film’s protagonist, Christian is the primary source of Moulin Rouge!’s story line and many portions of the story are told from his point of view. However, the narrative is fragmented on several occasions when the film deviates from Christian’s perspective or integrates a flashback. Moulin Rouge! also juxtaposes a play-within-a-film (Spectacular Spectacular) with the film’s events themselves to draw parallels between the plot of the play and the characters’ lives. This culminates in the "Come What May" sequence, which reveals the development of Christian and Satine’s relationship alongside the progression of Spectacular Spectacular’s rehearsals.[53]

Postmodernism is also evident in Moulin Rouge!’s homage to "the international scope of the musical," says Kinder, citing the influence of Bollywood masala films alongside Western filmmaking genres on the film’s overall style.[50] The film is also heavily indebted to Strictly Ballroom, which she characterizes as a "transcultural concoction."[54] Moulin Rouge!’s celebration of the cross-cultural aesthetic "also extends to globalizing postmodernist spin-offs like [the] music video."[55]

Yang states that the plot, style, and themes of Moulin Rouge! serve as a foundation for understanding ways in which "sex, class, exoticism, authorship and performance" are represented in stage and film.[56] The film’s blending of opera and Hollywood musical enables its interpretation through the "feminist, poststructuralist, and postcolonial" lenses of contemporary opera scholarship.[57] Yet, despite the film’s postmodern stylings, Conner Bennett argues that Moulin Rouge! is not a feminist text because it "ultimately upholds the patriarchical execution of the female muse, which allows the male artist to create art via her death."[58]

Awards and honors

The film was selected by the National Board of Review as the best film of 2001.[59] It picked up six Golden Globe nominations including Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy, Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy (for Nicole Kidman), Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy (for Ewan McGregor), Best Original Score (for Craig Armstrong), Best Director (for Baz Luhrmann) and Best Song ("Come What May"). It won three including the coveted Best Picture trophy.[60] A few weeks later, it received 12 nominations at the BAFTA Awards, making it the most nominated film of the year for that ceremony.[61] It took home three, including Best Supporting Actor for Jim Broadbent.[62][63][64]

The film received eight Oscar nominations, including Best Actress in a Leading Role and Best Picture.[65] The film was not nominated for Best Director (Luhrmann); commenting on this during the Oscar ceremony, host Whoopi Goldberg remarked, "I guess Moulin Rouge! just directed itself."[66] The film won the awards for Best Costume Design and Best Art Direction.[65]

"Come What May" (the only original song in the film) was disqualified from nomination for an Oscar because it was originally written (but unused) for Luhrmann's previous film Romeo + Juliet and not written expressly for Moulin Rouge!.[67]

Award Category Subject Result Ref.
AACTA Award Best Film Martin Brown, Fred Baron, Baz Luhrmann Nominated [68]
Best Direction Baz Luhrmann Nominated [68]
Best Actor in a Leading Role Ewan McGregor Nominated [68]
Best Actress in a Leading Role Nicole Kidman Nominated [68]
Best Actor in a Supporting Role Richard Roxburgh Nominated [68]
Best Cinematography Donald McAlpine Won [68]
Best Editing Jill Bilcock Won [68]
Best Sound Andy Nelson, Roger Savage, Guntis Sics Won [68]
Best Production Design Catherine Martin Won [68]
Best Costume Design Catherine Martin, Angus Strathie Won [68]
Academy Award Best Picture Fred Baron, Martin Brown and Baz Luhrmann Nominated [65]
Best Actress Nicole Kidman Nominated [65]
Best Art Direction Art Direction: Catherine Martin; Set Decoration: Brigitte Broch Won [65]
Best Cinematography Donald McAlpine Nominated [65]
Best Costume Design Catherine Martin and Angus Strathie Won [65]
Best Film Editing Jill Bilcock Nominated [65]
Best Makeup Maurizio Silvi and Aldo Signoretti Nominated [65]
Best Sound Andy Nelson, Anna Behlmer, Roger Savage and Guntis Sics Nominated [65]
ACE Eddie Best Edited Feature Film – Comedy or Musical Jill Bilcock Won [69]
BAFTA Award Best Film Fred Baron, Martin Brown, Baz Luhrmann Nominated [70]
Best Direction Baz Luhrmann Nominated [71]
Best Original Screenplay Baz Luhrmann, Craig Pearce Nominated [72]
Best Supporting Actor Jim Broadbent Won [62]
Best Cinematography Donald McAlpine Nominated [73]
Best Sound Andy Nelson, Anna Behlmer, Roger Savage, Guntis Sics Won [63]
Best Music Craig Armstrong, Marius De Vries Won [64]
Best Production Design Catherine Martin Nominated [74]
Best Costume Design Catherine Martin, Angus Strathie Nominated [75]
Best Editing Jill Bilcock Nominated [76]
Best Special Visual Effects Chris Godfrey, Andy Brown, Nathan McGuinness, Brian Cox Nominated [77]
Best Makeup and Hair Maurizio Silvi, Aldo Signoretti Nominated [78]
Golden Globe Award Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy Fred Baron, Martin Brown, Baz Luhrmann Won [60]
Best Director Baz Luhrmann Nominated [60]
Best Actor - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy Ewan McGregor Nominated [60]
Best Actress - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy Nicole Kidman Won [60]
Best Original Song ("Come What May") David Baerwald, Kevin Gilbert Nominated [60]
Best Original Score Craig Armstrong Won [60]
Grammy Award Best Compilation Soundtrack for Visual Media Craig Armstrong Nominated [79]
National Board of Review Award Best Film Fred Baron, Martin Brown, Baz Luhrmann Won [59]
Producers Guild of America Award Best Picture Fred Baron, Martin Brown, Baz Luhrmann Won [80]
Satellite Award Best Film - Comedy or Musical Fred Baron, Martin Brown, Baz Luhrmann Won [81]
Best Director Baz Luhrmann Won [81]
Best Original Screenplay Baz Luhrmann, Craig Pearce Nominated [82]
Best Actor - Comedy or Musical Ewan McGregor Won [81]
Best Actress - Comedy or Musical Nicole Kidman Won [81]
Best Supporting Actor - Comedy or Musical Jim Broadbent Won [81]
Best Original Score Craig Armstrong Won [81]
Best Original Song ("Come What May") David Baerwald, Kevin Gilbert Nominated [82]
Best Cinematography Donald McAlpine Nominated [82]
Best Editing Jill Bilcock Nominated [82]
Best Visual Effects Chris Godfrey, Andy Brown, Nathan McGuinness, Brian Cox Nominated [82]
Best Art Direction and Production Design Catherine Martin, Ian Gracie Won [81]
Best Costume Design Catherine Martin, Angus Strathie Won [82][81]
Best Sound Andy Nelson, Anna Behlmer, Roger Savage, Guntis Sics Nominated [82]

Soundtrack

Musical numbers

The following is a partial list of songs featured in the film along with the artist that popularized them.

Elephant Love Medley

The following is a list of songs featured in the medley, along with the names of the writers and singers of the original.

Jamie Allen contributes additional vocals to the "Elephant Love Medley."[83] "Love Is Like Oxygen" and "Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing" are only spoken dialogue; they are not actually sung in the medley.

"Your Song" is performed by Ewan McGregor and Alessandro Safina, who contributes additional lyrics in Italian.[83]

Two soundtrack albums were released, with the second coming after the first one's massive success. The first volume featured the smash hit single "Lady Marmalade", performed by Christina Aguilera, Lil' Kim, Mýa and Pink. The first soundtrack, Moulin Rouge! Music from Baz Luhrmann's Film, was released on 8 May 2001,[84] with the second, Moulin Rouge! Music from Baz Luhrmann's Film, Vol. 2, following on 26 February 2002.[85]

Stage adaptation

As early as November 2002, Luhrmann revealed that he intended to adapt Moulin Rouge! into a stage musical. A Las Vegas casino was the reputed site of the proposed show.[86] Luhrmann was said to have asked both Kidman and McGregor to reprise their starring roles in the potential stage version.[87]

In 2008, a stage adaptation entitled La Belle Bizarre du Moulin Rouge ("The Bizarre Beauty of the Moulin Rouge") toured Germany and produced a cast recording.[88]

In 2016, it was announced that Global Creatures was developing Moulin Rouge! into a stage musical. Alex Timbers was slated to direct the production, and John Logan was tapped to write the book.[89] Moulin Rouge!: The Musical, starring Aaron Tveit as Christian and Karen Olivo as Satine, premiered on 10 July 2018 at the Colonial Theatre in Boston.[90] The Broadway production opened at the Al Hirschfeld Theatre on 25 July 2019.[91]

In popular culture

In the 2017–18 figure skating season, at the 2018 Winter Olympics, Canadian skaters Tessa Virtue and Scott Moir performed two selections from Moulin Rouge!, interpreting the story of Christian and Satine through "The Show Must Go On", "El Tango de Roxanne", and "Come What May". Their performance won the Gold in the team and the individual events.[92] At this event, Virtue and Moir became the most decorated skaters of all time.[93]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Farache, Emily (21 March 2001). "'Moulin Rouge' Does Cannes-Cannes". E! Online. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  2. ^ a b c "Moulin Rouge (2001) [Summary]". The Numbers. Nash Information Services, LLC. 2021. Archived from the original on 10 January 2021. Retrieved 19 January 2021.
  3. ^ "MOULIN ROUGE". British Board of Film Classification. n.d. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
  4. ^ a b c d "Moulin Rouge!". Box Office Mojo. IMDbPro. Archived from the original on 2 July 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2009.
  5. ^ Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
  6. ^ "The 21st century's 100 greatest films". BBC. 23 August 2016. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
  7. ^ "Moulin Rouge!". IMDb. Archived from the original on 24 April 2021. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
  8. ^ Kinder, Marsha (Spring 2002). "Moulin Rouge". Film Quarterly. 55 (3): 52–53. doi:10.1525/fq.2002.55.3.52. ISSN 0015-1386.
  9. ^ Conner Bennett, Kathryn (2004). "The gender politics of death: Three formulations of La Bohème in contemporary cinema". Journal of Popular Film and Television. 32 (3): 114. doi:10.1080/01956051.2004.10662056. ISSN 1930-6458.
  10. ^ Lee, Janet W. (28 October 2020). "How a Bollywood film inspired Baz Luhrmann to bring 'Moulin Rouge' to Broadway". Yahoo! Entertainment. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  11. ^ Andrew, Geoff (7 September 2001). "Baz Luhrmann (I)". Guardian interviews at the BFI. TheGuardian.com. Archived from the original on 9 May 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  12. ^ Green, Jesse (13 May 2001). "How do you make a movie sing?". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
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Notes

  1. ^ This character is often referred to as The Narcoleptic Argentinean, as he does not spend his entire time on screen unconscious. However, the film and its credits refer to this character as The Unconscious Argentinean.[7]

External links

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