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Moscow–Washington hotline

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Pentagon, Arlington County, Virginia
The Pentagon, Arlington County, Virginia
The Kremlin in Moscow
The Kremlin in Moscow

The Moscow–Washington hotline (formally known in the United States as the Washington–Moscow Direct Communications Link;[1] Russian: Горячая линия Вашингтон — Москва, tr. Goryachaya liniya Vashington–Moskva) is a system that allows direct communication between the leaders of the United States and Russia. This hotline was established in 1963 and links the Pentagon with the Kremlin (historically, with Soviet Communist Party leadership across the square from the Kremlin itself).[1][2] Although in popular culture it is known as the "red telephone", the hotline was never a telephone line, and no red phones were used. The first implementation used Teletype equipment, and shifted to fax machines in 1986.[3] Since 2008, the Moscow–Washington hotline has been a secure computer link over which messages are exchanged by a secure form of email.[4]

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  • ✪ Todd Lecture Series: Lieutenant General Mark Bowman, “Leadership in the Digital Age.”

Transcription

this year's remind folks if you have a cell phone that you could put to vibrate were turned off and for some of those that are standing we have plenty of seats in the front if you'd like to come down and join us welcome to the publisher series for the 2015 presidency conference Todd lecture series is named in honor of you as an Army retired major general and President Emeritus W Russell Todd for which class of 1950 and his wife Carol and gratitude for their dedicated service to Norwich University in the Northfield Community I'd like to also recognize the tides daughter and son-in-law Allen and John true and the drew foundation will generously donated resources to Norwich University to find the Todd lecture series in their own program will always be free and open to the public reprimand community as well as the Norwood student body and stream live from the TLS website or students all around the country and all around the world so welcome to those who are visiting through the streaming we have a bio for Lieutenant General bombing in the in the program i'll simply start and open the program because he's our guest of honor and turn it over to an old soldier and Norwich University graduate thank you good morning president Snyder distinguished guests friends families and graduates and students what an honor it is to be here today I have to say that I'm a little bit in all looking back at who previous speakers were for this event Secretary Rice general sullivan and Powell and I got some guy named Bowman so let's define success up front and fast this is a talk about leadership and there's talk as well worth my time if one thing said or done during this speech positively affects anyone in this room as a leader one thing that you can put to use I left this campus years ago and no one knew back then woman was gonna go in the army instead a was pretty much decided thing that I was doing it for three years and get now that was my commitment people have said I am a perfect soldier I don't have an exit strategy once I got in the Army I couldn't leave it was a soldiers and civilians we got pleasure to work with but if you asked my parents my friends my classmates if I'd be here doing this today and still be in the army the answer would have been no way the assumption by many is wow this kid Bowman must have been a good cadet must have been a good student the answer to both is no I wasn't a good I wasn't a good student some saw something in me that I didn't see I thought they were merely expectations and maybe trying to get somebody to reach some potential those guys initially were major Jarvis captain Keith Urban and so many times in ROTC they grabbed me and they say that was a good job or that was a really good job now just think how good it could have been if you put a little effort into it during graduation week the awards were being handed out I got called up and they said a be here at this time your getting the distinguished military graduate award that's something my dad a colonel in the Army wanted so badly for me to get but it was something I had no desire to get so I said to the kernel sir I tenderness award he said bombing this program is set it up there and take the war Roger sir stood up there got the award and at the end of the ceremony I handed it back with the certificate I didn't earn it and I didn't want it that surprised a couple of people with that approach there's no bending the rules they are what they are + Bowman wanted to take the summer off and go back to the golf course and you call the grass bomb again I was dating this girl from Vermont and I wasn't ready to leave and go in the army that same situation happen again less than two years later I was an infantry officer to start because my dad told me don't go infantry and don't go airborne so I'm at Entergy basic course and the big thing there's a expert infantry badge at the end of the course Captain Cook called me up and he said a bombing get up in that formation take this award sir you're either program get up there and take the war so I did and at the end when things die down I took it off and I gave it back and then ensure that it didn't go into my records I didn't earn it kinda interesting though when you look back at it the reason I didn't get it is because I communications twice and now look at my job the number one Communications job for anybody in DoD serving on active duty who knew we live in a world that we live in today that is so connected sixty-four years ago this week the UNIVAC won the universal automatic computer was unveiled in washington D C it was a first commercial general use computer it was developed for the UE Census Bureau it stood a tree talk it weighed twenty thousand pounds it had 5200 vacuum tubes and it took up just under 400 square feet of floor space it was used to predict the results of the presidential election in 1952 at the time conventional thinking was adlai stevenson was going to win by a narrow margin this new predicted this new computer predicted a landslide victory for eisenhower very very early in the voting media we're so concerned about this prediction being so erroneous so enormously wrong they didn't report it actually predicted that eisenhower would win it cost 1.2 million dollars it took longer to build than predicted and the cost was slightly overrun it was predicted to cost $159,000 some things never change leap forward to 2007 Steve Jobs unveiled the iPhone he said this revolutionary product changes everything and did it ever change things in ways that he couldn't have predicted and he didn't predict people use it to check in at the airport people use it as your GPS people use it as a two-factor authentication to log onto systems it changed our everyday life and it drove technological advances that today one bombing graduated in 1978 we didn't even know what a cyber domain was we operated with four domains air land sea and space cyber domain is arguably the most complex and it's the glue that connects them all and it's something that didn't exist back then we didn't even know what a world wide web was I T and data are everywhere more data exists today than ever in history in fact it's been said that ninety percent of the dated it exists today didn't exist two years ago how do we manage that how do we take care of it the number of mobile devices are popping up at a rate faster than mankind reproduces there isn't a single senior leader today that doesn't get any understand the value of I T the chief information officer and an organization you should be just a job for now it's a job as a whole lot of time talking with the chief operations officer and the chief executive officer for very very good reason I T affects everybody today and there's different views on how it affects us there's concerns about I T and its effect on us and who's collecting what is big brother doing with those photos from traffic cameras what is he doing with the data from our cell phones what is happening with the data when we use are safely car while you are right a car the tracks what we buy and when we buy it so they can better manage inventory what's happening with that there are concerns about personal privacy they're out there but the concerns in my mind are far more serious into other areas the first is intellectual property theft this equates to the greatest transfer wealth in the history of mankind why would you spend any money on R&D if you can just stealing it's a real shame that we couldn't take our data that we used to build our most sophisticated stuff and just randomly change by 23 and when somebody copies it say hey good luck with it a plane you're gonna build we hope it works out good for you but also another concern is fraud we are victims were tracked by exploiting and we need to be smart about how we use the I T and will bounce back to that just a little bit leadership in today's generation is some different about it lots this is saying about it in 2001 mark Polansky came up with terms called the digital native and the digital immigrant as leaders today we need to figure out how to work and reach out and get promoted really out of both groups of people the natives and immigrants so let me describe both of a digital native somebody born after nineteen eighty-three they've had computers in their life since birth ACM they use them to get them to understand how much the same as one of us playing one of our kids in a video game they're going to beach and the reason they're going to beat you is because we think they do we all think about what's going to happen next stages do what's gonna happen next and that's a true benefit to them can I get everybody in this room before 1983 to raise their hand we are the immigrants and watchin over the years and thinking about the immigrants we determine each and every one of us determines on our individual basis are individual self what generation immigrant we are how much we grow and adapt and adopt how much we learn how much we care my mother-in-law gway is a little bit over ninety she programs are TV she's had numerous computers programs universal remote programmed her garage door opener now she's not a couch potato geek when the snow is too high for the garage door to open this this winner she went out there and shoveled it so she could get to work hard wow she's on her second iPad because the first one the software on it wasn't good enough to run the newest versions of words with friends and then you've got miss smith she's in her seventies she has a computer because the kids say hey we gotta use the computer we gotta do the right thing we gotta stay in touch you can learn so much off the computer but she's always run into problems she's she caused freddy the little kid next door he said he can you come over here and help me with my computer yes ma'am I'll be right there so he comes over and fix his computer he does this very very frequently every month and then after months go by she goes ready you always come in here and you fix it real quick and then you leave and go home and then you can you come back and fix it she said I can you tell me what the problem is he says yes ma'am it's a pretty common problem is an id10t and she's really he said yes ma'am write it down have a good day by so she writes it down everything he says she goes a little shit so why not back just a couple of years this term is not new with using computers in 2001 after 911 our brigade was told hey you guys are going to the Middle East and you guys are gonna run computer systems classified and unclassified email for the forces deployed said to my boss Sir word tactical you know we don't do that pic signal guys do I get told we ordered the equipment for you a week ago you'll have it next week you have two weeks to train I you going out to do it so we did and at night I would go around and check on things and I walked into the help desk as we're out there and you say helped us pretty classy place it's built with plywood has got a makeshift stuff in it it's in a tent so I grabbed the logbook looking at it to see what the common problems are caused by looking at what the common problems are you can see what things are being used in most and I keep seeing this IDC for a reason for outage so I grabbed one of the guys Boswell was his name spec for a bus once I BC goes that idea behind computer so you're probably sitting there wondering so what generation does Bowman Field in what what what generation immigrant is he I'm someplace between miss smith and my mother-in-law way and I'm happy to be there but the key is to know and be comfortable to know how to best use computers to know how they can enable us not be an anchor that were connected to in this increasingly complex world without e technology is changing constantly the complexity is changing constantly and our world continues to change constantly there's some leadership steady leadership lessons that have stood the test of time they aren't domain-specific and if we could I just like to talk about it but let me come back to 1978 I clearly did not get a degree in cyber leadership the word cyber was in the evenin vocabulary and if it were I can picture myself struggling to figure out whether starts with AC or an S now my son is a course white athlete at West Point and some of his friends know what I do for a living lots of saying wow you're dead must be graded computers and I T and Matt will be quick to tell him now is really not that good I'm better now I I purposely told you he's an athlete he's not computer guy he knows how to use them but his response back to the guys is my dad knows how to pick people who are good at what they do and then lead them as part of leadership we all need to have a leadership philosophy and this is something that sounds complex but it's something that should not be over thought and it's pretty easy it's your basic fabric it's part of your DNA it's part of who you are as a person and here's a couple of things to think about the mission is always first and the people must be taken care of always we take care of the people they will take care of the mission it's about setting and enforcing high standards when we miss we get negative results it's about integrity and integrity is non-negotiable integrity is so easy until it's going to cost us something and then the choice is up to each of us as an individual whether we keep our integrity or just throw it away in the military it's interesting you trust everybody who's wearing one of these and you trust all the DoD civilians from the start it's not always that way in the rest of the world we trust until somebody proves us prove to us that we can trust us it's about correcting mistakes in private and commending achievements in public in nineteen eighty two hours a company commander I was a lieutenant I was at a training base in Georgia for Gordon Georgia every year we'd send the soldiers home for the holidays it was called exodus and the army's about hurrying up and waiting you don't show up way late you get there and you wait so me and my drill sergeants and all our soldiers are out there and we're out there first there's over 1,500 people in his battalion kind of a cold and nasty day in December so the buses show up to take the guys to the airport and a battalion commander overheard one of the drill sergeants one of my drill sergeants say Delta Company on the bus first the car blew a gasket he grabbed me and just started to me we just switched to the battle dress uniform the one that had come a flag on it I tried to blend in with the trees so hard and it didn't work and in front of over 1,500 people get my butt handed to me and it just kept going and going and going and I look back at it I laugh because that colonel is like my dad to me today but I am so thankful that we didn't have you to back then because it would have been a hot topic that day and months after its about treating everybody fairly people want to say treat amal equal you really can cause notice situations are equal there's always a different variable in it and the variables all have different weight so all people want all they deserve and all I get is fair treatment and how hard you are as a leader doesn't matter to him as long as you are fair to everybody this is a time in our society where we need to be ever more intolerant of drug and alcohol abuse and sexual harassment and sexual abuse we can't tolerate in any organization it's about allowing people to do their job without making honest mistakes without worrying about the honest mistakes so to keep it simple for the guys that work with me I just say this is a row there's a white line on this side there's a white line on this side I don't care about the two yellow lines in the middle don't cross the white lines this one is don't do anything illegal or immoral this one is don't get anybody hurt in what you're doing if we make a mistake so what we'll learn from it so we provide I T to the Joint Staff there's some pretty high level guys that we support we do stuff upgrading our systems all the time we apply patches all the time one of our young soldiers apply to patch and caused an outage the two Colonels they were in a chain between him and me and the senior executive guys kind of panic there was an Army Warrant Officer that said to one of them colonels whether they're discussing this and and just figured out either going to report it said hey you over there put your arm around him say thanks you did the right thing will be alright and they just kind of looked at him he said I'm not kidding I'm not joking around we don't want to stifle what that soldiers doing we don't want them to have to second guess everything they're doing they know the consequences of what they do and if we hammer and they're not going to do what we need him to do it's about working hard doing good and having fun things are going to go wrong in our lives but they're never as bad as we think we just need to lean into a one-time a really impressive marine lawyer was talking to me and he said hey somebody ever does something and really torture you just set you off this is so serious that both of us are going to think about this overnight in my office at eight o'clock tomorrow morning got that and then go home and think and write write down notes about what you're going to talk about the next day with this guy or gal and having therefore when you talk to them it's always with dignity and respect and you will call down if you say something out of anger you can't pull it back and it's gonna come back and bite us if we do that so when you're doing this they're gonna be standing there sitting there talking to you and if they don't take notes right down on your notes no notes taken because if somebody if they go and complain as somebody and you get investigated over it you're just gonna go look at your calendar say yep that was eased a pull out your notes yup this is the think these are the things I talked about on these days and by the way they didn't take any notes it kind of deflates their their argument is probably the wrong word to use around here with the Patriots right down the street but I i still think the same way some of us go through life with a plan we're going to get this job first we're gonna live here we're going to do this then we're going to get that job then then then then and what happens if the train falls out that plan track it'll be alright we'll take the job that we get the key is to not gross about it but to bloom where you're planted make the most of what every guy and some people have those plans and is based on ego and those two thoughts about ego my thought is ego is bad take your ego put it in an envelope and find a post office box someplace there is no address on the envelope no return address and never walk close to that post office box again ego sum caught sometimes causes people to do things they wouldn't do sometimes causes people to be arrogant I paid for it in spades in a wrestling tournament in front of Dan Gable Chris Taylor and both Peterson brothers it was a known fact that I was going to win that tournament I got pinned in the first match in less than 60 seconds by kid named 0 I forget about that that said some of the best leaders I've ever worked for in fact the best boss I've ever had believes that ego is good we all have ego and it all helps us do what we need to do we just need to manage it the correct way every one of us is an author be an author of the book we write is either mental or physical the book is on leadership it consists of two volumes the first adults and its defeat by something just to be asked to be minor league stupid or dumb or provide unintended consequences and we say wow I'm not doing that but something has to be majorly good to say I'm gonna do that calm relaxed leaders of the best everybody wants to be one we're not all 1 I'm not one never be one I am i Type A personality I have a temper one do is to talk to people about that to get their feedback on what they see as in you as a leader to tell them what set you off what makes you happy and what your command or leadership philosophy is and then when stuff doesn't go right sometimes they can look at and say well number ten I should not drive that one don't have the discussions with their bodies that said there's an elasticity that's needed would be in a leader we need to be able to stretch to meet the situations but stretching the become what looked at is a calm relaxed leader you're gonna snap back to center as soon as stuff gets really really tough and we all do that leadership is about knowing yourself and some of the best feedback about self comes from others so talking to people about you as a leader can help you learn one thing it's a good thing to have its it's called an elevator speech what do you how do you view yourself as a leader it's probably a good thing to be able to enter it in in in in your thoughts and having it committed to memory is a pretty good thing what your leadership style how do you deal with this kind of stuff if nothing else you can help others and it's a common question is asked in job interviews one interview panel i SAT up able to select the guy a person to be the commander of the White House communications agency this is a highly sought-after full colonel or navy captain job with lots and lots of applicants it boiled down to two in the final interviews it was interesting to watch the female navy captain was hit it out of the park she brought a piece of paper and a pencil weather and she took notes during the questions and there were three of us on the panel and panel is one would ask a question and then two then three and some of the questions had one in two parts and the army colonel didn't bring any notes didn't bring any paper didn't bring any pain and sometimes you have to ask what the second part of the question was more than one occasion he did not all about it went down the path on answering one part of it I did that in grad school and pay the piper for that that stopped me when I got the credit grades when I was here I was determined when I went to grad school I would get a 40 I didn't get into grad school because of one course one exam and I did exactly what I said this army colonel so we went all the way through my pretty far down the the past and it's already decided that every one of our mind she's gonna get the job and then we asked a question about leadership and we gave him a scenario she went back and asked us questions what's my job what's that person's job what's a relationship had to understand it all before a decision could be made the army colonel i would tell him that's unacceptable you go back in your room stay there I'm reporting that got him the job we need to know how to take do an interview and do it right because sometimes you only get one chance leadership is about a command climate is a four star Larry Ellis he was talking with one time and he said it's all about climate there was a four star named john henry VIII broke it down into four of five critical questions that we have to ask ourselves five critical choices that we ought to make determine our organizational climate we have a choice between trust and invulnerability it's all about trust we have a choice between conflict and harmony and that's one that it varies but the most successful guys appear to pick conflict because conflict is good we don't want a bunch of people saying wow that's a great idea boss let's just go do it we need to have intellectual feedback we need to sometimes have heated discussions on why an idea isn't good why we shouldn't do it and then once we make a decision we don't ever circle back like a battalion run to pick up stragglers we violently executed and move out we have a choice between clarity and certainty lot of people want to stick around and get certainty before they make a decision we wait for certainty we don't have to make many they make themselves the decisions are made by themselves by waiting for certainty if we go to clarity we can do a whole lot more and a whole lot faster each and every one of us carries a gun around with us a gut full of experience our gut tells us when we have enough information to make a decision we make it move it's about accountability vs popularity and it is all about accountability and it's about results for status it's about results some say so what characteristics are important for leadership mark somebody that's got potential its confidence its competence its courage and its decisiveness confidence comes from experience from doing in Afghanistan we were always behind is the idea guys Sunday mornings they tried to have a down time for people to get stuff done to spend time going to church to spend time taking care of personal stuff is the calm guys were always out doing something so I would be out with the guys we be in ditches diggin to Lake cable so we're out there and it's it's hot we all got our patrol caps on to keep the Sun out of our face we all got our our blouse tops off and we got teacher time would you say they're digging and you get these smart-aleck guys that have come by a little dirt no hold some signal guys in there they're digging the hole and I just stand up and look at him they see the Eagle look at it and then kind of car and walk away and my guys were just hoping somebody would do that so I'm I'm standin in a child line later that day one day and this Special Forces soldier says to me sir I saw you in a hole digging ditches this morning why is one reason a soldier I wanna be there with my guys doing what they do confidence people who are nervous make people around them nervous we need to have confidence competence we need to know what we're doing and we need to know what are limitations are and we need to go ask when we know we're getting beyond we need to have the courage to stand up for our convictions and to make a decision and then we need to be decisive some people look at this and say a leadership you know that's easy for those experts if we go to Myers Briggs and look at it we're gonna find out about half of our population are extroverts and after introverts there's only one percentage points difference based on the statistics we pulled off Myers Briggs just a little bit ago it might be easier for the expert extrovert because they're out talking to people and and and get fired up by talking to people but there's no correlation to whether a person is a better leader because there's an extra day are an extrovert or an interview in fact if you find out my myers-briggs type personality you will also find out that only two percent of the officers in the United States Army have that personality only 2% leadership the most important thing is trust and integrity we and that is gained when somebody inherently believes that you're going to do the right thing for the right reasons again it's about trust and military it's about listening were gifted reach born with two ears and one mouth for one reason so we can use them at least in that way now sometimes people will sell me particularly when I was younger a bombing you just let your alligator mouth out power your canary brain and after it happens you know it happened all of us are going to fail but we learn more from failure than we do from success so people will ask you sometimes what's your greatest failure probably ought to know that to my greatest failure as a person was not going on when I could have gone home I didn't go home and jizz in my parents when I could have my dad died when I was a second lieutenant my mom died while I was in saudi Arabia's a battalion commander I didn't spend enough time at all I should have we can't make this stuff up if you got time spending with family and then if they ask about ok yes a professional thing that you did it didn't work out so right one time as a battalion commander in the Middle East we had money from our major command a two-star headquarters to do something we were given it to this other organization for them to do it for us they were a foreign military sales organization we had operations and maintenance money you we call them colors of money you have procurement money and you have research development test and evaluation money you can't cross those lines with a different types of money I found out that they were going to take our operations and maintenance money running in the front door of their organization it out the back doors colorless money so I called the major up who was in charge of this program to say hey man we can't do that he was gonna fall but I'ma come on guys so I got presidents on my phone so I it flashover I blew my office phone call them back here in like that and I explained to me we're going to do that and then I called his full colonel boss Obama lieutenant-colonel at the time and told them what I did well got a little bit different story from his guy I made a mortal enemy of that current the net result of that had bad implications on my unit my battalion XO one of the greatest leaders I've ever worked with was grabbed by that current one time and said hey you know I don't like your battalion commander watch out for ricocheting around so the way I handled a dress on my I couldn't handle it so much better if I just cool down and handled it right so flash forward a couple of years you know full colonel command job I'm not actually promoted yet but I'm wearing a rank we call if rocked so you have all the responsibility and authority but you don't get to pay for so I'm sitting there in the pentagon and I'm there and I'm checking out of a place and I see that current walking by and my alligator mouth is getting ready to go so I finished paying and I start walking out and forget it buddy there's nothing good that can come out of that let it go probably the smartest one of the smarter movies i've i've made we as leaders need to all change with the times the way it was it doesn't matter today there's lessons we can learn from then and we can apply them to today but we need to think about it we need to apply them we need not discuss ideas and change from today we need to look at it because dealing with the young guys I talked about me as a young guy in my dad's in don't go mp3 don't go airborne and doing just that all young guys don't like to be a girls don't like to be told what to do when you're sixteen to about 22 your parents get stupid it happens to everybody and the interesting parties those tenants will bring into our units so the brigade I took over when I got there was 28% filling the tenants I think well the reason was like that is because the former commander was changing their assignments for him and decided they couldn't do certain things because it impacted the mission and they would vote with their feet when they get the opportunity they'd leave and nobody could talk to this guy and get him to listen so the assignment person said politics is problem and she just shut off the flow of lieutenants going to that brigade so we made a phone call we went up 200 percent on lieutenants it's about mentorship we had to have a mentorship program and anguish about this decided to have a mental you should have a mentor so what is it like a guidance counselor in high school I mean everyone that I had so I was an idiot and I just knew the dating care for me not it doesn't work right well maybe it's like a thesis advisor and grad school we're part of that when we pick up if we pick a guy or gal and it doesn't work out right we're part of the problem so what we did is we decided okay all you majors you gonna be mentors for the lieutenants and we're not going to assign them they're going to pick who they want now this really made the majors nervous when when this was happening oh boy this is a way bowman's got a great ass again so I had to tell our our personnel person a major hey Jackie I'm not tracking this I'm not tracking it all I just I want I want these guys to do it so set it up we're going to the chapel each in the majors will come in and give a three- to five-minute presentation of who they are as a person and then the lieutenant's will take a three-by-five card should be done with iPhone today but we don't have and they were right down your top three choices so in the walking around and talking to the people aspect I G H two lieutenants and say hey why'd you pick them well he's married to another service member I might be too wide to pick that guy my body said he's a good guy those are two key independent variables they used in Picton they're meant or we wouldn't even thought we might have said hey this guy went to West Point this lieutenant went to West Point this guy only went to west point because he didn't have money to pay for school when they got an education and he came in the army this could this lieutenant he might be fifth generation west point that's not an automatic mix r you can't assume that they need to pick and then we gave him an escape clause we said hey look if you decide after six months is saying we're picking up so at the end at the end of the gate commander walked in I said hey Jack I wanna see the list of who was mentored who they were mentors to she goes sir you told us you wouldn't do that I said look you're the one I have done the personnel person I have done all the ratings on everybody it's all said it's done it's in concrete this is just 360 feedback from me I know what I thought about all the majors I would like to know what the lieutenants and was interested but one we had the exact same thought and the one that we didn't have the same time was just a great basic leader but couldn't really adapt with the time so it was really really interesting to watch that so how have things changed for the digital age people expect decisions a whole lot quicker hey I sent you an email as a text what's the answer is No inbox anymore as a digital inbox it's expected that you're going to do it we get emails from everybody all the time we we need to respond quicker that said with social media out there and all the concerns YouTube the video the email the chat snapchat we need to be careful what's out there that stuff is permanent it's absolutely permanent we need to be careful with our passwords and all that stuff I had a friend of mine I need ask your question what's your recommendation he said what kind of file do you put him in how do you encrypt it I said I put them in a drawer the written on a piece of paper none of that's going on my computer is anything I put on that computer somebody else has access to and have access to yours too and it's a pain to change but change there's nothing secret about it you know people look at it my fingerprint logon to stuff nowadays with 3d printing I can have your fingerprint in a real short period of time and it's indistinguishable from yours industries look at it and they're saying well what should be used for two-factor authentication retina scans they're pretty good what about individual heart rates they're pretty good to each individual heart rate no matter how much your amped up is like a snowflake they're all different there's there's change coming to our world is coming fast changing their vehicles something my wife just got a new car and and the car dealer course you're trying to sell you stuff you wait too long in between getting cars holy mackerel we're still figuring out stuff on their car it's scary so a friend of mine we were out in Silicon Valley last week friend of mine's wife picked us up $8 and she got the same car that my wife as my daughter has and and she loves it so we're heading now out of Dulles and also maintaining a two-speed warning signal is set for seventy that's pretty interesting doesn't do that as a martial what's up with that said it first thing we we need to adapt with the times we need to be more responsive but Indian responsive here's one more one more quick kind of story what goes in email we ought to be ok with sending it to our mom wore having it written up in the washington post and I know about some embarrassing emails that have landed in the washington post that came from a couple of kernels having an argument over email so that track colonel I'm a little hole myself it's about quarter to seven at night I'm at the office not because I'm real dedicated picking up the kids gymnastics and they finished at 7:30 and it's closer to the pentagon that it is due out so it's a continuing resolution we don't have a budget yet so we get it passed out to it I run offs in the National Military Command Center we have contracts we have TAS cleared individuals top-secret cleared individuals they cannot be replaced and we get six weeks of funding and what happens if I get that page one day for one of them guys I'm losing it I'm not gonna be able to grow another 14 years and I'm gonna get him back so they said okay one in engineering while they got their whole first quarter now look a little further and I C programs they got their whole first two quarters so I sent an email to this friend of mine was a colonel I said our entire reputation as an organization all 6600 of us is based on ops if we flung cops we flunk everything engineering we've never delivered anything on time anyway so who's going to say something if we're late again and programs what the hell did they do somebody ought to audit them so this kernel sends it to his sis 6 boss who's been an SES since the seventies I don't know about it the chief of staff and navy captain call me in the next day said a few you really teed off miss mccoy put your greens out and go down and apologized so I did I walked in and I apologize for being a maverick and she said Mark don't change but let me ask you a question how many emails do you get from me how many do you see that I really I said not many men less than a handful of the whole time we've been here for a reason but don't use the phone in a way I talk to you about using it in the past couple of final thoughts and then we'll finish this because when I used to sit in in venues like this particularly in the second half I used to be a pity not and I was yellow I could get my polls so I would sit there and a semi coma a name for low thirties some time in our life we're going to get or we've already had something that's going to come to us and it's going to look like we have a choice about being a good leader about being a good person go with being a good person so right choice every time when I was here as a junior I was a first sergeant and the rocks reports on the first day and it's a significant emotional event for them the entire time and I had this big football player come in and you can't stop crying I said shut the door this guy was a sergeant major something with which we are out there and I've never been treated like that before in my life I don't know what to do I said there's nothing wrong with you he's a jerk and we all know it you'll be fine here in Canada and there are gonna wonder what's happening in a year when you leave nobody's gonna know is I'm not saying anything the only way anybody's gonna find out about this is for you to tell left still remembers face I still remember the tears I don't remember his name be a good person thank you for your time thanks for picking Norwich it's been an honor to speak with you today and I wish each and every one of you the best of luck in your journey learning to lead learning to lead better and leading to serve thanks microphone my right and left will have students to the to the left and other members of the community and public that would like to answer some questions to the right but I'll start with a general general question about how leaders today we can talk about email is one of those digital inputs that we get perhaps too much of the input an influx of information generally that's available you mentioned ninety percent of the data that we have today not existing two years ago and the numbers are geometrically astonishing the amount of data in information that we're producing how can an effective leader in that environment where we're deluge with the email and knowledge of various types triage that how many deaths the way my approaches to that and several of my friends we get times email and a lot of it we don't read so if I run into somebody in ICM and and it's not going to click to me who they were where we met I tell him put something on this subject is interested in going to get my attention and leading by email there was when it first started using computers and friend of mine he was a company commander good company commander he got all wrapped up in in computers he's a mature guy Ranger headquarters company commander and he got this brilliant idea that he was going to automate his property book we spent so much time loading all that stuff into a computer and back then it was far lower than it is today he wasn't doing a good job is as a as a leader leader is getting out and walking around leader is figure out what the polls your people this is about having an open door policy so people can come talk to you there there was this kid one-time use a lieutenant in our in our Brigade and he wanted to come see me an open door policy so I asked the guys wanna come talk to me about well his battalion commander told him he couldn't go he could not go try out for the All Army soccer team I said well and this is Jackie r1 I said I'm not going to see you tell them you can go so without talking to him without talking to his battalion commander I told him to go fast forward a few months were deployed wherein he showed up and he took a job in kuwait has one night and he comes in he says Acer I just want to say thanks he said for let me go I said I was a no-brainer your own walking talking advertisement for Army going out and doing that how did you do we want we want the inter-service championship I said what's wrong with eighty you answer the question I said how did you do why scored the winning goal in the last two games and several others but the reason I came to say thanks to you was because when I was a PSC a private first class in a national guard unit my commander when let me go cause I was too mission essential so when we get the opportunity to let somebody go do something for professional development we ought to do that but the people we get we selected do that her there ought to be paying in those people going out and getting that additional education or getting that additional opportunity they ought to be our best because they are in fact ambassadors so what I just demonstrated there is when media ask you a question atque answer the question + send a message please state your name and program for the national geospatial-intelligence agency we have class at work we have a secret network with top secret network passwords for all of those we have certain websites SharePoint sites various programs with all different passwords 14 minimum characters one upper one lower numbers characters they can't spell words and you add these and they have to keep a list like you my drawers they also tell us what I'm supposed to do where do you see the future of our security 44 access did we ever gonna get to a biometrics program or single more secure way of maintaining this kind of information technology I see is moving forward with a time by the way or animals and SES senior executive service members a classmate of mine former infantry officer works with you so when you run into him or see him tell me said hey to have his kids went to school here as well where I don't see it going is two-factor authentication we have a CAC card Common Access Card now which has potentials that are used to authenticate who we are as a person so we have a pin and hard till we have a different token for the secure Internet we're going to evolve past that but before we get totally past that and I got into a discussion with some senior leaders because I want to have Ave email for life or retired civil servants and military folks so that we can stay on a system and can continue to trick contribute so that we can continue to give back it's something we're probably gonna have to pay a commercial provider for it and I want to do it with a CAC card I'm getting a whole lot of pushback and people are telling me hey use your fingerprint to do that so in senior meeting with people senior to me one guy said you know I'm not a real fan of the CAC card my wife on your iPad users are fingerprint I said yes sir I got that out of the agency I'm working with to get these accounts and I said that we don't need to leave bahar a leap ahead too far and get to the bleeding edge technology on this one we need to go with something that's proving the networks and you know everybody says it works with a fingerprint will next time you get stopped by a policeman and he comes up your finger out the window and telling the reader fingerprint tell you who you are how's that gonna go for you now that's being kind of flipping but the fingerprint allows you to log on to that particular system it doesn't allow you to jump to the next to my pay the AAA those are all required to factor authentication so we're gonna go to that end in the talk I mentioned what they were working on in Silicon Valley with the heartbeat and with the retina and and and the iris there's much better ways to do this but this is something we need to be concerned about our networks are not secure you can read about people getting into him every day why work for something if you can steal it there's a whole lot of people collect a lot of stuff security is an interesting thing for me and we've assumed a lot of stuff and we ought not to show it the army I was a company commander is a young guy I was sitting in the signal officer advanced course I never going to a signal school in my life I was there for two weeks and a yank me out they said hey you did everything you need to do to make major so we're gonna send you to training with industry so I went to Southern California lived in Redondo Beach worked in Torrance grew my hair long until the current cost me and at Magnavox you could go park your car in a parking lot walking through the front door / imagine somebody you're in so I'm out driving around i mean tool cars I'm out driving around in LA and I wanted to turn around so I pull into Mattel the turnaround in the parking lot you can't even get a parking lot now mattel is worried about somebody stealing the next designed to the Frisbee or something like that and here we have anti jam satellite modems that will build inferred DOD top secret programs and it was easier to get in I I was kind of surprised about that kind of stuff but I am also stunned at the lack of security that people do and how easy it is to break a password they're a pain and they need to be a pain for a reason so we're moving forward on it I think the steps are going to be slow the information assurance guys we call them I A I usually referred to him as a No because that's all I ever tell me what I want to do something is no you can't do that the good part is they're not the final decision it's the commander that makes a final decisions based on risk but each thanks for asking a question each and every one of us is responsible for network hygiene and what we put on facebook youtube what we share you see people putting announcements on Facebook get ready to go on vacations will go vacation will go to Hawaii the entire family's gonna be there well you just told the criminal you're not gonna be your house for however long gonna go there's things that we ought to put on LinkedIn shows a friend of mine high school friend of mine worked at LinkedIn and I said to her hey I'd like to talk to your security guy cause I'm not real comfortable with that I never got to talk to people put too much stuff on LinkedIn we need to be smart about we put it what we put in there you need to have the accounts to get the jobs people do use it for checks probably not the best thing for you to do to be an ideal guy and say you don't trust it cause you sound like it technically another thought but we really really really need to be careful about what we do thanks another question about what you might see coming down the role certainly technology poses challenges for leaders from many of the dimensions that you've discussed but certainly also how in leadership positions the the demands of pain for the technology and how much that technology the decisions you might have to make to weigh the costs relative to your overall agency budgets the effectiveness of the organization how it's going to be applied there's a whole series of other technical aspects as well I think it's becoming increasingly difficult for leaders of all organizations that have to do with that unlike you have any thoughts on what some of the technologies are the you may be seeing in the future that might affect that thanks there's a lot out there and a lot we could adapt at all costs money everybody wants to sell it to us we've made significant changes in our organization in technology and the way we do business and we haven't asked for one single extra sent to do it requires being smart about what we do it requires us to look at stuff and say what's our core competency anyway why does the Joint Staff run its own email system because we can because we have worked on enterprise email when I worked in the army and we did the cost benefit analysis got called over to congress had to justify it and brief it several times no need to do another cost benefit analysis for the joint staff showed up we did it and then the question is if it's good enough for the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff why is it not good enough for you and then why do we need to have all these declines regular PC sitting under everybody's desk when we moved to think like why don't we do that we did and and people it's kind of interesting we've done in other places where we get these guys it's a power user ok you're an exact for a two-star you run his email you run your email you do some PowerPoint briefs and you might do an Excel spreadsheet so as I T guys we just decided they're not but will make him happy they'll get a box with a thin client inside they'll never be the wiser that's the way we did their thing the thing that I see is it challenges is is getting and recruiting and retaining the people about their job it's about changing the way we look at stuff that we will get a career what's mandatory does somebody who is a cyber expert really need to be a company commander we tried this a number of years ago we had to go briefed senior leadership the chief of staff we wanted cs4 teens in its pretty high and the GPS system it only goes up to fifteen we wanted 30 miss technical fourteens I was gonna lose him there's their teens they don't make enough money for that in in Dec but they don't need to be leaders don't want to be leaders they can make the computer stand up and get information when they want to that's what we needed so it was approved and we did that we need to look at things a little bit differently for those guys we need to treat them a little bit differently we need to be able to let them do things from where they want to work we need to be flexible we don't need to be managed and people buy time card or button see however you want to look at it it's about product it's about what they do so my view is it isn't hard to modernize you just need to convince leadership that that's the right thing to do and then just go for it and don't do it by asking for extra money we spend in DoD upwards of thirty billion dollars a year and I T if we can't figure out what that much money on how to be secure we got a problem and but we need to change next question general my name is Jack Siegelman State Department guy we met at the gym this morning actually I for these graduates who are coming out of this terrific institution she had of them assignments increasingly to join in combined operations particularly at you with operations with foreign countries and i cant the state department among that would have you talked a bit about the leadership challenges AUC ahead for them and dealing with multinational operations is interesting how you kind of the State Department in there with foreign countries I don't know if I disagree you know that looks and sounds like it might be hard problem how do you deal with these coalition members we were in Afghanistan we got a platoon of Canadian cable dogs with us and the two-star that I worked for my my peacetime make orders came to visit the Canadian to just got in there so he comes in everybody comes in at night we get a good night's sleep well coming out of the chow hall in the morning we go by this big hole with comes in it and there's Canadians in there with americans and he just wow I can't believe it I can't believe her already working together like that these are like kids with toys in a sandbox they want to work together they want to play together in in my life I've been lucky and I i've gotten to work with coalition partner members from bunches in the nation's I've been to moscow to work the hotline couple of times it's fun to work with the coalition partners we have some partners are so so close to his defies guys which is the Canadiens ceiling guys the Australians and the UK we are so close to those guys we we in fact we just upgraded our comps capability with with them so that my boss can send a note off our national secret terminal directed his counterpart in any one of those other four countries and they receive it on their national secret terrible we there's a there's a desire to want I need a critical requirement for us to work together and we do that the state department is out there with him every day when we were in Afghanistan the ambassador came back in and he said to us after we got there he goes you know before you guys got here we used to just sit around look at the walls that we got comes we can call anybody we need to be careful when we go into the different countries because we're gonna get collected on it's an easier place for people to exploit us than it is here are so will we all have same concerns about IP theft computer hacking there is a nation that does want to play with us learning more about it they want to come and share with us that is the way we're going to do business in the future our army will never go fight a war as the army again alone it'll go with a joint force but we won't go just as a joint force either as a single nation we will go with coalition partners we will set up machine partner environments we set one up in Afghanistan for the mission partners there it was kinda interesting we had two army lieutenant colonels wills and holy Vedas idea about the Afghan mission network they said they told me about it that sounds good I said we'll see what you can work with nato usually 180 people say you measure progress in decades they had an agreement on a NATO and money are in nato before i jus approval to go ahead that's the desire we have from partner nations I'm 12 shear and we have to share because you know if there's four of us in a homer and we're out someplace and one of us has Intel that we ought not to take that road again today we ought to go this way we're going to share it going to share the guys and it's a bond that we have as human beings but we have laws that tell us we can't columnist source i'm ok not telling them the source but I'm gonna say I don't think we gotta go that way today we are going to work together we're we're going to work really really close we're really close with the state Department on on comms the number three guy on the joint staff is the assistant to the Chairman that guy has two jobs headed the middle east peace process and he also travels with secretary of state so we're close we're sharing networks it's just right way to go the morning general diplomacy program thank you so much for taking the time to talk to us here my question has to do with leadership and how was it how it has evolved from the analog to the what specific skills traits characteristics do not see younger company grade officers coming in you coming in now today are so much better than I ever was the issues with today's you can get a lot more trouble a lot faster than we did not because there's a lot more lawyers which I'm sure there are but because everything is digital I i don't see any I don't see any real difference there I really don't i IC IC them starting so much further ahead than us now I can tell you after more than a decade of war are middle leadership has atrophied in certain areas and how to run a training meeting they don't know how to do a budget they don't know what supply accountability because stuff used to get written offers wartime losses they don't know how to fry Teguise they didn't know how to install comes in a big way they would just fall in on stuff that's already there and make it better and they did and that was fine for the environment that we were in but it's time that we go back and we get into the basics with decreasing budgets are going to spend a whole lot more time in garrison and doing those kind of things were going to come right back and get it it's not a lost art there's guys that are tenneco announced today that did it when they were it's going to come back and they're gonna learn from each other and it's kinda interesting we're talking about standing up high tech unit in Silicon Valley and you get two types of thinkers linear thinker and the one that just doesn't worry about the line or the box that there possibly think so there's concern that you're gonna hire this guy is probably gonna be a junior enlisted her junior officer guy and he's already started up two companies insult him and he's a multi-billionaire but he wants to give back to work with the battalion commander getting told what to do by this other guy that's not a new problem it's not a problem to benefit we have that every day and Reserves and National Guard so whoever the bosses on a weekend he might be working for the guy that's a sergeant and we get the boss on a weekend during the week works for the sort who owns the company it's not a problem I mean it's a benefits there's there's I'm not an eternal optimist that said I can't stand on a Debbie Downer or negative net kind of guy I was a driving buddy down they suck the oxygen out every positive things going on expert problem identified as don't help any of us we need to look for we need to look for solutions to work together so one last parting comment when we identify a problem it's good so I think about solutions because when somebody comes in talks to an old guy particularly this organized first question is what do you think we ought to do about it and get them to come talk early is good because there's a lot more options talk again best of luck to all youth thanks so much I hope that someone got into the low thirties with your pulse rate in here that was your objective but it was an honor to be here with you thanks

Contents

Origins

Background

Several people came up with the idea for a hotline. They included Harvard professor Thomas Schelling, who had worked on nuclear war policy for the Defense Department previously. Schelling credited the pop fiction novel Red Alert (the basis of the film Dr. Strangelove) with making governments more aware of the benefit of direct communication between the superpowers. In addition, Parade magazine editor Jess Gorkin personally badgered 1960 presidential candidates John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon, and buttonholed the Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev during a U.S. visit to adopt the idea.[1] During this period Gerard C. Smith, as head of the State Department Policy Planning Staff, proposed direct communication links between Moscow and Washington. Objections from others in the State Department, the U.S. military, and the Kremlin delayed introduction.[1]

The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis made the hotline a priority. During the standoff, official diplomatic messages typically took six hours to deliver; unofficial channels, such as via television network correspondents, had to be used too as they were quicker.[1]

During the crisis, the United States took nearly twelve hours to receive and decode Nikita Khrushchev's 3,000-word initial settlement message – a dangerously long time. By the time Washington had drafted a reply, a tougher message from Moscow had been received, demanding that U.S. missiles be removed from Turkey. White House advisers thought faster communications could have averted the crisis, and resolved it quicker. The two countries signed the Hot Line Agreement in June 1963 – the first time they formally took action to cut the risk of starting a nuclear war unintentionally.[5]

Agreement

The "hotline", as it would come to be known, was established after the signing of a "Memorandum of Understanding Regarding the Establishment of a Direct Communications Line" on June 20, 1963, in Geneva, Switzerland, by representatives of the Soviet Union and the United States.[3]

Technical details: United States

At the Pentagon, the hotline system is located at the National Military Command Center. Each MOLINK (Moscow Link) team historically worked an eight-hour shift: a non-commissioned officer looked after the equipment, and a commissioned officer who was fluent in Russian and well-briefed on world affairs was translator.[1]

Messages received in Washington automatically carry the U.S. government's highest security classification, "Eyes Only - The President".[1]

The hotline was tested hourly. U.S. test messages have included excerpts of William Shakespeare, Mark Twain, encyclopedias, and a first-aid manual; Soviet tests included passages from the works of Anton Chekhov. MOLINK staffers take special care not to include innuendo or literary imagery that could be misinterpreted, such as passages from Winnie the Pooh, given that a bear is considered the national symbol of Russia. The Soviets also asked, during the Carter administration, that Washington not send routine communications through the hotline.[1]

On New Year's Eve and on August 30, the hotline's anniversary, greetings replace the test messages.[1]

Upon receipt of the message at the NMCC, the message is translated into English, and both the original Russian and the translated English texts are transmitted to the White House Situation Room. However, if the message were to indicate "an imminent disaster, such as an accidental nuclear strike," the MOLINK team would telephone the gist of the message to the Situation Room duty officer who would brief the president before a formal translation was complete.[1]

Political criticism

The Republican Party criticized the hotline in its 1964 national platform; it said the Kennedy administration had "sought accommodations with Communism without adequate safeguards and compensating gains for freedom. It has alienated proven allies by opening a 'hot line' first with a sworn enemy rather than with a proven friend, and in general pursued a risky path such as it began at Munich a quarter century ago."[6]

Technology

The Moscow–Washington hotline was intended for text only; speech might be misinterpreted. Leaders wrote in their native language and messages were translated at the receiving end.[7]

An East German Siemens T63-SU12 teleprinter from the hotline, as displayed in the National Cryptologic Museum of the NSA. The black box behind the teleprinter is an ETCRRM II encryption machine.
An East German Siemens T63-SU12 teleprinter from the hotline, as displayed in the National Cryptologic Museum of the NSA. The black box behind the teleprinter is an ETCRRM II encryption machine.

Teletype

The first generation of the hotline used two full-time duplex telegraph circuits. The primary circuit was routed from Washington, D.C. via London, Copenhagen, Stockholm and Helsinki to Moscow. TAT-1, the first submarine transatlantic telephone cable carried messages from Washington to London. A secondary radio line for back-up and service messages linked Washington and Moscow via Tangier. This network was originally built by Harris Corporation.[8]

In July 1963 the United States sent four sets of teleprinters with the Latin alphabet to Moscow for the terminal there. A month later the Soviet equipment, four sets of East German teleprinters with the Cyrillic alphabet made by Siemens, arrived in Washington. The hotline started operations on August 30, 1963.[9]

Encryption

A Norwegian-built device called Electronic Teleprinter Cryptographic Regenerative Repeater Mixer II (ETCRRM II) encrypted the teletype messages.[10] This used the unbreakable one-time pad cryptosystem. Each country delivered keying tapes used to encode its messages via its embassy abroad. An advantage of the one-time pad was that neither country had to reveal more sensitive encryption methods to the other.[11][12]

Satellite

In September 1971, Moscow and Washington decided to upgrade the system. The countries also agreed for the first time when the line should be used. Specifically, they agreed to notify each other immediately in the event of an accidental, unauthorized or unexplained incident involving a nuclear weapon that could increase the risk of nuclear war.[13][14][15] Two new satellite communication lines supplemented the terrestrial circuits using two U.S. Intelsat satellites, and two Soviet Molniya II satellites. This arrangement lasted from 1971 to 1978; it made the radio link via Tangier redundant.

Facsimile

In May 1983, President Reagan proposed to upgrade the hotline by the addition of high-speed facsimile capability. The Soviet Union and the United States agreed formally to do this on July 17, 1984.

According to the agreement, upgrades were to take place through use of Intelsat satellites and modems, facsimile machines, and computers.[16] The facsimile terminals were operational by 1986.[3] The teletype circuits were cut in 1988 after several years of testing and use proved the fax links to be reliable. The Soviets transferred the hotline link to the newer, geostationary Gorizont-class satellites of the Stationar system.[17]

Email

In 2007, the Moscow–Washington hotline was upgraded; a dedicated computer network links Moscow and Washington. The new system started operations on January 1, 2008.[4] It continues to use the two satellite links but a fiber optic cable replaced the old back-up cable. Commercial software is used for both chat and email: chat to coordinate operations, and email for actual messages. Transmission is nearly instantaneous.

Usage

The first message transmitted over the hotline was on August 30, 1963. Washington sent Moscow the text: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog's back 1234567890". This included all the Latin alphabet, as well as all Arabic numerals and the apostrophe, to test that the keyboard and printer were working correctly.[citation needed]

The primary link was accidentally cut several times, for example near Copenhagen by a Danish bulldozer operator, and by a Finnish farmer who plowed it up once. Regular testing of both the primary and backup links took place daily.[18] During the even hours, the US sent test messages to the Soviet Union. In the odd hours, the Soviet Union sent test messages to the US.[citation needed]

The first official use of the hotline by the United States was when John F. Kennedy was assassinated on 22 November 1963.[19]

The first official use by the Soviet Union was on 5 June 1967 during the outbreak of the Six-Day War.[19]

The Moscow–Washington hotline was also used during the 1971 Indo-Pakistani War; during the Yom Kippur War (1973 Arab–Israeli War), when there was a United States nuclear alert; in 1974, when Turkey invaded Cyprus; in 1979, when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, and several times during the Reagan Administration, with the Soviets querying about events in Lebanon and the United States commenting on the situation in Poland.[1]

On October 31, 2016, the Moscow–Washington hotline was used to reinforce Obama's September warning that the U.S. would consider any interference on Election Day a grave matter.[20]

Other hotlines with Moscow

Another hotline for record communications between Washington and Moscow is part of the American Nuclear Risk Reduction Center and the Russian National Nuclear Risk Reduction Center, which was initiated by Ronald Reagan in 1988.[21]

In 2012, it was announced that a proposal was being negotiated with Moscow to add cyber warfare to the topics to be discussed on the hotline.[21]

In popular culture

A non-dial "Red Phone" which is on display in the Jimmy Carter Library and Museum. This telephone is actually a prop, erroneously representing the hotline between Washington and Moscow.[22]
A non-dial "Red Phone" which is on display in the Jimmy Carter Library and Museum. This telephone is actually a prop, erroneously representing the hotline between Washington and Moscow.[22]

In numerous television series, movies, video games and other places, the hotline between Washington and Moscow is represented by a red phone, although the real hotline never was a telephone line.[citation needed]

A hotline telephone was depicted in the film Fail-Safe as the "Red 1 / Ultimate 1 Touch phone", and also in Stanley Kubrick's film Dr. Strangelove, both from 1964 and both loosely based on Peter George's Cold War thriller novel Red Alert from 1958.

A more realistic depiction of the Hotline was Tom Clancy's novel The Sum of All Fears from 1991 and its 2002 film adaptation, in which a text-based computer communications system was depicted, resembling the actual Hotline equipment from the 1980s and 1990s.

In the 1990 HBO film By Dawn's Early Light, the White House Situation Room equipment that receives the (translated) hotline message, apparently relayed by the Pentagon-NMCC MOLINK team, is depicted as a teleprinter[23] (and not as a fax machine, the technology already in use at the NMCC itself by that year[3]).

A telephone is used in the intro cinematic of the video game Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2. The call is placed by the US president to the Kremlin in the wake of a global Soviet invasion.[24]

Political advertising

The "red phone" was the centerpiece of television commercials used in the 1984 Democratic primary and 1984 presidential election and the 2008 Democratic primary elections. In 1984, an advertisement made by Bob Beckel and Roy Spence on behalf of candidate Walter Mondale suggested that "The most awesome, powerful responsibility in the world lies in the hand that picks up this phone." The advertisement was intended to raise questions about candidate Gary Hart's readiness for the presidency.[25][26]

The red phone was also featured prominently in an advertisement from that year targeting President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In the second ad, the ringing phone goes unanswered while the narrator says, "there will be no time to wake a president – computers will take control."[27][28][29] Roy Spence revived the "red phone" idea in 2008 in an advertisement for candidate Hillary Clinton.[30][31]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Stone, Webster (September 18, 1988). "Moscow's Still Holding". New York Times. Archived from the original on October 28, 2014. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
  2. ^ Clavin, Tom (19 Jun 2013). "There Never Was Such a Thing as a Red Phone in the White House".  Smithsonian (magazine). Retrieved 2013-07-01.
  3. ^ a b c d Graham, Thomas; La Vera, Damien (2002). "The "Hot Line" Agreements". Cornerstones of Security: Arms Control Treaties in the Nuclear Era. University of Washington Press. pp. 20–28. ISBN 9780295801414.
  4. ^ a b Craig, Bell; Richardson, Paul E. (September–October 2009). "The Hot Line {Is a Hollywood Myth}". Russian Life. 52 (5). Retrieved March 18, 2015 – via Questia.
  5. ^ Encyclopedia of Russian History
  6. ^ Republican Party Platform, Section Two, "Weakness Before Communism" (adopted July 13, 1964). See http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=25840
  7. ^ Kennedy, Bruce (1998). "CNN Cold War – Spotlight: The birth of the hot line". Archived from the original on 23 September 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
  8. ^ Council on Foreign Relations (1990). International Affairs Fellowship program 1967-1990 directory. Council on Foreign Relations Press. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
  9. ^ David K. Barnhart; Allan A. Metcalf (16 August 1999). America in So Many Words: Words That Have Shaped America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 252–. ISBN 978-0-618-00270-2. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
  10. ^ Graff, Garrett M. (2017). Raven Rock: The Story of the U.S. Government's Secret Plan to Save Itself - While the Rest of Us Die. Simon & Schuster.
  11. ^ David Kahn, The Codebreakers, pp. 715-716
  12. ^ https://www.dn.no/DNtv/video/2017/12/07/1438/norges-ukjente-rolle-i-den-hete-linjen
  13. ^ Jozef Goldblat (International Peace Research Institute) (2002). Arms control. Sage. pp. 301–302. ISBN 0-7619-4016-2.
  14. ^ Coit D. Blacker, Gloria Duffy (Stanford Arms Control Group) (1984). International arms control. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1211-5.
  15. ^ James Mayall, Cornelia Navari. The end of the post-war era. Cambridge University Press. pp. 135–137. ISBN 0-521-22698-8.
  16. ^ Larsen, Jeffrey Arthur; Smith, James M. (2005). Historical Dictionary of Arms Control and Disarmament. Scarecrow Press. p. 107. ISBN 9780810850606.
  17. ^ Stephen L. Thacher, Crisis Communications between Superpowers, US Army War College, Carusle Barracks, 1990, p. 10.
  18. ^ "Electrospaces.net: The Washington-Moscow Hotline". electrospaces.blogspot.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-02-28.
  19. ^ a b "Washington Moscow Hotline". www.cryptomuseum.com. Retrieved 2016-02-28.
  20. ^ "What Obama said to Putin on the Red Phone about the election hacks". NBC News. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
  21. ^ a b "US, Russia plan hotline to prevent cyber war". Total Telecom. 30 April 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
  22. ^ The red phone that was NOT on the Hotline, August 30, 2013
  23. ^ Lisboa, Maria Manuel (2011). The End of the World: Apocalypse and Its Aftermath in Western Culture. Open Book Publishers. p. 28. ISBN 9781906924508. ...the Americans receive a teletype from their counterparts in the Soviet Union stating that they have now determined that the first missile was not launched by NATO.
  24. ^ YouTube – Red Alert 2 intro
  25. ^ YouTube – US Democrats – Walter Mondale 1984 Video 10
  26. ^ Kurtz, Howard (March 1, 2008), "Clinton Plays the Fear Card", Washington Post, pp. A08
  27. ^ YouTube – Mondale/Ferraro Commercial 1984
  28. ^ Kaid, Lynda Lee; Anne Johnston (2000). Videostyle in Presidential Campaigns: Style and Content of Televised Political Advertising. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 59. ISBN 0-275-94071-3.
  29. ^ Beckel, Bob (March 19, 2008). "Superdelegates: Whiners or Deciders?". Real Clear Politics. Retrieved 2008-03-20.
  30. ^ YouTube – Hillary Clinton Ad – 3 AM White House Ringing Phone
  31. ^ Kornblut, Anne E.; Murray, Shailagh (March 1, 2008), "Clinton Ad Hints Obama Is Unprepared for Crisis", Washington Post, pp. A01

External links

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