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The Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ

Mormonism is the theology and religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity started by Joseph Smith in Western New York in the 1820s and 1830s. As a label, Mormonism has been applied to various aspects of the Latter Day Saint movement, although since 2018 there has been a push from The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS Church) to distance themselves from this label.[1] A historian, Sydney E. Ahlstrom, wrote in 1982 that, depending on the context, the term Mormonism could refer to “a sect, a mystery cult, a new religion, a church, a people, a nation, or an American subculture; indeed, at different times and places it is all of these."[2][3]

A prominent feature of Mormon theology is the Book of Mormon, which describes itself as a chronicle of early Indigenous peoples of the Americas and their dealings with God.[4] Mormon theology includes mainstream Christian beliefs with modifications stemming from belief in revelations to Smith and other religious leaders. This includes the use of and belief in the Bible and other religious texts, including the Doctrine and Covenants and the Pearl of Great Price. Mormonism includes significant doctrines of eternal marriage, eternal progression, baptism for the dead, polygamy or plural marriage, sexual purity, health (specified in the Word of Wisdom), fasting, and Sabbath observance.

The theology itself is not uniform; as early as 1831, and most significantly after Smith's death, various groups split from the Church of Christ that Smith established.[5] Other than differences in leadership, these groups most significantly differ in their stances on polygamy, which the Utah-based LDS Church banned in 1890, and Trinitarianism, which the LDS Church does not affirm. The branch of theology which seeks to maintain the practice of polygamy is known as Mormon fundamentalism and includes several different churches.[6] Other groups affirm Trinitarianism, such as the Community of Christ (formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints), and describe their doctrine as Trinitarian Christian restorationist.[7]

Cultural Mormonism is a term coined by cultural Mormons who identify with the culture, especially present in much of the American West,[8] but do not necessarily identify with the theology.[9][10]

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Historical overview

Artist's depiction of the First Vision

The doctrines of Mormonism began with the farmboy Joseph Smith in the 1820s in Western New York during a period of religious excitement known as the Second Great Awakening.[11] Smith, at 14 years old, was determined to find out which church taught the "true" doctrine of God. He believed that God existed, but was confused by what he believed to be contradictions in the beliefs of churches available to him. In Joseph Smith-History, he wrote: "While I was laboring under the extreme difficulties caused by the contests of these parties of religionists, I was one day reading the Epistle of James, first chapter and fifth verse, which reads: 'If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not; and it shall be given him.'" After praying about which denomination he should join, Smith said he received a vision in the spring of 1820.[12] Called the "First Vision", Smith said that God the Father and his son, Jesus Christ, appeared to him and instructed him to join none of the existing churches because they were all wrong.[13] During the 1820s, Smith chronicled several angelic visitations, and was eventually told (by the angels) that God would use him to re-establish the "true Christian church."[14]

Joseph Smith said the Book of Mormon was translated into English from writings he found on golden plates in a reformed Egyptian language; they were translated with the assistance of the Urim and Thummim and seer stones. He said an angel first showed him the location of the plates in 1823; they were buried in a nearby hill. With the assistance of Martin Harris, an early follower, Smith began dictating the text of the Book of Mormon on April 12, 1828. Despite interruption of translation work by persecution, Smith's continued employment in order to support his family, and Harris's loss of 116 pages, the Book of Mormon manuscript was finished in June 1829.[15] Smith said the plates were returned to the angel after he finished the translation. During the time Smith said he possessed the plates, 15 people were allowed to witness their existence.

The Book of Mormon claims to be a chronicle of early Israelites who left the Near East and traveled to the Americas. The book begins c. 600 BC with the departure from Jerusalem of the family of the prophet Lehi at the urging of God, and their sailing c. 589 BC to the Americas. It tells of people in the Americas (i.e., First Nations Americans) with a belief in Christ hundreds of years before his birth; their witnessing his personal visitation to them after his resurrection; and of their eventually losing Christianity after generations of wars and apostasy. The Book of Mormon and continuing revelations would be the means of establishing correct doctrine for the restored church. Smith, Oliver Cowdery, and other early followers began baptizing new converts in 1829, and formally organized in 1830 as the Church of Christ.[16] Smith was seen by his followers as a modern-day prophet.[17]

Historical accuracy and veracity of the Book of Mormon was, at the time of its publication and continuing to the present day, hotly contested. Along with disputes over the Book of Mormon, the early Church of Christ faced persecution from residents of several towns when they tried to gather and "establish God's kingdom on the earth".[4] To avoid confrontation in Palmyra, New York the members moved to Kirtland, Ohio, and hoped to establish a permanent New Jerusalem or City of Zion in Jackson County, Missouri.[18] However, they were expelled from Jackson County in 1833 and fled to other parts of Missouri in 1838. Violence between the Missourians and church members resulted in the governor of Missouri issuing an "extermination order" against the Mormons, as they were called, which again forced the church to relocate.[19] The displaced church fled to Illinois, to a small town called Commerce. Under Smith's direction, the church bought the town, renamed it Nauvoo, and lived with a degree of peace and prosperity for a few years.[20] However, tensions between Mormons and their neighbors again escalated and in 1844 Smith was killed by a mob, precipitating a succession crisis.[21]

The largest group of Mormons followed Brigham Young as the new prophet and, under his direction, emigrated to what became the Utah Territory.[22] There, the church began the open practice of plural marriage, a form of polygyny which Smith had instituted in Nauvoo. Plural marriage became the faith's most sensational characteristic during the 19th century, but vigorous opposition by the United States Congress threatened the church's existence as a legal institution. Further, polygamy was also a major cause for the opposition to Mormonism in the states of Idaho and Arizona.[23] In the 1890 Manifesto, church president Wilford Woodruff announced the official end of plural marriage.[24]

Due to this formal abolition of plural marriage, several smaller groups broke with the LDS Church and formed denominations following what they called Mormon fundamentalism.[25] However, the LDS Church has experienced the most growth out of any of the churches following Mormonism, with a current membership of over 16 million.[26]


Nature of God

In orthodox Mormonism, the term God generally refers to the biblical God the Father, whom Latter Day Saints refer to as Elohim,[27][28][29] and the term Godhead refers to a council of three distinct divine persons consisting of God the Father, Jesus Christ (his firstborn Son, whom Latter Day Saints refer to as Jehovah), and the Holy Ghost.[27][29] Latter Day Saints believe that the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are three distinct beings, and that the Father and Jesus have perfected, glorified, physical bodies, while the Holy Ghost is a spirit without a physical body.[27][30][31] Latter Day Saints also believe that there are other gods and goddesses outside the Godhead, such as a Heavenly Mother—who is married to God the Father—and that faithful Latter-day Saints may attain godhood in the afterlife.[32] Joseph Smith taught that God was once a man on another planet before being exalted to Godhood.[33]

This conception differs from the traditional Christian Trinity in several ways, one of which is that Mormonism has not adopted or continued to hold the doctrine of the Nicene Creed, that the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are of the same substance or being.[27] Also, Mormonism teaches that the intelligence dwelling in each human is coeternal with God.[34] Mormons use the term omnipotent to describe God, and regard him as the creator: they understand him as being almighty and eternal but subject to eternal natural law which governs intelligences, justice and the eternal nature of matter (i.e. God organized the world but did not create it from nothing).[35] The Mormon conception of God also differs substantially from the Jewish tradition of ethical monotheism in which elohim (אֱלֹהִים) is a completely different conception.

This description of God represents the Mormon orthodoxy, formalized in 1915 based on earlier teachings. Other currently existing and historical branches of Mormonism have adopted different views of god, such as the Adam–God doctrine and Trinitarianism.


A depiction of Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery receiving Priesthood authority from John the Baptist

Mormonism describes itself as falling within world Christianity, but as a distinct restored dispensation; it characterizes itself as the only true form of the Christian religion since the time of a "Great Apostasy" that began not long after the ascension of Jesus Christ.[36] According to Mormons this apostasy involved the corruption of the pure, original Christian doctrine with Greek and other philosophies,[37] and followers dividing into different ideological groups.[38] Additionally, Mormons claim the martyrdom of the Apostles led to the loss of Priesthood authority to administer the Church and its ordinances.[39][40]

Mormons believe that God re-established the 1st-century early Christian church as found in the New Testament through the restoration of Joseph Smith.[41] In particular, Mormons believe that angels such as Peter, James, John, and John the Baptist appeared to Joseph Smith and others and bestowed various Priesthood authorities on them.[42] Mormons thus believe that their Church is the "only true and living church" because divine authority was restored to it through Smith. In addition, Mormons believe that Smith and his legitimate successors are modern prophets who receive revelation from God to guide the church. They maintain that other Christian religions have a portion of the truth and are guided by the light of Christ.[43][44]


Smith's cosmology is laid out mostly in Smith's later revelations and sermons, but particularly the Book of Abraham, the Book of Moses, and the King Follett discourse.[45] Mormon cosmology presents a unique view of God and the universe, and places a high importance on human agency. In Mormonism, life on earth is just a short part of an eternal existence. Mormons believe that in the beginning, all people existed as spirits or "intelligences", in the presence of God.[46] In this state, God proposed a plan of salvation whereby they could progress and "have a privilege to advance like himself."[47] The spirits were free to accept or reject this plan, and a "third" of them, led by Satan rejected it.[48] The rest accepted the plan, coming to earth and receiving bodies with an understanding that they would experience sin and suffering.

In Mormonism, the central part of God's plan is the atonement of Jesus Christ.[49] Mormons believe that one purpose of earthly life is to learn to choose good over evil. In this process, people inevitably make mistakes, becoming unworthy to return to the presence of God. Mormons believe that Jesus paid for the sins of the world and that all people can be saved through his atonement.[50] Mormons accept Christ's atonement through faith, repentance, formal covenants or ordinances such as baptism, and consistently trying to live a Christ-like life.

According to Mormon scripture, the Earth's creation was not ex nihilo, but organized from existing matter. The Earth is just one of many inhabited worlds, and there are many governing heavenly bodies, including the planet or star Kolob, which is said to be nearest the throne of God.


Mormons believe that the U.S. Constitution is the result of divine inspiration. Fundamentalists believe in the related White Horse Prophecy.

Mormon theology teaches that the United States is a unique place and that Mormons are God's chosen people, selected for a singular destiny.[51] The Book of Mormon alludes to the United States as being the Biblical promised land, with the Constitution of the United States being divinely inspired, and argues that America is an exceptional nation.[51][52][53]

In Upstate New York in 1823, Joseph Smith claimed to have had a vision in which the Angel Moroni told him about engraved golden plates buried in a nearby hill.[54][55] According to Smith, he received subsequent instruction from Moroni and, four years later, excavated the plates and translated them from "reformed Egyptian" into English; the resultant Book of Mormon—so called after an ancient American prophet who, according to Smith, had compiled the text recorded on the golden plates—recounts the history of a tribe of Israelites, led by the prophet Lehi, who migrated from Jerusalem to the Americas in the 7th century BCE.[54][55] In Mormonism, these Israelite tribes who migrated to the Americas centuries before the birth of Jesus Christ are considered to be among the ancestors of pre-Columbian Native Americans.[51][54][55]

Joseph Smith argued that the millennial New Jerusalem was to be built in America (10th Article of Faith).[52] In the Doctrine and Covenants, Smith records God as saying "it is not right that any man should be in bondage one to another. And for this purpose have I established the Constitution of this land, by the hands of wise men whom I raised up unto this very purpose, and redeemed the land by the shedding of blood" (D&C 101:79–80). To Mormons, this places America as the originator of religious liberty and freedom, while noting a need to expand these American values worldwide.[56]

Although officially shunned by the LDS Church, fundamentalist Mormons believe in the White Horse Prophecy, which argues that Mormons will be called upon to preserve the Constitution as it hangs "by a thread".[57][58]


In Mormonism, an ordinance is a religious ritual of special significance, often involving the formation of a covenant with God.[59] Ordinances are performed by the authority of the priesthood and in the name of Jesus Christ. The term has a meaning roughly similar to that of the term sacrament in other Christian denominations.

A young man baptizing a child into the LDS Church in Panama

Saving ordinances (or ordinances viewed as necessary for salvation) include: baptism by immersion after the age of accountability (normally age 8); confirmation and reception of the gift of the Holy Ghost, performed by laying hands on the head of a newly baptized member; ordination to the Aaronic and Melchizedek priesthoods for males; an endowment (including washing and anointing) received in temples; and marriage (or sealing) to a spouse.[60]

Mormons also perform other ordinances, which include the Lord's supper (commonly called the sacrament), naming and blessing children, giving priesthood blessings and patriarchal blessings, anointing and blessing the sick, participating in prayer circles, and setting apart individuals who are called to church positions.

In Mormonism, the saving ordinances are seen as necessary for salvation, but they are not sufficient in and of themselves. For example, baptism is required for exaltation, but simply having been baptized does not guarantee any eternal reward. The baptized person is expected to be obedient to God's commandments, to repent of any sinful conduct subsequent to baptism, and to receive the other saving ordinances.

Because Mormons believe that everyone must receive certain ordinances to be saved, Mormons perform ordinances on behalf of deceased persons.[61] These ordinances are performed vicariously or by "proxy" on behalf of the dead. In accordance with their belief in each individual's "free agency", living or dead, Mormons believe that the deceased may accept or reject the offered ordinance in the spirit world, just as all spirits decided to accept or reject God's plan originally. In addition, these "conditional" ordinances on behalf of the dead are performed only when a deceased person's genealogical information has been submitted to a temple and correctly processed there before the ordinance ritual is performed. Only ordinances for salvation are performed on behalf of deceased persons.


The Standard Works constitute the LDS Church scriptural canon

Mormons believe in the Old and New Testaments, and the LDS Church uses the Authorized King James Version as its official scriptural text of the Bible. While Mormons believe in the general accuracy of the modern day text of the Bible, they also believe that it is incomplete and that errors have been introduced.[62][63][64] According to Mormon theology, many lost truths are restored in the Book of Mormon, which Mormons hold to be divine scripture and equal in authority to the Bible.[65]

The Mormon scriptural canon also includes a collection of revelations and writings contained in the Doctrine and Covenants which contains doctrine and prophecy and the Pearl of Great Price which addresses briefly Genesis to Exodus. These books, as well as the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible, have varying degrees of acceptance as divine scripture among different denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement.


In Mormonism, continuous revelation is the principle that God or his divine agents still continue to communicate to mankind. This communication can be manifest in many ways: influences of the Holy Ghost (the principal form in which this principle is manifest), visions, visitations of divine beings, and others. Joseph Smith used the example of the Lord's revelations to Moses in Deuteronomy to explain the importance of continuous revelation:

God said, "Thou shalt not kill"; at another time he said, "Thou shalt utterly destroy." This is the principle on which the government of heaven is conducted, by revelation adapted to the circumstances in which the children of the Kingdom are placed. Whatever God requires is right, no matter what it is, although we may not see the reason thereof till long after the events transpire.[66]

Mormons believe that Smith and subsequent church leaders could speak scripture "when moved upon by the Holy Ghost."[67] In addition, many Mormons believe that ancient prophets in other regions of the world received revelations that resulted in additional scriptures that have been lost and may, one day, be forthcoming. In Mormonism, revelation is not limited to church members. For instance, Latter Day Saints believe that the United States Constitution is a divinely inspired document.[68]

Mormons are encouraged to develop a personal relationship with the Holy Ghost and receive personal revelation for their own direction and that of their family.[67] The Latter Day Saint concept of revelation includes the belief that revelation from God is available to all those who earnestly seek it with the intent of doing good. It also teaches that everyone is entitled to personal revelation with respect to his or her stewardship (leadership responsibility). Thus, parents may receive inspiration from God in raising their families, individuals can receive divine inspiration to help them meet personal challenges, church officers may receive revelation for those whom they serve.

The important consequence of this is that each person may receive confirmation that particular doctrines taught by a prophet are true, as well as gain divine insight in using those truths for their own benefit and eternal progress. In the church, personal revelation is expected and encouraged, and many converts believe that personal revelation from God was instrumental in their conversion.[69]

Relationship with other faiths

Relationship with mainstream Christianity

Mormons see Jesus Christ as the premier figure of their religion.[70]

Mormonism categorizes itself within Christianity, and nearly all Mormons self-identify as Christian.[71][72][73] For some who define Christianity within the doctrines of Catholicism, Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, the Churches of the East, and Protestantism, Mormonism's differences place it outside the umbrella of Christianity.[74][75][76]

Since its beginnings, the faith has proclaimed itself to be Christ's Church restored with its original authority, structure and power; maintaining that existing denominations believed in incorrect doctrines and were not acknowledged by God as his church and kingdom.[77] Though the religion quickly gained a large following of Christian seekers, in the 1830s, many American Christians came to view the church's early doctrines and practices[78] as politically and culturally subversive, as well as doctrinally heretical, abominable, and condemnable. This discord led to a series of sometimes-deadly conflicts between Mormons and others who saw themselves as orthodox Christians.[79] Although such violence declined during the twentieth century, the religion's unique doctrinal views and practices still generate criticism, sometimes vehemently so. This gives rise to efforts by Mormons and opposing types of Christians to proselytize each other.[citation needed]

Mormons believe in Jesus Christ as the literal Son of God and Messiah, his crucifixion as a conclusion of a sin offering, and subsequent resurrection.[80] However, Latter-day Saints (LDS) reject the ecumenical creeds and the definition of the Trinity.[81][82] (In contrast, the second-largest Latter Day Saint denomination, the Community of Christ, is Trinitarian and monotheistic.) Mormons hold the view that the New Testament prophesied both the apostasy from the teachings of Christ and his apostles as well as the restoration of all things prior to the second coming of Christ.[83]

Some notable differences with mainstream Christianity include a belief that Jesus began his atonement in the garden of Gethsemane and continued it to his crucifixion, rather than the orthodox belief that the crucifixion alone was the physical atonement;[84] and an afterlife with three degrees of glory, with hell (often called spirit prison) being a temporary repository for the wicked between death and the resurrection.[85] Additionally, Mormons do not believe in creation ex nihilo, believing that matter is eternal, and creation involved God organizing existing matter.[86]

Much of the Mormon belief system is geographically oriented around the North and South American continents. Mormons believe that the people of the Book of Mormon lived in the western hemisphere, that Christ appeared in the western hemisphere after his death and resurrection, that the true faith was restored in Upstate New York by Joseph Smith, that the Garden of Eden was located in North America, and that the New Jerusalem would be built in Missouri.[citation needed] For this and other reasons, including a belief by many Mormons in American exceptionalism, Molly Worthen speculates that this may be why Leo Tolstoy described Mormonism as the "quintessential 'American religion'".[87]

Relationship with Judaism

Although Mormons do not claim to be part of Judaism, Mormon theology claims to situate Mormonism within the context of Judaism to an extent that goes beyond what most other Christian denominations claim. The faith incorporates many Old Testament ideas into its theology, and the beliefs of Mormons sometimes parallel those of Judaism and certain elements of Jewish culture. In the earliest days of Mormonism, Joseph Smith taught that the Indigenous peoples of the Americas were members of some of the Lost Tribes of Israel. Later, he taught that Mormons were Israelites, and that they may learn of their tribal affiliation within the twelve Israelite tribes. Members of the LDS Church receive Patriarchal blessings which declare the recipient's lineage within one of the tribes of Israel. The lineage is either through true blood-line or adoption. The LDS Church teaches that if one is not a direct descendant of one of the twelve tribes, upon baptism he or she is adopted into one of the tribes. Patriarchal blessings also include personal information which is revealed through a patriarch by the power of the priesthood.

Smith hired Joshua (James) Seixas, son of Gershom Mendes Seixas and Hebrew school teacher at Congregation Shearith Israel, to teach Mormon leaders Hebrew. Smith himself attended some of these classes and went on to use his basic Hebrew in teachings. For example, Smith named the largest Mormon settlement he founded Nauvoo, which means "beautiful" (pl.) in Biblical Hebrew. Brigham Young named a tributary of the Great Salt Lake the Jordan River. The LDS Church has a Jerusalem Center in Israel, where students focus their study on Near Eastern history, culture, language, and the Bible.[88]

There has been some controversy involving Jewish groups who see the actions of some elements of Mormonism as offensive. In the 1990s, Jewish groups vocally opposed the LDS practice of baptism for the dead on behalf of Jewish victims of the Holocaust and Jews in general. According to LDS Church general authority Monte J. Brough, "Mormons who baptized 380,000 Holocaust victims posthumously were motivated by love and compassion and did not understand their gesture might offend Jews ... they did not realize that what they intended as a 'Christian act of service' was 'misguided and insensitive'".[89] Mormons believe that when the dead are baptized through proxy, they have the option of accepting or rejecting the ordinance.

Relationship with UFOlogy

Many Mormons are believers, experiencers, or promotors of UFOs as an interstellar or non-human phenomenon. Matthew Bowman, scholar of Mormon Studies, writes that while some people use this to try to make Mormonism look silly, "a good number of Latter-day Saints" have welcomed being associated with UFOs. "Latter-day Saints have pointed to the phenomenon as either entirely consistent with their faith or even proof of it. ... These folks are the heirs to a strain of theology going back to Brigham Young that peaked with the early 20th-century writings of church leaders like B.H. Roberts or John Widtsoe."[90]

Theological divisions

Mormon theology includes three main movements. By far the largest of these is "mainstream Mormonism", defined by the leadership of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). The two broad movements outside mainstream Mormonism are Mormon fundamentalism, and liberal reformist Mormonism.

Mainstream Mormon theology

Mainstream Mormonism is defined by the leadership of the LDS Church which identifies itself as Christian.[72] Members of the LDS Church consider their top leaders to be prophets and apostles, and are encouraged to accept their positions on matters of theology, while seeking confirmation of them through personal study of the Book of Mormon and the Bible. Personal prayer is encouraged as well. The LDS Church is by far the largest branch of Mormonism. It has continuously existed since the succession crisis of 1844 that split the Latter Day Saint movement after the death of founder Joseph Smith, Jr.

The LDS Church seeks to distance itself from other branches of Mormonism, particularly those that practice polygamy.[91] The church maintains a degree of orthodoxy by excommunicating or disciplining its members who take positions or engage in practices viewed as apostasy. For example, the LDS Church excommunicates members who practice polygamy or who adopt the beliefs and practices of Mormon fundamentalism.

Mormon fundamentalism

One way Mormon fundamentalism distinguishes itself from mainstream Mormonism is through the practice of plural marriage.[92] Fundamentalists initially broke from the LDS Church after that doctrine was discontinued around the beginning of the 20th century. Mormon fundamentalism teaches that plural marriage is a requirement for exaltation (the highest degree of salvation), which will allow them to live as gods and goddesses in the afterlife. Mainstream Mormons, by contrast, believe that a single Celestial marriage is necessary for exaltation.

In distinction with the LDS Church, Mormon fundamentalists also often believe in a number of other doctrines taught and practiced by Brigham Young in the 19th century, which the LDS Church has either abandoned, repudiated, or put in abeyance. These include:

Mormon fundamentalists believe that these principles were wrongly abandoned or changed by the LDS Church, in large part due to the desire of its leadership and members to assimilate into mainstream American society and avoid the persecutions and conflict that had characterized the church throughout its early years. Others believe that it was a necessity at some point for "a restoration of all things"[This quote needs a citation] to be a truly restored Church.

Liberal reformist theology

Some LDS Church members have worked towards a more liberal reform of the church. Others have left the LDS Church and still consider themselves to be cultural Mormons. Others have formed new religions (many of them now defunct). For instance the Godbeites broke away from the LDS Church in the late 19th century, on the basis of both political and religious liberalism, and in 1985 the Restoration Church of Jesus Christ broke away from the LDS Church as an LGBT-friendly denomination, which was formally dissolved in 2010.


As the largest denomination within Mormonism, the LDS Church has been the subject of criticism since it was founded by Joseph Smith in 1830.

Perhaps the most controversial, and a key contributing factor for Smith's murder, is the claim that plural marriage (as defenders call it) or polygamy (as critics call it) is biblically authorized. Under heavy pressure—Utah would not be accepted as a state if polygamy was practiced—the church formally and publicly renounced the practice in 1890. Utah's statehood soon followed. However, plural marriage remains a controversial and divisive issue, as despite the official renunciation of 1890, it still has sympathizers, defenders, and semi-secret practitioners within Mormonism, though not within the LDS Church.

More recent criticism has concerned questions of historical revisionism, homophobia, racism,[93] sexist policies, inadequate financial disclosure, and the historical authenticity of the Book of Mormon.

See also



  1. ^ ""Mormon" Is Out: Church Releases Statement on How to Refer to the Organization". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. August 16, 2018. Archived from the original on January 19, 2024. Retrieved May 19, 2024.
  2. ^ McLoughlin, Williamn G.; Ahlstrom, Sydney E. (June 1973). "A Religious History of the American People". The Journal of American History. 60 (1): 508. doi:10.2307/2936335. ISSN 0021-8723. JSTOR 2936335.
  3. ^ "Mormonism, An Independent Interpretation - The Encyclopedia of Mormonism". Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
  4. ^ a b "Introduction". Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
  5. ^ "Schisms and Sects". Archived from the original on February 28, 2021. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
  6. ^ "LDS splinter groups growing". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved January 16, 2021.[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ "Basic Beliefs". Community of Christ. Archived from the original on January 10, 2021. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
  8. ^ Meinig, D. W. "The Mormon Culture Region: Strategies and Patterns in the Geography of the American West, 1847-1964." Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 55, no. 2, 1965, pp. 191–220. JSTOR, Archived January 14, 2023, at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 14 Jan. 2023.
  9. ^ "'Cultural Mormons' Adjust The Lifestyle But Keep The Label". Archived from the original on December 25, 2020. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
  10. ^ LDS365 (January 30, 2019). "States with the Highest Percentage of Church Members | LDS365: Resources from the Church & Latter-day Saints worldwide". Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved January 16, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Bushman (2008, p. 1); Shipps (1985, p. 36); Remini (2002, p. 1).
  12. ^ Bushman (2008, p. 16)
  13. ^ Smith's 1838 written account of this vision was later canonized in a book called The Pearl of Great Price. (See: Joseph Smith–History 1:19)
  14. ^ "The Restoration of the Fulness of the Gospel of Jesus Christ: A Bicentennial Proclamation to the World". April 5, 2020. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  15. ^ Bushman (2008, p. 22)
  16. ^ Remini (2002, pp. 63, 79)
  17. ^ Bushman (2008, p. 8)
  18. ^ Bushman (2008, p. 10)
  19. ^ Remini (2002, p. 135)
  20. ^ Bushman (2008, p. 11)
  21. ^ Bushman (2008, pp. 12–14)
  22. ^ Bushman (2008, p. 13)
  23. ^ Groberg, Joseph (Spring 1976). "The Mormon Disfranchisements of 1882 to 1892". Brigham Young University Studies. 16 (3): 400.
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  28. ^ First Presidency; Quorum of the Twelve Apostles (April 2002). "Gospel Classics: The Father and the Son". Improvement Era. Intellectual Reserve, Inc. Archived from the original on September 24, 2023. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
  29. ^ a b Robinson, Stephen E.; Burgon, Glade L.; Turner, Rodney; Largey, Dennis L. (1992), "God the Father", in Ludlow, Daniel H. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 548–552, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140, archived from the original on May 7, 2021, retrieved May 7, 2021 – via Harold B. Lee Library
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  31. ^ Dahl, Paul E. (1992), "Godhead", in Ludlow, Daniel H. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 552–553, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140, archived from the original on May 12, 2021, retrieved May 7, 2021 – via Harold B. Lee Library
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  35. ^ Paulsen, David L. (1992), "Omnipotent God; Omnipresence of God; Omniscience of God", in Ludlow, Daniel H. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, p. 1030, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140, archived from the original on May 13, 2021, retrieved May 7, 2021 – via Harold B. Lee Library
  36. ^ Missionary Department of the LDS Church (2004), Preach My Gospel (PDF), LDS Church, Inc, p. 35, ISBN 0-402-36617-4, archived from the original (PDF) on June 2, 2010 Mormons believe the Great Apostasy had been foretold by the Apostle Paul, who knew that the Lord would not come again "except there come a falling away first" (see 2 Thessalonians 2:3)
  37. ^ Talmage, James E. (1909), The Great Apostasy, The Deseret News, pp. 64–65, ISBN 0-87579-843-8
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  41. ^ Smith's restoration differed significantly from other restorationist movements of the era (for instance, that of Alexander Campbell). Instead of using Bible analysis, Smith claimed to write and interpret scripture as the biblical prophets did. Bushman (2008, p. 5)
  42. ^ See JSH 1:69,72 Archived December 28, 2019, at the Wayback Machine and Doctrine and Covenants 84:19-21 Archived June 20, 2019, at the Wayback Machine
  43. ^ Smith, Joseph Fielding; Galbraith, Richard C., eds. (1993) [1938]. Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith. Deseret Book Company. p. 316. ISBN 0-87579-647-8. ("Have the Presbyterians any truth? Yes. Have the Baptists, Methodists, etc., any truth? Yes. They all have a little truth mixed with error. We should gather all the good and true principles in the world and treasure them up, or we shall not come out true 'Mormons'.")
  44. ^ Palmer; Keller; Choi; Toronto (1997). Religions of the World: A Latter-day Saint View. Brigham Young University. (Mormons take an inclusivist position that their religion is correct and true but that other religions have genuine value).
  45. ^ Bushman (2008, pp. 64–71)
  46. ^ Mormons differ among themselves about the form of man in the beginning ... but Smith's intention was to assert that some essence of human personality has always existed. Bushman (2008, p. 72)
  47. ^ See King Follett discourse and Bushman (2008, p. 73)
  48. ^ According to the Book of Moses, Lucifer offered an alternate plan that would guarantee the salvation of all spirits, however, at the cost of their agency, essentially forcing them to be saved. God's plan allowed spirits the freedom of choice but left room for some to fall out of his presence into darkness. Bushman (2008, p. 73)
  49. ^ Bushman (2008, p. 77)
  50. ^ Nineteenth century Mormonism defined itself against Calvinistic religions that asserted humans' incapacity and utter dependence on the grace of God. Early Mormon preachers emphasized good works and moral obligation; however in the late twentieth century, Mormons pulled back from an "entrenched aversion" to the doctrines of grace, and today have an attitude of trusting in the grace of Christ while trying their best to do good works. Bushman (2008, p. 76)
  51. ^ a b c Bracht, John (2012) [1990]. "The Americanization of Adam". In Trompf, G. W. (ed.). Cargo Cults and Millenarian Movements: Transoceanic Comparisons of New Religious Movements. Religion and Society. Vol. 29. Berlin and Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 97–142. doi:10.1515/9783110874419.97. ISBN 978-3-11-087441-9.
  52. ^ a b Barlow, Philip L. (June 2012). "Chosen Land, Chosen People: Religious and American Exceptionalism Among the Mormons". The Review of Faith & International Affairs. 10 (2): 51–58. doi:10.1080/15570274.2012.682511. ISSN 1557-0274. S2CID 145547250.
  53. ^ Yorgason, Ethan (2006). "The Shifting Role of the Latter-day Saints as the Quintessential American Religion". In Lippy, Charles H. (ed.). Faith in America: Changes, Challenges, New Directions. Volume 1: Organized Religion Today. Praeger Perspectives. London, U.K. and Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers. pp. 141–163. ISBN 978-0-313-04961-3. LCCN 2006022880.
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  59. ^ An ordinance is generally a physical act signifying a spiritual commitment or a covenant. Failure to honor that commitment results in the ordinance having no effect. However, sincere repentance can restore the blessings associated with the ordinance.
  60. ^ ""Ordinances Archived December 26, 2019, at the Wayback Machine," True to the Faith, (LDS Church, 2004) p. 109.
  61. ^ Bushman (2008, pp. 60–61)
  62. ^ Encyclopedia of Mormonism, Macmillan 1992, pp. 106-107
  63. ^ Matthews, Robert J., A Bible! A Bible, Bookcraft, 1990, p. 13
  64. ^ Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, Deseret Book, 1976 [1938], pp. 9–10, 327
  65. ^ Encyclopedia of Mormonism, Macmillan 1992, pp. 111
  66. ^ Smith, Joseph (August 27, 1842). "History, 1838–1856, volume D-1 [1 August 1842–1 July 1843] [addenda], p.3 [addenda]". The Joseph Smith Papers. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Archived from the original on September 10, 2021. Retrieved September 10, 2021.
  67. ^ a b Bushman (2008, p. 26) See also: Doctrine and Covenants 68:4
  68. ^ Oaks, Dallin H. (February 1992), "The Divinely Inspired Constitution", Ensign, archived from the original on June 30, 2022, retrieved July 17, 2019; cf. The Doctrine and Covenants Section 101:76–80
  69. ^ "Continuing Revelation". Archived from the original on August 5, 2004. Retrieved August 5, 2005.
  70. ^ Bushman (2008, p. 8) ("As the name of the church ... suggests, Jesus Christ is the premier figure. Smith does not even play the role of the last and culminating prophet, as Muhammad does in Islam"); "What Mormons Believe About Jesus Christ". LDS Newsroom. Retrieved November 11, 2011.; In a 2011 Pew Survey a thousand Mormons were asked to volunteer the one word that best describes Mormons. The most common response from those surveyed was "Christian" or "Christ-centered".
  71. ^ "Mormonism in America". Pew Research Center. January 2012. Archived from the original on January 15, 2012. Retrieved October 3, 2012. Mormons are nearly unanimous in describing Mormonism as a Christian religion, with 97% expressing this point of view.
  72. ^ a b Robinson, Stephanie (May 1998), "Are Mormons Christians?", New Era, LDS Church, archived from the original on December 26, 2019, retrieved July 17, 2019
  73. ^ According to Bruce R. McConkie, a general authority of the LDS Church, "Mormonism is indistinguishable from Christianity." Bruce R. McConkie, Mormon Doctrine, p. 513
  74. ^ For example, a 2007 poll conducted by the Pew Research Center found that one in three Americans surveyed do not consider Mormons to be Christian. See for example Archived October 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  75. ^ "It is sometimes said that Mormonism is to Christianity as Christianity is to Judaism. Both Mormonism and Christianity established themselves by reinterpreting a preceding faith. Christianity built on Judaism but emphasized the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ; Mormonism began with Christianity but accepted new revelation through a modern prophet." Bushman (2008, p. 62)
  76. ^ Examples of organizations that do not recognize Mormonism as Christian include:
    Luther Seminary (Granquist, Mark A. (March 7, 2011), "The New (and Old) Religions Around Us" (PDF), Luther Seminary, archived from the original (PDF) on January 3, 2014);
    Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary ("Is Mormonism Christian?", Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, October 20, 2011, archived from the original on August 29, 2013, retrieved May 11, 2013);
    Southern Baptist Theological Seminary (Mohler, Albert (n.d.), "Is Mormonism Christian?",, Salem Web Network, archived from the original on December 1, 2012, retrieved May 11, 2013.
    See also: Christian countercult movement
  77. ^ Teaching that existing denominations "were believing in incorrect doctrines, and that none of them was acknowledged by God as his church and kingdom" Smith 1842a, p. 707 and "all their creeds were an abomination in his sight." Smith 1842c, p. 748
  78. ^ , the most publicized of which included abolitionism, plural marriage and the church's theocratic aspirations (both now discontinued by the mainstream faith),
  79. ^ For more information on historical conflicts, see History of the Latter Day Saint movement.
  80. ^ "What Mormons Believe About Jesus Christ—LDS Newsroom". Archived from the original on June 29, 2019. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
  81. ^ "Joseph Smith History 1:18-19". Archived from the original on October 15, 2019. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
  82. ^ Smith, Joseph Fielding, ed. (1976) [1938], Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, p. 370
  83. ^ See, for instance, Thessalonians 2:2-3 Archived December 26, 2019, at the Wayback Machine and Acts 3:19-21 Archived July 13, 2019, at the Wayback Machine
  84. ^ McConkie, Bruce R. (May 1985), "The Purifying Power of Gethsemane", Ensign: 9, archived from the original on December 29, 2019, retrieved July 17, 2019
  85. ^ Mormon scriptures speak of hell in two ways. The first is another name for spirit prison, a place for the spirits of people who have "died in their sins." The second is a more permanent place called Outer Darkness, reserved for the Devil, his angels, and those who have committed the unpardonable sin. True to the Faith: A Gospel Reference, 2004, LDS Church. "Hell Archived 2010-06-16 at the Wayback Machine," p. 81; See also: Christian views on Hell (Latter-day Saints)
  86. ^ Bushman (2008, p. 71)
  87. ^ Worthen, Molly, "The Missionary Position Archived November 3, 2014, at the Wayback Machine", Foreign Policy, June 13, 2011.
  88. ^ "BYU Jerusalem Center for Near Eastern Studies". Archived from the original on February 26, 2011. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
  89. ^ Pyle, Richard. "Mormons, Jews sign agreement on baptizing Holocaust victims". Archived from the original on December 18, 2008. Retrieved January 4, 2007. AP Newswire, May 5, 1995.
  90. ^ "Matthew Bowman: Why some Latter-day Saints believe in UFOs and why these alien travelers fit with their religion". The Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on March 14, 2024. Retrieved March 14, 2024.
  91. ^ The LDS Church encourages journalists not to use the word Mormon in reference to organizations or people that practice polygamy "Style Guide—LDS Newsroom". April 9, 2010. Archived from the original on June 13, 2019. Retrieved November 11, 2011.; The church repudiates polygamist groups and excommunicates their members if discovered Bushman (2008, p. 91); "Mormons seek distance from polygamous sects". NBC News. 2008. Archived from the original on August 14, 2020. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  92. ^ Hardy, B. Carmon (December 1, 2011). "The Persistence of Mormon Plural Marriage". Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought. 44 (4): 43–106. doi:10.5406/dialjmormthou.44.4.0043. S2CID 172005470. Archived from the original on September 15, 2022. Retrieved September 15, 2022.
  93. ^ "Skin Color in Mormon Scripture and Theology" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 22, 2009. Retrieved February 6, 2009.

Cited and general sources

Further reading

External links

Links to official websites of specific Mormon denominations

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