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Mott Archaeological Preserve

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mott Mounds
16 FR 11
Mott Mounds Coles Creek culture HRoe 2011.jpg
Layout of the mounds at the Mott Site
Location within Louisiana today
LocationBonita, LouisianaFranklin Parish, Louisiana USA
RegionFranklin Parish, Louisiana
Coordinates32°18′33.19″N 91°30′20.30″W / 32.3092194°N 91.5056389°W / 32.3092194; -91.5056389
CulturesMarksville, Troyville, Coles Creek, Plaquemine
Site notes
Excavation dates1900, 1913, 2005
ArchaeologistsGeorge Beyer, Clarence Bloomfield Moore, Stephen Williams, Timothy Schilling, Tristram R. Kidder
Responsible body: private

The Mott Archaeological Preserve or Mott Mounds Site (16 FR 11) is an archaeological site in Franklin Parish, Louisiana on the west bank of Bayou Macon. It originally had eleven mounds with components from the Marksville, Troyville, Coles Creek, and Plaquemine periods. It was at one time one of the largest mound centers in the Southeast and has one of the largest mounds in Louisiana with a base which cover more than two acres. It was purchased by the Archaeological Conservancy in 2002.[1][2] and is now used for research and educational purposes.[2]

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  • ✪ Rebalancing the World with Carol Lee Flinders


Peace & Justice Lecture Series Rebalancing The World with Carol Lee Flinders February 18th, 2016 The College of St. Scholastica Alworth Center for the Study of Peace and Justice Duluth, Minnesota 7:30 p.m. - 9:15 p.m. * * * * * "CART captioning is provided in order to facilitate communication accessibility. THIS TEXT may not be a totally verbatim record of the proceedings. * * * * * CART PROVIDED BY Lisa Richardson, RPR, CRR, CBC, CCP Paradigm reporting & Captioning Inc. 612.339.0545 >> Well, good evening, everybody. 2 Thank you for coming. I feel very supported. I always feel supported but particularly tonight when the weather was so awful and you people came out and braved it for this program. I'm sure you won't be disappointed. Thank you all very much for coming. My name is Tom Morgan and I am the director of the Alworth Center for the Study of Peace and Justice here at the College of St. Scholastica. This is the third in a series of five programs we're doing this academic year dealing with the subject of violence. Why do we have so much of it? Why does it seem like we've always had so much of it, as long as we've had recorded history. These are the questions that we're exploring all year in these lectures. This lecture in particular is sponsored by the Alworth Center for the Study of Peace and Justice at the College of St. Scholastica. And funded in part by the Warner Lecture Series of the Manitou Fund, the DeWit and Carolyn Foundation and by Mary C. Van Evra, a former trustee of the college. Additional support has been received by the Royal D. Alworth Jr., Institute at the University of Minnesota-Duluth, the St. Scholastica Women and Gender Studies Program, Reader Weekly of Duluth and numerous other private donors. Once again, thank you all for your support for making these things happen. They wouldn't happen without you, and a special thanks to the Alworth family for their continuous support. Speaking of the Alworth family, that photograph behind me, I think many of you will recognize, that is Martha Butler Alworth, who died a little more than three years ago, and has been a very important person in the lives of so many people in Duluth, particularly at the College of St. Scholastica. It's my privilege now to introduce my boss, President of the College of St. Scholastica, Larry Goodwin, who will say a few words. [ Applause ] >> Good evening and welcome to the College. Whenever I think of Martha Alworth, I think of color, bright color. Her snow white hair, her fire engine red convertible, her sunburst yellow kitchen. Martha was a vivid presence. Martha Alworth lived a life of purpose. She was a community and social activist and a voice for peace and justice. She loved Duluth and gave of herself in many ways. She served as one of the first lay trustees at the College of St. Scholastica and was later named trustee emerita. Martha loved Duluth and gave of herself in many ways. She was a longtime supporter and Board member of the Duluth-Superior Area Community Foundation, the League of Women Voters, the Junior League, the Building for Women, Grandmothers For Peace, and multiple Duluth civic and preservation committees. She valued the cultural offerings of Duluth, including the Duluth-Superior Symphony Orchestra, the Duluth Playhouse and the Marshall Performing Arts. She received the Depot Foundation Arts and Culture Lifetime Achievement award in 2009. Martha embodied �lifelong learning.� She was a charter member of University for Seniors at UMD, and she was a frequent guest lecturer in this auditorium. Even when she struggled with hearing loss and had to wear special headphones -- and I have to say, this would have been perfect for Martha. It's exactly what she needed. 5 Martha loved to learn. Martha traveled extensively, pursuing her endless curiosity about the world and its people. Duluth constantly impressed her with its international residents and their perspectives, which makes all our lives richer. She understood what we want our students to understand, that all the peoples of the world are interconnected and that we all have a stake in the health of the planet, and in the safety and security of everyone living on it. She was an early proponent of the Duluth Sister Cities program, and a supporter of the Duluth International Peace Center, a forerunner of the Sister City movement for Duluth. Her interest in international affairs led her to establish the Royal D. Alworth, Jr., Institute for international studies at UMD to honor her husband, following his death in 1987. She was passionate about electing people she thought represented her beliefs, both nationally and locally, even if it meant backing the underdog. Sometimes her candidates won, and sometimes not. Martha was not just a fair weather supporter. She always maintained her commitment to the causes and 6 the candidates she believed in. Martha loved Lake Superior. Summer picnics with family and friends on Park Point in the North Shore were her way to celebrate this treasure in our backyard. Tennis was a large part of Martha's life, and friendships with her tennis pals were as important as the game itself. We miss her at St. Scholastica and we appreciate her support and the ongoing support of the Alworth family. Thank you, Karen and Royal. I'm so pleased to have had the opportunity to know Martha and to have the chance to acknowledge publicly the contributions made by this remarkable woman. [ Applause ] >> Thank you, Larry. Does seem fitting now for me to make this next announcement. I think you're all clear, this is something new we're trying for the very first time. On the screen to your right, we are displaying the text of tonight's lecture through technology called realtime captioning. You may also access this information from your smartphone or other mobile device. 7 Although we anticipate a high quality format, there will inevitably be errors that are inherent to the technology. Nevertheless, research indicates that many viewers benefit from captioning, including those with hearing loss. A special thank you is extended to the Edwin H. Eddy foundation whose generous support makes this inclusive service possible tonight. Please take a moment to complete the captioning service survey provided tonight to enable us to improve this service. On the survey, you'll also find the URL you may use to view the captioning on your smartphone or mobile device. We ask that you, of course, kindly turn the sound to mute all devices. So, if you can't see it -- it's over there for a reason so it's not so distracting, but if you want to take advantage of it, there are plenty of seats over there so you can get closer to the screen. So that's one piece of housekeeping. Back to regular business now. After these lectures, as you all know, we get together the following week for what we call a 8 talk-back session to chat about what we heard and process it a little bit, and this next week, the talk-back session will be moderated by Beth Bartlett, who is Professor of Women, Gender and Sexuality Studies at UMD. And you all should have had a flyer about that, when and where that little meeting will be here at St. Scholastica, Tuesday at 7:00 p.m., Tower 3121. One other little piece of housekeeping, I just have to tell you, coming attractions. As I said, this is the third of five programs in this series about violence, two more coming. These flyers are out in the lobby that tell you more about that. There's one other attraction I just learned about recently that I should mention to you. This is a program sponsored by Scholastica's Women and Gender Studies Program, March 31st, which is a Thursday, kind of in the middle of this other series. Very timely, the topic is Rape Culture, Spiritual Violence and Visions of Healing, with a woman by the name of Gina Messina-Dysert, who's cofounder of Feminisim and Religion that is reaching out to folks in at least 181 countries already. One last -- oh, and then one last thing. 9 Of course, at the end of the lecture we'll have books and stuff for you to look at. We also have a table there operated by Veterans For Peace and you might want to look at their table. They have things to give you and sell you, as well. After the talk, Q and A, right up here to the microphones. Please, you community people, defer to the students, let them ask the questions first and then, if there's time, and I'm sure there will be, then community people are welcome to ask questions, but we're here for the students, aren't we, folks, so let them have a chance. Our speaker this evening is a writer, independent scholar, educator and former syndicated columnist. She has a doctorate in comparative literature from the University of California, Berkeley, with a focus on medieval women's mysticism. Dr. Flinders currently is a faculty member at the Sophia Center for Culture and Spirituality at Holy Names College in Oakland and a fellow at Santa Clara University. She's also taught at the University of California at Berkeley, the Graduate Theological Union and elsewhere. 10 Her published writings cover a variety of topics ranging from medieval Christian mysticism to vegetarian cooking to scientific research on meditation. She is a co-author of "Laurel's Kitchen" and its later editions, which in all have sold more than a million copies. From 1977 through 1989, she wrote a widely syndicated column on vegetarian cooking, "Notes from Laurel's Kitchen." Beginning in the late 1980s, Dr. Flinders published a series of books on spirituality. The first, "The Making of a Teacher," was co-authored with her husband, Timothy. Four years later, Dr. Flinders published "Enduring Grace: Living Portraits of Seven Women Mystics," a well-received collection of spiritual portraits of Catholic mystics. Additional books by Dr. Flinders have focused on various intersections of feminism, spirituality and cultural and biological evolution. "At The Root Of This Longing" chronicles her struggle to reconcile the claims of a lifelong meditation practice with her emerging feminism. Her next book, "Rebalancing The World," is the basis for her talk 11 this evening. So I won't say any more about that work. "Enduring Lives" is a sister volume to "Enduring Grace" in which Dr. Flinders examines the lives of four contemporary women spiritual activists. And her latest book is "Our Fistful Of Salt: Gandhi and The Global Women's Movement." It is expected to be published this year by Orbis Books. As I said, Dr. Flinders is married to Timothy Flinders, who has conducted research on contemplative practice. Their son Ramesh is a screenwriter and filmmaker. In her spare time, and I think she has some, Dr. Flinders enjoys swimming, hiking and, of course, cooking. Ladies and gentlemen, please welcome Dr. Carol Lee Flinders. [ Applause ] >> Thank you so much. I'm so very grateful to be here. You have a beautiful town. And I was particularly pleased to find myself at a Benedictine college campus because it makes me feel as if -- oh, I don't need that, do I? 12 Can we... Because I'm micced. Okay. When I was a little girl, our family farm, and my grandmother's... [ Microphone Feedback ] And my grandmother's family farm were in the Williamette Valley, just two miles from a little town called Mount Angel where there is also a Benedictine college, founded by Benedictine sisters probably around the same time that this one was. Used to ride over on my bicycle and my grandmother used to take me to plays and operettas on the campus because she was an alumna. She had gotten her normal school certificate from the Benedictine nuns and she was always terribly fond of them. I didn't know about St. Scholastica, though, and in all my studies, I neglected to find out who she was, so God bless Wikipedia, right? There is a marvelous little story which maybe is old hat to all of you is the fact that she's Benedict's sister, had a little hermitage with some other women not far away from his, and he used to come over regularly and they would talk about all things sacred. 13 And she was very ill, probably near her last days so he excused himself at the end of one of these days, he had to scurry home because, of course, the rule meant that he needed to be back in his own monastic setting. She said, "Please, don't go." He said, "But I must." She said one quick prayer. So she prayed and immediately a horrific storm came down, thunder and rain. And she looked at him and said, "Are you sure you won't stay?" [ Laughter ] So I love that image of a woman who can, you know, bring down the wrath of help when she chooses to. So love the Benedictine sisters. Is violence inevitable? I'm here tonight -- I think my job in this series is to suggest the possibility and lay it out as persuasively as I can that it may not be possible to address this question usefully, authentically, without looking hard at what maleness and femaleness mean in our world, how they came to mean what they do, what they have meant in the past. In short, I'm the person who gets to introduce what a 14 friend of mine calls the "G" word. I don't know how many times you've been in, oh, maybe church, you know, a classroom setting or church meeting or school board meeting or maybe, you know, preparation for an antiwar protest or something like that and something gets said and everybody stiffens just a little, and then somebody who's good at placating a room full of people says, "Well, let's not go into gender. You know, it's so divisive. It's so polarizing." So we don't. I don't want to bring down thunder and lightning so I'm going to keep pushing that microphone away as far as I can. But, you know, I'm going to take a leap from Ghandi who always said that when there's something seriously wrong, you have to talk about it. But there are ways you can talk about it, and one of the principles he always advised and followed was to remember that when there are two of you and you've got a big problem between you, to recognize that, no, the two of you can be in the room together, trusting and respecting one another and wanting badly to get -- to solve that problem over here that's making your life 15 difficult. The problem's over there, the two of you are in the room together. And, really, I think that's what I was trying to do in writing this book, "Rebalancing the World," was to present a way -- a perspective on all of this, a way of thinking about it that allows us to be generous to one another, respectful of one another, and objective, too, to kind of put it over there so we can look at it clearly. I really appreciate it, I have watched both of the earlier lectures and so I've got them rattling in my head, too. I really appreciated John Horgan's warm tribute to the wonderful anthropologist, Margaret Meade, and his particular mention of her belief that war is not an evolutionary inevitability, it's a cultural invention, which is to say we can uninvent it, if we can muster the will and the wisdom. I feel the same way about the meanings of manliness that we've inherited and of the feminine. You know, those meanings, those constructs have gotten so rigid and so ever present, we're stuck with them in certain ways, and when you're stuck in a story, it always helps a lot if you can come up with an 16 alternative narrative. How much can it help? Well, it sure did help Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Matilda Jocelyn Gage and Lucretia Mott back in the middle of the 19th century. I see a couple of smiles like maybe you know where I'm going. Historian Sally Rosche Wagner came up -- I'm not sure whether she came up with the question first or the question and the answer at the same time but she raised a very important question, how did the radical suffragists come to their vision, a vision not of band-aid reform but of a reconstituted world completely transformed. Whatever made them think that human harmony based on the perfect equality of all people with women have absolute sovereignist over their own lives with an achievable goal. It's funny, it never occurred to me to ask that but as soon as she put the question it's like, whoo, that's right, where did they get such a radical idea. Well, remember, they met at Seneca Hall, the great 1848, that was the great declaration of sentiment was published and so on. They lived in the middle of Iroquios country and, in 17 those days, this was before the reservation policy was enacted. White people and Iroquios lived side by side and there was a lot of social interaction, and these women were right in the middle of that. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, every time she came to see her radical cousin, Garrett Smith, who was part of the underground railway, he had women maybe from the -- Onondaga tribe in particular, they were in the house and she got to know them. Elizabeth was at one of their homes and the woman was -- one of the tribal women was giving away a magnificent horse to a friend and Elizabeth says, "What's your husband going to think of that?" And her friend looked at her like, "Are you kidding me? Why would my husband have any say in my giving away my own property?" Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who had a great many children, learned about natural childbirth from these friends of hers, and she and her daughter both practiced it. The report in the local newspaper would report the score of the latest lacrosse games between one tribe and another, so Sally has really gone the distance to help us understand that this vision of an equitable, 18 harmonious relationship between the sexes was really quite possible, and it had been going on for, well, hundreds of years. In fact, let's see, yeah. In the six nations of the Iroquios confederacy, women have worked with men successfully to guard their sovereign political status against resistance attempts to turn them into United States citizens. So, yeah, it can help a lot to get an alternative version of things. Now, I was appreciative of Tom a few minutes ago when he found me in the green room scribbling in the margins. He said, you know, Chris Hedges was changing his notes right up to the minute he came up to the microphone. I can relate to that. The -- this particular -- when you've just written a book, you develop your little spiel and go around and differently the same spiel over and over again and it's just easy peasy. I wrote this book 15 years ago. I came to re-read it over the last two weeks and it can be almost like somebody else wrote it. So much has happened in-between times, including the fact that it's contextualized this time inside of the 19 big question, "Is violence inevitable." And by the time I thought about that and then added in the other two speakers, I found myself writing notes on my notes until it's kind of a... [ Audio Indiscernible ] So I'll be grateful for your patience. One thing that's happened since I wrote the book, quite recently, and it's placed everything I was thinking about in a new context and given a real urgency, and I'm talking about the publication, I think it was in 2012 of a book called "Sex and World Peace." Valerie Hudson and other writers, and -- how many of you have heard of that at all? Okay, I didn't think -- it's really pretty exciting stuff. How many times back in the day have you heard feminists say, "A world that is safe for women is safe for everyone." But we didn't have the data, and now we do. Thanks to these people. There's four of them and they come from international relations, Middle East specialties, social scientists, you know, they cover a fair territory, three women and one man. 20 You want their credo is something like this. Gender inequality in all its many manifestations is a form of violence, and this gender-based violence not only destroys home but we argue also significantly affects politics and security at the national and international level. They pose the question, to us, what are the sources of conflict and instability within and between states? Well, and they say the standard lists that appear among international relations people would include deficit of democracy, scarcity of resources, poverty, and ideological conflict. What they are demonstrating, and this is ongoing research, very exciting stuff, is that a better predictor of state peacefulness, both internally and externally, and level of democracy, level of wealth or the presence of Islamic religions, is the security of the women themselves within those countries. So they go through and start to identify, what are the sources within the country that make it stable or unstable. Food security is one, right? If people are hungry, things start falling apart. Well, in Subsaharan Africa, women perform 80% of agricultural labor. 21 Worldwide, it's over 50%. But worldwide, women only own 2% of the land. Remuneration for cash crops is given to the men. And studies have been done over and over again, 95% of a woman's earnings go to her family while only 40 to 60% of a man's earnings go to his family. In agricultural societies, women are responsible to see that the women and children do not starve. Two-thirds of all malnourished children in the world are female children. And in many societies, women and girl children are expected to eat less. You heard from Adrian Rains what the consequences of poor nutrition can be for the development of the infant brain and so forth, okay? Might inequitable treatment of women make famine and malnutrition more likely? Second, economic prosperity, another obvious indicator of the nation's stability and well-being. Turns out, the larger the gender gap, the lower the GDP per capita of a nation and the lower the rate of national economic growth. Lower investment in female education is also linked to lower national economic growth. And economic development projects with a gender 22 component are known to be more successful than those without. Third, health, think about disease and poor health as a factor in national security. The smaller the gender gap, the lower the infant and child mortality rates, and the lower the level of child malnutrition. The smaller the gender gap, the lower the share of household income spent on cigarettes and alcohol. The larger the gender gap, the higher the age rate and the higher infectious disease across the board. The larger the gender gap, the lower is the life expectancy for both men and women. I think this is astonishing stuff to know, right? State conflict. The higher the level of violence against women in the state, the more likely a nation state is to be non-compliant with international norms. The higher the level of violence against women, the worse a nation state's relationship is with neighboring countries. The larger the gender gap, the more likely it is to be involved in interstate conflict and to use violence first in the conflict. Regarding governance, the larger the gender gap, the 23 higher the levels of both perceived and actual government correction. The lower the gender gap, the greater the level of trust in government and the greater the degree of transparency from government. When the representation of women in the councils of humanity is higher, more attention is given to social welfare, to fighting corruption, to improving legal protection for citizens. Okay, demographics finally. When marriage is hierarchial between men and women and women have few rights in marriage, unsustainably high levels of population growth result. And when society makes care-giving economically irrational for women, no child care for work, no help on taking care of the elderly, no parental leave, then subreplacement with -- we're seeing that all over Europe right now. So, our authors ask the question, might one great key to the structural and physical violence we see around us in this world be the inequitable treatment of women? If we concentrated more on mitigating male dominance hierarchies, and less on the neoliberal project of exporting democracy or free-market capitalism, would 24 we have a better chance of achieving sustainable development and good governance, and lower levels of poverty, disease and conflict? Well, Kofi Annan thinks so. He said in 2006, in his U.N. Secretary General, the world is starting to grasp that there is no policy more effective in promoting development, health and education than the empowerment of women and girls. And I would venture that no policy is more important in preventing conflict or achieving reconciliation after a conflict has ended. This is terrific news. I mean, I know that's a very dark picture we've looked at but to realize how consistent the data is, it's like seeing that -- there is this tremendous resource hidden in plain sight. There's this point of entry, this point of leverage that we could work -- I've found myself as pleased by it in a sense as by the news coming out of France, the four parts per thousand of the carbon capture -- you know, if our use of the land world-wide can change so that instead of carbon dioxide being in the atmosphere, the carbon is pulled down into the soil and it can be -- we can reduce enormously -- in fact, we could halt altogether the CO2 that's pouring into 25 the atmosphere, counter it every year. This resource has a face, a beautiful face. I think she looks just like Malala Yousafzai, our Nobel Prize winner. Also looks like a beautiful Somali girl whose name I think is Nista, whose face I saw, she's beautiful child, 14 years old, has a baby on her hip, like so many child, women, mothers do around the world. But she has a gleam in her eye, too, because there is an NGO in her neighborhood that makes sure she gets to school every day, and Nitsa knows her daughter will have a very different life. She won't be married at 12 years old. So this lovely hope in this picture, so, clearly, we do need to talk about gender. But my desire is to offer perspective that will make it possible and even hopeful. Okay. I had been struggling myself with that question, is violence inevitable, after writing the book "At The Root Of This Longing." Along with reconciling my spiritual hunger and my feminist theories, I had been looking hard at violence against women and trying to square it, trying to make sense of it because I was myself so privileged to live 26 with such marvelous men. It didn't make sense to me. I knew the biological determinism and all that. And then things came into sharp focus in spring of 1999. I was driving one of those -- remember those yellow Volvo station wagons that were the color of traffic signs, a lot of us had them in the '90s because they were these big school bus things to haul your kids around. I had a car full of teenage boys that I was driving up to Lake County for a tennis tournament and I'm sure that U2 was on the radio and they were all having such a good time, and I was enjoying them so much, and the broadcast then was interrupted by a news flash from littleton, Colorado. That was the morning of the Columbine shooting outside of Littleton, and we're hearing about that again right now because Darren Klebold's mother has written a memoir in the hopes of helping other families not go through what her family did. The next morning -- the guys went off and played tennis, and I sat there huddled by the radio trying to make sense of what was going on, and the next morning I remember someone from Littleton was interviewed and 27 she spoke of this terrific, horrific event saying, "It just speaks to the stunning erosion of our social matrix." And that phrase really -- it seemed to me she had captured something with that phrase. Yeah, the stunning erosion, because just a few years earlier, at the heart of -- at the root of this longing was the fact, in my own life, of three beautiful young women, two of whom I had known, one was student, one was a childhood friend and a third was a little girl in the town of Petaluma, you know who I'm talking about, were all destroyed in acts that seemed like pure evil and did seem to signal a stunning erosion of something. That was the first of our numbing succession of school shootings. The word "Matrix" itself, I'm a word freak, what can I say? It has a fascinating range of meanings, matrix, mother, material, so forth. It can mean the womb, I think it can also refer to the placenta. A medium on which things can grow and live. In archaeology, it's the sediment surrounding the fossil you're trying to dig out. 28 It's intracellular material, that which holds everything together. It also, in mathematics, has to do with lines and numbers going every which way, like on a loom, the verticals and all that. So what might a social matrix be? Well, it has to do clearly with the shared -- our shared assumptions about what matters in life. A family can have a matrix of values, a community certainly. This marvelous community certainly has its own matrix. We are held in them and we are embedded in them, as she said, and that's a term that Professor Houston Smith is very fond of, "embedded." Houston is our Berkeley treasure. He is still alive, I found out the other day. He lives -- I've been to his home, privileged to be in his home and have lunch with him and his wife, Kendra. He's got the face of a seraphim, a magnificent man. Historian of religions, his book used to be called, "The Religions Of Man," the classic text for comparative religion, and chapter after chapter you think, this must be his favorite. Well, sometime around early '90s, Houston reissued the book. 29 He put out a new edition, because, in the first place, he didn't want to call it "The Religions Of Man" anymore, he called it "The World's Religions" now but, more importantly, he added a chapter at the end of the book called "Primal Religions" and this is where he looked at religions of people that are sometimes called prehistoric or the foragers, hunter-gatherers, prehistoric is probably the term we could use. What inspired him to do that, he was teaching at Syracuse University many, many years and he got acquainted with the local Indians and spent a lot of time there. He got acquainted with their life ways and just wanted people to know about them and how different their religious life was from that of the historical people. So he described the religiousness of these folks in three ways. First, embeddedness. He said it's a threefold embeddedness. One is embedded in one's kinship, lineage, particularly maybe Beaver Clan or whatever. You know who your people are, you come into this world, have a lineage. You are embedded in the natural world in the particular piece of land that your people have 30 occupied for maybe a few thousand years, maybe just a little valley, a meadow, a watershed but they've been there forever, and you know the names of all the plants and you're on speaking terms with all the animals, and maybe when you were born, you were given a totem animal, maybe raven is your brother or beaver or whatever. Just as an illustration, I don't know if you've been to northern California, there is a big body of water not to far from where I live called Lake Sonoma, only been there since 1982. Big civil engineering project, they put up a warm springs dam, and this is about 50 miles, square miles, this lovely recreational jewel, Lake Sonoma. But to do that, they flooded land that POMOS have lived in for several thousand years. Every year after that, and I think -- I don't know if the men are still alive but for certainly 20 years after that, every year during the festival seasons, they would bring folding chairs up to a hillside that overlooked the valley and they would just sit there all day, silently looking out across the valley, reconnecting, you know, because it's their mother. And the third form of embeddedness is, as he says, within spirit. 31 He says specifically as a cosmic womb, enclosing everything else. There is this sense that gorgeous as the material world is, it's a window onto a deeper reality, and our job in life is to be looking hard enough and listening hard enough to be drawn to that. A symbolic mentality goes with that. The third, the most important to my -- of the important features of these people is, as Houston puts it, a muted character of distinctions that in the historic religions explode into opposites. Muted character of distinctions, like the distinction between animal and human, light and dark, good and evil, man and woman. Well, I was intrigued and realized I knew nothing about the native -- the Pomos and the Newacs (phonetic spellnig) that lived near me so I holed up for the next year or so reading everything I could about them and just generally reading all the great anthropologists that I could get my hands on, wanting to get a better sense of what he was talking about. It was a marvelous time. The practitioners of these religions are or were -- and most of these cultures are gone, if not on their way out, are people who lived in small bands, they 32 foraged for their food and they were itinerant, okay? And the values that they held, the matrix of values that they held, crisscrossing, supporting life, reflected those conditions. In other words, they were adaptive to a particular way of being in the world. Came to call one of them the values of belonging because seemed to me it had everything to do with what happens when you stand in front of -- you all have your own -- you have this gorgeous lake right in front of you but you all have a place like that for yourselves, I'm sure, where you stand there and say, "I belong here. Every bit of me belongs here." Imagine the difference between that and getting up one morning and looking at the same place and say, "This belongs to me." Everything flows. The values of belonging have to do, for example, with an empathetic relationship to animals, you know, when the Inuits kill a seal, they'll pour fresh water into his mouth to send him off on his journey. A sense of custodial restraint, a sense of deliberateness in everything you do. Time is cyclical, not linear. 33 There is a movie, I hope many of you will see, if you haven't seen several years ago, about the Inuits called "Fast Runner." There's one moment when you see a granny and her granddaughter sitting, just intimately connected with one another, and the granny says to the little girl, "Little Mother, I'm so glad you've come back. I waited so long for you." It's her mother, she's quite certain, come back as her granddaughter, just this marvelous recycling of ourselves over and over. A sense of balance. Generosity. If you're walking around all day long, there's no point accumulating things, you can't carry 'em all, so what anthropologists have found when they visit, say the Kalahari, for example, you might in gratitude give somebody a jackknife or magnifying glass and you think -- really going to hold on to it? But the fun that the people have is giving it on to the next person and the next person and the next person. This is a gifting kind of culture, not one of inquisitiveness. Egalitarianism and inclusiveness, indigenous people 34 respect and treasure the wisdom of old age but they do not like authority structures. They do not like authorities. Each of them is kind of their own expert on everything going on. Profound interdependence among themselves because they know, you know, you might bring down an antelope today but you might not do it again for another year so you are dependent on one another's generosity. The big one, though, is what I guess I call mutuality the ability to see yourself in the people around you. Gender mutuality in particular. When the girls have their first period, chances are very good from one culture to the next there's going to be some kind of ceremony. This is explicitly developed, for instance, among the Navajo, but something to acknowledge, she's made this tremendous threshold and it's important to everybody in the band, in the community, and they will honor her because they believe -- I know the Indians where we are, the sense that the God, that spirit is born, spider woman, healing woman is coming back through that little girl. These -- the women in these cultures are very self-reliant. 35 They don't actually have to have a man in their lives. 70% and more of the food is supplied by women and children gathering. So this kind of lets the men off the hook, too. They know that -- you know, they might not be successful in the hunt but they're not going to go hungry that night. So, yeah, women had public active lives with a say in links. Here's the -- it turns out, when you're walking around like in the Kalahari, Subsaharan desert or in Australia, there are no weaning foods so babies nurse for up to four years. It's their primary source of nutrition because you can't give a little kid, you know, a big old root to gnaw and so forth, so they're nursing for such a long time that the mother doesn't have another baby right away. That baby stays on her hip or walking along beside her and gradually absorbs everything she knows about that piece of land where they are and critters and so forth. Babies are enormously secure because of that. So, okay, there's that. Openness to spirit. 36 There is an affinity for alternative modes of knowing, you know, intuition, your eyes, your sense of smell, of hearing and so forth. Playfulness because life is short, and a genius for nonviolent conflict resolution. Gregory Bateson, Margaret Meade's husband and pretty famous in his way, spent a lot of time in Bali and wrote about it and became very charmed with the way that conflict is kept to a minimum there. One thing he said is things are kept in continuous motion. They also would appear to be wasteful of food and resources because they're continually planning these large ceremonial events and they have to have people bringing flowers and musicians and dancers and so forth. There's always something going on. After a while you realize it's like when you see a ballerina en point and they look like they're perfectly still, there's hundreds of muscle groups active to keep them poised that way. He says that's how these communities are in Bali, there's so much going on that things don't have a chance to accelerate. There is a tradition, in fact, when you're having a 37 quarrel with somebody, you go downtown, there is a particular official, you go downtown and register your quarrel with them, and you agree that whoever tries to talk to the other one first will either pay a fine or go to the temple and make an offering. It's just a way of kind of formally saying, let's not let this escalate. Well, so, okay. Something -- oh, yeah, I mentioned this, just as a -- I remember when I was in the hospital -- I had some kind of surgery and I was in the hospital in the middle of doing all this and I brought some of my work with me, so this young woman came in who was -- I talked to her and she was going to the J.C. and working in the hospital, kind of cleaning and -- and she did a double take and said, "Oh, you're reading about the Pomos." I said, "Yeah, do you know anything about them?" "Well, yes, I married one." Very blonde, blue-eyed, I said, "Really." She said, "Yes, and you know what they say about Pomo men." "No." She says, "Well, they're great lovers." [ Laughter ] 38 And she sort of sashayed out with her broom and mop, so good to know. Good to know. One of the things I found out about the Indians in our own area, and they do prefer -- by and large prefer to be called Indian, not Native Americans, several of the tribes, is a respect to have maternality is right at the heart of what they're doing. Among the Alonis, which are a little further south, there is a tradition there that when a woman is going into labor, her husband doesn't come running in and doing Lamaze breathing with her. He has a job to do, the women surrounds her and helps her. He runs outside and digs a hole in the ground, like think about the size of a good-sized bathtub and then he lines it with smooth rocks and he builds a fire. And when the fire is done, died down, he gets the ashes out and he fills it with sweet-smelling grasses, clovers and so on, and then he puts deer skin on top of that, and when she and the baby are ready, they come out and lie down in this lovely -- what would you call it -- this cradle that he's created for them. These same people have generated a story -- actually the Pomos who have a story of slug woman. 39 Men are supposed to stick around for at least four days after the baby is born and make sure the wife has everything she needs, the understanding is that if he doesn't, slug woman is going to come after him in the night and she is this horrific thing with lots of bells and so on and faster than anybody could possibly be, and she'll shove him into a tree and burn the tree down if he doesn't -- these are people who take parental leave very seriously. And I don't want to leave the Pomos without mentioning, they -- the Pomos, probably the single art form for which they're best known is their magnificent baskets. The hermitage museum in St. Petersburg, Leningrad, is full -- has a big collection of these because we had Russian settlers, Russian trappers up in northern California for a while and there's also a lot of them at the Smithsonian. These things, they're made -- the women go out -- the designs for these and the skill in making them was handed down the mother line. You learn from your mother and your granny and they're made from sedge root and willow and red bud. These three elements are slightly different, a gold and kind of reddish and a brown. 40 And the designs are traditional but you also might get them in a dream, a design -- sunflowers or the little tip of a quail or -- well, my favorite, you can look down inside and it's sort of like looking into a spiral nebula, you get dizzy because of the elaborate kind of spinning world kind of things. Incredibly high technical work, like 60 stitches to an inch. If you wanted one emblem that captured what we mean by that matrix of the values of belonging, I think it would be the Pomo basket and their sacredness. Okay. Something like the stability of the Pomos and the Newac who have lived in our area for several thousand of years with very little record of anything you could call military, you know, combat at all, would have characterized the lives of most of the world's foragers until about 10,000 years ago. The seeds of change had been germinated slowly but irreversibly as human beings edged out of the niche that they've been in. They came, captured fire, invented tools and weapons, and they became artists, and the allure of settling down became more and more strong. It was a revolution, Niles Aldrich, paleontologist 41 says, taking control of our own food supply, we became the first species in the 3.5-billion-year history of life to live outside the local confines of the local ecosystem. This is an astonishing step we took. It changed everything. There is a lot of speculation on what triggered it, you know, climate change, population pressure, tools and so forth, but, as I understand it, the current consensus is that, no, it was just the desire to experience cultural complexity. It's how do you get them outside -- back on the farm after they've seen Mesopotamia. We've always had these capacities for inventiveness, creativity, restlessness, entrepreneurship, they're part of the human -- who we are, but our life ways never really allowed that to explode and now they did. We were no longer foraging, no longer itinerant. We settled in by our fields, and food surpluses allowed our little bands to expand into villages and towns and cities and city states, and all the good stuff and the hard stuff that comes with that. Cities densely populated -- we know now there were epidemics, food shortages, there was social unrest but, imagine, you could become a full-time jeweler, 42 you know, or potter or magician, whatever. God underwent a huge makeover at this point. God had been fluid and multiple and everywhere in that old world. Nameless, elusive but always around us, part of us, with us, part of the earth. And now the growing prestige of big men required that God be correspondingly masculine and supreme, capo y capo, and as the earth is tamed and wildness is banished, belief in a -- God waned. God now is anthropomorphised as a mighty he, residing in heaven at a great distance, all powerful in the way men felt they had to be now. This was coming into the human record, that sense that you got to be good at being dominant. You got to control. You got to control the water, you got to control the soil, you got to get those predatory animal out of your fields. This is all new territory. Women, remember those self-reliant, self-possessed beings of yesteryear, we were probably fully on board with this, the idea to come in off the road, have a roof over our head, different kind of food and company, and all that stuff, we would have said, sure, 43 why not. They couldn't have anticipated what was going to happen. There were women -- now. There were certainly grains you could make into a gruel or mush. There were goat's milk, cows and so forth. So now the little patterns fell away. Now a woman could have a baby a year. It's a raw deal for the babies and for the moms but it's great for business because now these big men needed people to work the field and to be soldiers. So the whole sense, then, of what a woman's life was about was very different. This is what Gerta Learner meant when she talked about the commodification of women's reproductivity and sexuality. It could have been the most natural thing in the world now for man to build a corral for his livestock and a house and a courtyard to keep his family in, for his days to look around and count them as pretty much the same things, right? But we haven't adequately realized, and I think maybe that's the biggest and most important thing we got to figure out is that even as women were enclosed in what 44 felt like -- must have felt like a prison, men were too. It can look real flashy from the outside but I think they were shut off from something called the social matrix, from the vibrant, radiant glories of that, those values of belonging, which everybody lived in common, where you were glimpsing the supernatural, you know, in the brooks and trees and stones and so forth. Because along with agriculture, there's this -- there's this fascinating unholy alliance between the inventiveness and the joyous creativity of the agricultural revolution, everything that comes afterwards, but also with that sense, need to control, that sense that you're in charge now and you got to make sure there is enough to feed everybody, and you're going to have to go and fight with those guys two watersheds down because they're going to come and take your land. Life gets very serious now, it's no longer a whole lot of fun. You tell yourself you're having fun doing stuff but maybe isn't meeting your deepest needs. So directly, then, now instead of the values of belonging, we shift over, every one of those values is displaced by its opposite. 45 Instead of an empathic receptivity toward earth and animal and other kin, there is that felt imperative to exert your will over them, to dictate, this is a weed and that's a crop. This is a friend, that's a foe. So many decisions. Mutuality and reciprocity give way to competitiveness. And soon enough, that mean enters the world that sociologists and others called "Otherring." Where it's also called subspeciating, where my need to displace someone else is so great that I decide he's not fully human, or she's not fully human. We do, we dehumanize someone in order to do what we like with them and, again, that desperate need to control. Secrecy is okay now, keeping secrets because knowledge is power. We can store stuff now, we don't have to carry it around. We can have prestige goods and so forth, so acquisitiveness becomes okay. Hierarchy, elaborate authority structures, yep. No time for playfulness now, real men don't goof around. Aggressiveness becomes a lamentable but necessary part 46 of life and so is the willingness to commit violence in defense of all of our stuff. There's no more sense now of that enveloping womb of spirit but, rather, a kind of abstractedness and disconnection from the natural world. Enterprise cultures -- I should say, I did not call these -- this new set of values the values of dominance or wickedness, I call them enterprise values because I want to capture that sense that when they first came along, it was like a baby's first step. And there's going to be part of that -- we're all part of that. We still carry around that marvelous sense of creativity but that term I think captures the acceleration, the open-endedness of it. So what became, then, of the consolation of values that had filled -- as human beings. There's no place for the values of belonging in commerce, government, military, or even in the state religions that were emerging now but they couldn't have vanished altogether because they're us. So you would think, why couldn't we have figured out a way to reconcile them and integrate them so that each of us acknowledged that there is a little bit of the enterpriser in all of us and a lot of the belonging in 47 all of us and so on. It was a terrible dilemma and how did we handle it? We side-stepped, I think. We punted. We finessed. Instead of accomplishing that integration, we made a kind of cultural decision that, roughly speaking, the values of belonging would be the values of women and the values of men would be the values of enterprise. I have to tell you, I -- I regret the subtitle of the paperback of this book, it's called "Why Women Belong and Men Compete." I was stuck with an editor -- it was the only time in my life -- I've always had wonderful editors. This particular editor just swooped in from New York into Harpers, San Francisco, and she wanted a book on women's values versus men's values and she thought that's what my proposal said. I kept saying, "No, Liz, no, it's really not." So the subtitle comes from her. What I was trying to say, obviously, is something a lot subtler, having to do with the values of belonging and the values of enterprise. Here's what I was hoping she could get. When the ethos of belonging came up against the ethos 48 of enterprise, contradictions occurred at almost every salient point, rather like a tectonic plate, too massive and too real to simply crumble or vanish, the old one slid beneath the new. Have you seen those tectonic plate things in geology, and women slid with it. That was the solution. Jerry built and held. Woman would carry the constellation of belonging, they're in the home, if you're going to preserve babies, you have to have some of those values. Men would build civilization on the basis of values of enterprise. That shouldn't really have held because there's as much of the desire to be connective and intuitive and playful in you as there is a desire to be ambitious and inventive in me, the human need, and yet, for a long, long while, those are the messages we received. I shouldn't be playful or ambitious. We can trace a direct lineage from the laws of Assyria, reflect all this, and govern the treatment of women and female slaves, and those are horrific documents, by the way. We can connect those to a chart that a friend of mine handed me that was displayed, oh, sometime late in 49 the -- probably around 1990 of a wall of a kindergarten class. She went to her child's parents' night. This is a progressive U.S. public school in an eastern academic community. And there are lists on the wall. Here are the girls' awards and here are the boys' awards. Girls to be awarded for being all-around sweetheart, sweetest personality, cutest personality, best sharer, best artist, biggest heart, best manners, best helper. The boys' awards, very best thinker, most eager learner, most imaginative, most enthusiastic, most scientific, Mr. Personality, hardest worker, best sense of humor. The components of a fully developed human being have been teased apart into two lists that barely overlap. If you are a little girl with a sharp wit, you want to understand how things work, or if you're a little boy who loves to be helpful, full of empathy, where do you see yourself on that chart? Well, we're still, of course, asking those questions. Men would lay waste for our daily bread, women would be relational, restrained and reverent. The full cost there of what happened to men at the 50 same time has, I think, remained hidden. We are beginning to grasp it, and reports that are coming out -- a couple months ago, the reports on this suicide crisis in white males of a certain age, you know, kind of thing. The authors of "Sex, World and Peace" eliminate one dimension of this legacy when they describe a phenomena you see in different parts of the world. The male-bonded groups that they believe had been at the heart of society for a very long time. The so-called warrior cultures. Example, if we sent -- they're concerned about this in China right now because the one-child policy has resulted in so many girl babies being aborted or killed that by 2020, there are going to be 25 million men in China between the ages of 20 and 45, who -- for whom there is no available female partner. These are called bare branches and historic readers know there is a real pattern. They describe it as authoritarian group, inherently unstable, violent, and violence toward outgroups serves as a male bonding mechanism because it dampens within group tensions within males. Higher-ranked males keep the subordinate males under control, loyal to the group, that sort of thing. 51 Okay. And if we were just to -- you know, you can sit down now and sort of think through what you know of world history and see that legacy playing out, empire after empire, invader after invader, and so forth. Fast forward, coming into the present... [ Audio Indiscernible ] Portland's living treasure, she grew up, remember, she was -- her father was Theodore Kroeber, the Dean of Anthropology there at Berkeley, who was the man who took care of Ishi, the last remaining man of his tribe so Ursula grew up playing with Ishi. One of her novels is called "The Telling," and looks at two cultures which are probably Tibet and China, and this is what she says about the one that's like China. From a great consensual social pattern within which each individual sought physical and spiritual satisfaction, they made it a great hierarchy in which each individual served the indefinite growth, the indefinite growth of the society's material wealth and complexity, from an active homeostatic balance, they had turned it into an active forward-thrusting imbalance. So this is where -- it's kind of that's where 52 enterprise culture culminates, that active forward thrusting imbalance. Blithely indifferent to the havoc being wreaked on the earth itself. Remember Father Thomas Barry said, "When we destroy the natural world, we destroy the grounds of our religious imagination." Gregory Bateson again said, of the ethos of applied science in the late 20th century, that it arises out of a deep epistemological panic. I want to suggest that that epistemological panic arises directly out of our having been wrenched out of something that goes away and the epistemological, that matrix of values. Well, yeah. Arriving at this reading of human history was actually pretty helpful for me because for decades, I had thought about the fact, how do I put it, that we walk around often feeling like we're trying to breathe with one lung and walk on one leg. I thought the missing half of what we are was everything about women and the feminine and so forth. Now, I begin to say, no, I think missing half of who we are is that -- is that matrix of shared belonging, values and all the connectivity to the natural world 53 and one another and spirit that's implicit in it. But the thing is, they hadn't gone anywhere. They're still right where they left them. They're just itching to get out, and I find now that more and more, as I look around -- I think it was -- Mr. Rogers who was quoted not too long ago again for something he said, when things are getting really scary around you and there is a big crisis going on and there might be violence breaking out, you're really scared, anybody remember what he said? I bet you know, look for helpers. All around us, there have always been men and women and groups of people who have somehow or other managed to achieve that equilibrium, so they carry around with them the most nurtureant element of that culture of belonging, along with the creative and irrepressible, optimistic, risk-taking part of the values of enterprise. The great ones embody the balance of what we're looking for. When you're in the presence of Francis Assisi or Jane Goodall or Sister Helen Prejean, that sense of belonging here begins to slip back over you. You walk in the room and you feel it in the air. I wanted -- I think we're running probably along -- 54 there should be some time for questions but I wanted to share with you -- yeah... One of the symptoms, the culmination of enterprise culture came out to me very strongly the other day. There is an article in the "New York Review Of Books," a review article, I think it's called "We Are Hopelessly Hooked," an examination of four recent books on our relationship to social media. And two of the books in question are by M.I.T. psychologist Sherry Turkle, and she records -- just going to give you a few bits of information from this because I think it helps us understand what kind of crisis we're in, what we're up against but what we can do about it. She says that, at this point, it looks as if people are spending five and a half hours a day with their digital media. One group of girls, women students at Baylor University agreed that they spend about ten hours a day on the cellphones. We check our phones 221 times a day. That's every four and a half minutes. What she is saying -- she is a psychologist herself and she's interviewed a whole lot of teachers and other therapists and parents -- is what she fears 55 she's seeing as a failure of young people to develop fully independent selves, that they are losing the ability to empathize. Genuine solitude, when you're without your devices, allows you to experience yourself so you can experience other people and their self-ness. Teachers are reporting their young students are not able to establish eye contact with their teacher, with one another. They can't read body language. This is your basic primal religions territory, that's how we relate to one another. I can look at you and see, you know, how you're feeling. Social media spares us the awkwardness of unmediated human relationships. And of course, you know, the things that come with that, online harassment and so forth. There is a new science which I did not know about and there is a whole -- at my alma mater, Stanford, there's a whole institute devoted to this now, how many of you have heard of the science captology? An acronym here, computers as persuasive technology. You can get your degree in capotology now, you can figure out what the best ways are to capture 56 somebody's attention with one of these devices. Well, okay, so we're in pretty scary territory but I do want to -- I do want to close this on as positive note as possible and say we're also seeing people pushing back against this and trying to figure out how to recapture their own capacity for attention and for being able to relate to the people in the room with them. I think rediscovery of meditation in various forms and prayer, maybe the ultimate worm hole back to that place of sanctity. Finally to that question that brings us all together, is violence inevitable? I would suggest to the extent that we buy into an unqualified -- values of enterprise, socially sanctioned violence is a cultural invention, to use Margaret Meade's phrase, but is intimately related to that pesky mean of dominance and control. We have to look at that, too. How many times have you seen in movies and TV and so forth the hero says -- because it's obligatory, "I've got this under control." Nobody has anything under control. If we can allow ourselves to realize that about ourselves and the people we love, imagine what will 57 come from that. I think that's all I want to say now. I think I've said way too much and I would love to have your own questions and responses and observations, so... [ Applause ] >> Get my watch back. Go ahead, please. >> You really often distinguish between women values and male values. I was wondering where you found transgender role in your studies, or was there something like transgender -- >> Say it again? >> Where do you see the value stand or where do you see the role of transgender personalities in your studies? >> Yeah, you know, well, where I come from, the Indians in California have a term twin spirit, two-spirited people, and they treasure those people who, you know, don't fall into the more obvious traditional -- they feel that these people have a special route into the spirit. They're just very inclusive and respectful of -- you know, across the board's difference so I think one of 58 the more positive things I'm seeing right now, and it's just happened maybe in the last couple of years, is a deepening interest in understanding of, for example, the transgender -- I just watched the second season of "Transparent" and I find it enthralling what that has opened up, you know, to ordinary Americans to start thinking about realities they haven't before. >> So would you say that it's like what you were talking about, that there are special values for women, for men, and then kind of like transgender have their own values? >> No, what I'm trying to say is exactly there isn't a set of men's values and women's values, and we've been sold a bill of goods, we've been asked to think that there are but, no, these are human values that all of us possess and we shouldn't have to feel we're cut up in the middle and have to honor one at the expense of the other. So that each person should be free to act as whoever they are, free of that kind of projection. >> Okay, thank you. >> Thank you. Yes. [ Audio Indiscernible ] >> Is it not on? 59 He's coming. Thank you. >> Been having a lot of discussions lately on the difference between your biological sex and then your gender -- >> Between what? >> The differences between your biological sex and your gender, and I was wondering what your thoughts on that were. >> Well, I only learned last week because I'm not on a campus right now and heard how widespread, you know, the colleges are giving people the option of calling them he or she or they, for example. I think it was fascinating and very positive because it gives people the leeway to experiment and act out and try on what it feels like, for example, to go around, you know, being a man, being a woman and so forth. I think it's all to the good. Yeah. >> Thank you. >> Uh-huh. >> Hello. It's me again, thank you so much for coming. I really enjoyed your talk this afternoon. 60 Oh, sorry, I can speak louder. My question is, how do we use the frameworks of values of enterprise and belonging to address the subtler violences that we face as individual, like today for violence or emotional violence. The things that come to mind in terms of gender violence are all of the messages we're bombarded by -- daily by the media, for example, that we have to look a certain way or present ourselves a certain way. Which are harmful in the end. >> I think reclaiming our sense -- I think we have to repersonalize the world. I think we have to put down the damn phones. We're just going to have to do that for certain amounts of time every week, just get them out of our lives and be together in the world because this mediated, electronically mediated way of communicating isn't communication. We're curating versions of ourselves to present to one another and they have maybe a very slender relationship to what our real feeling state might be, so, in other words, we're creating so many masks between one another. I think it has to start at the grass roots, you know, has to start right where we are in the personal level. 61 We don't have a whole lot of control over what's happening in the social media but we can walk away from it. >> I meant more like in a person-to-person basis, for example, one of the -- another example that comes to mind is cat-calling, that's, I feel, like a violence or a kind of domination against the object of the cat call, so how would you suggest using the framework of enterprise to combat behavior like that? >> Well, you don't go from there to there, there is a whole lot in between, I think. It's funny, I was just thinking about that this morning. There is a real place for coming together with one another, you know, forming conversations where you are so that -- anybody have anything else that they want to suggest on that score because I'm not right in the middle of the campus and I think what you're talking about is of vital importance. >> Thank you. Yes. >> Hi, thank you again for coming. My question is, has to do with, like, our education system and do you feel that there is a place or a role 62 for gender-only classes, such as male or female or even gender-only schools in the education system of modern society? >> That's a really interesting question and my husband has dealt with that a lot, thought about that a lot. He was one of the people in the early '90s -- he is -- he wrote a book called "Elements Of Promise." He was in elementary school, taught gifted kids from 6th grade. He observed this rapid falling off of self-esteem in little girls as they approached puberty. First he thought it was him as a teacher, thinking, "I'm not very good with girls of that age," and he got hooked up with some groups and he started finding out that there is this whole thing that happens to little girls in this culture, kind of the opposite of getting celebrated and so forth. So he was very tempted with the idea of separate classrooms. It's very -- girls can do awfully well when they're, you know, in -- and if you go through high school and college, there's little patterns of women being able to get established in leadership patterns, so it's very intriguing but there is a lot to be said against it, as well. 63 That men and women, boys and girls need to be socialized together. I like -- the model I like to see, there was a couple of Catholic high schools, boys and girls side by side on the same campus up in Santa Rosa, they went to some classes together and some not, and I honestly think that's really pretty neat because it gives them the experience that, you know, of -- that extremely hormonal time in your life, and nice for the boys, too, the distraction was good for them. I would like to see something that would recognize the values of both of those. >> Thank you very much. >> Thank you so much to have your talk. I found it really informative. I know how you mentioned in the beginning that a lot of hunter-gatherer society started out with this principle of the matrix. >> Say that again? >> I think a lot of people -- it's what you said, when societies began to accumulate wealth and resources, that's when power began to shift and things like, you know, patriarchy and oppression started to happen. How do you think in a capitalist world, increasingly capitalist world, we can embrace those feminine 64 values? >> Very good question. In an increasingly capital world, I don't think you can. I think a lot of the best feminist thinkers now are linking, when you look at globally what's going on -- there is a wonderful book, Nancy Frazier, called "The Fortunes Of Feminism," and I think that might be very useful for to you look at because she traces what's happened in this country, the shift in feminism from when we were in what she calls managed capitalism to the state we're in now, which is more of a -- you know, the neoliberal, completely unregulated global capitalism, and globally, it's that neoimperialist model that's threatening women most world-wide, threatening the environments, the water supplies, getting rid of environmental laws, labor laws and so forth, so, I don't know, I see it as really antithetical to -- and that's why I think we have to start figuring out ways of pushing back, and she talks about some ideas for doing that. You have to start where you are, you start small but we've got to start pushing back against that because you remember, it is threatening to women, it is threatening to the values of belonging, it is 65 threatening to life, it is threatening to men, too. And I think -- that's why I wanted to bring out the iPhone because it is a product of this whole global control masked as communication. >> I had this conversation with my Econ teacher and I asked him, you know, isn't it terrible how corporations take advantage of people, most often women would work in their factories, and most often the response from economists is those people wouldn't have had jobs anyway so you're providing a means of livelihood. >> No, doesn't wash. Sorry, I'm very opinionated about that. [ Laughter ] Maybe he and I need to talk. That if you look country by country, that's what's happening because, you know, if a company is going to come -- why would they out-source if they weren't getting a good deal? They're getting a terrific deal because when they go in, they talk to the elected representatives of the country, say, we'll come in, set up a factory here provided you loosen up your environmental laws and your child labor laws and so forth, so -- and after a while, the country itself is losing its own autonomy, 66 too. This is what's happening is that local governments are crumbling under the weight of that global economic capitalist reach, so, yeah -- your generation has got some huge stuff to figure out. Thank you for doing it, in advance. >> Earlier, I think you had mentioned something about, you know, young boys and girls having different, you know, titles that they could have. But it seems like, you know, if a boy or a young man wanted to be more empathetic or wanted to be more of a helper and if that kind of was like if he was pushed toward a different path, what's, like, the long-lasting impacts on that man as a possible, you know -- >> Sorrow. >> What? >> Sorrow. >> Okay. >> Yeah, I think so. I've seen some of those guys, you know, whose natural instincts would have them doing nurtureant work and who end up doing what somebody else thinks they should be doing, and that's where -- okay, but then here's where feminism can help. 67 If women have -- are no longer getting 70 cents on a dollar, are dollar for dollar with men, that means if you look at your sweetheart and say, this job is eating you up alive, wouldn't you like to get retrained to do something closer to your heart, I'll support us for a while, and you can because you're making a decent wage. >> And not necessarily looking at this particular presidential election but eventually, do you think -- like what -- do you think positive impacts could come from having a female president or more females obviously in the leadership roles of society in this particular country? >> That's absolutely vital, and we need to do it at the local -- presidential elections can absorb so much of our energy, our life force, that we forget how important the local politics are, the state politics are. We don't have a pipeline for getting women in office and there are reasons for that, just running through some of them the other day. Women don't have the money to stop working so that they can run for office. They don't have the higher pay that would let them do that. 68 And they're also -- within the establishment of both parties, there's a longstanding understanding of who is going to take office and so it's hard for them to break into that, as well. But you're right, you heard what I was saying at the beginning, the statistics from the book, "Sex and World Peace." If we have women in leadership positions, helping with all the decisions that are going on, including the Supreme Court, yeah, somebody just quoting that -- Judge Ruth Bader Ginsberg was asked when she would be satisfied with how many women should be on the Supreme Court, she said, "About nine." Why not? We've had nine guys for an awful lot of the time. Things aren't going to change a whole lot until that happens, and that might sound contradictory but I'm not saying women are good, men are bad, I'm really not trying to say that. But women have been able to live closer to those values, live out those values of belonging for such a long time that there is a kind of instinctive, intuitive sort of -- they're not risk-takers, that's one thing that comes up in stability of governments where women are in leadership. 69 Women aren't as likely to take the kind of risks that plummet a country or a company off a cliff. >> Okay, thank you. >> Yeah. >> Hi. So earlier you spoke about -- I enjoyed about how you spoke about how spirituality is kind of a way to access both parts of being human, as you spoke about, and not having to choose either -- yeah. How would you say in our -- in my era and among my peers with the decreasing -- what seems to be the decreasing interest in religion or spirituality, how would we as -- in my age group or younger be able to still access those sort of -- being able to access both sides of what it means to be a human. >> Yeah, yeah, how do you access the spiritual core of yourself when you're alienated from the apparent religious openings around you. Right, is that part of what you're saying? A big one. >> Or I mean with religion or spirituality not being of -- like a focus anymore, how would one my age or younger be able to access sort of something more than just these systems that are constructed socially? >> In my experience, being a young person once who was 70 like that, and I have a son, also, it's one of those things that it just starts within you as your own journey, and once you really single that out as something that's going to matter to you intensely, pretty soon it's all you can think about is finding an authentic source, a support, a practice, or even just individuals to hang out with who model the kind of equilibrium and depth that you're looking for, and you'll find a way that is absolutely -- it's not something that you can have a class about, you're going to suddenly get antenna and that's all you can think about. It's such a gift to your friends when that happens, I've seen that happen, so good luck for you. >> Time for just a couple more. Go ahead. >> Hi. Thank you for coming to St. Scholastica. I also wanted to give my two cents, I went to an all girls' private high school. >> Oh, good, okay. >> And I think it was probably one of the most important experiences I'll ever have in terms of being able to come here and do well here, you know, further in life, hopefully. 71 And so I have a question, how do you suggest we as students sort of initiate this conversation of belonging among our peers, if that makes sense? >> Don't you think it has to do with -- okay. This is partly his question, too. There is a certain -- once you get pretty committed, you get a strong sense, you know a direction you want things to start going. You'll find yourself getting -- and this is a value, very deliberate and very slow to react, and that you're listening more carefully, and that the quality of your listening helps other people stop in the middle of a sentence and hear themselves differently. I think that's kind of where it starts. It starts with a deep personal conviction, a sense of -- and that just starts changing the way you interact with the people around you and that becomes, in itself, also a point of revolution, that's where it starts, so -- >> Thank you. >> Thank you. >> Time for one more. >> Hi. Thank you, thank you for being here. I want to respond to one of the students' comments, 72 she mentioned briefly about Trump and all -- literally, all the violence we see every day. A dear colleague and friend and myself have been studying energy medicine, energy healing over 20 years and I recently heard that there is an energy level called D-3, and I don't know all the inner makings of that but this level on the earth is deteriorating and it's at its end time, so to speak, so we see this amazing increase in violence, and we look at our campaigns this year and how that is captured on the energy level of the universe and so that level will probably be no longer present within this next year, probably sooner than that because of the acceleration of violence. So it's a real hope, even though you may not understand this, it's present and it's real, and I wanted to share that with the audience. Thank you. >> Grounds for hope. We'll take it wherever we can get it. Thank you so much. >> Thank you very much for coming. [ Applause ] >> Good job. >> Thank you all very much for coming. 73 We do have a little reception in the back, we have some books to sell. Dr. Flinders has some books to sell and so does Veterans For Peace, and we have a little buffet there, food to eat. Drive safely on your way home. Thanks again for coming. [ Applause ] "Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) is provided in order to facilitate communication accessibility. THIS TEXT may not be a totally verbatim record of the proceedings."



The site formerly had as many as fourteen mounds, depending on the criteria used to describe a mound. Except for one small outlier to the south all are surrounding an exceptionally large central plaza that is aligned on an east-west axis. The large plaza measures close to 280 metres (920 ft) east to west and 175 metres (574 ft) north to south. These measurements are about three quarters the size of the Grand Plaza at Cahokia, which is the largest Mississippian culture plaza known. Other large sites from the region during the same time period (such as the Raffman, Winterville, or Holly Bluff) could easily fit their entire sites into the confines of Motts plaza. On the western edge of the plaza is Mound A, the largest at the site and one of the largest in the state and possibly the largest in the Tensas Basin region during the time period it was constructed. It is a platform mound about 90 metres (300 ft) by 100 metres (330 ft) at its base, 45 metres (148 ft) by 60 metres (200 ft) at its summit and over 8 metres (26 ft) in height. This produces a footprint that covers an area of over two acres. The eastern and southern borders of the plaza are bounded by two other large platform mounds, Mounds F and I respectively. The northern edge of the plaza has four small dome shaped mounds, aligned along a meander scar of Bayou Macon. 700 metres (2,300 ft) south of the mound group is a large village site thought to be contemporaneous with the mounds.[3]


A number of archaeologists have undertaken excavations and investigations at the site. The earliest were George Beyer in 1900 and Clarence Bloomfield Moore in 1913. In the mid 1960s researchers from the Lower Mississippi Survey of Harvard University led by Stephen Williams sampled the site and fixed it into the local chronology. They found markers from the Marksville, Coles Creek, and Plaquemine cultures, but with the most intensive habitation being during the Coles Creek period. Site surveys were also conducted in 1976 and in 1992, all of which confirmed this chronological placement. The site was purchased in two acquisitions in 2002 by the Archaeological Conservancy to preserve and protect the site which had been threatened by looting, land leveling, and timber harvesting.[1][2] It is now known as the Mott Archaeological Preserve and is over 200 acres, making it one of the Conservancy’s largest acquisitions in the Southeastern United States to date.[2] In 2005 Mott Project was begun by Timothy Schilling of Washington University in St. Louis and Tristram R. Kidder of Tulane University.[3]

See also


  1. ^ a b "Southeast Regional Office : Some of Our Southeast Preserves". The Archaeological Conservancy. Archived from the original on 2011-09-11. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
  2. ^ a b c d "LAS Announcements". Retrieved 2011-10-29.
  3. ^ a b Schilling, Timothy (Winter 2006–2007), "Archaeology at the Mott Mounds", Newsletter of the Louisiana Archaeological Society (PDF), 34 (3 ed.), Louisiana Archaeological Society, pp. 8–12

External links

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