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Montenegrin Canadians

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Montenegrin Canadians
Crnogorski Kanađani
Црногорски Канађани
Canada Montenegro
Total population
2,970
(by ancestry, 2011 Census)[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Ontario2,050[1]
 British Columbia380[1]
 Quebec360[1]
Languages
English · French · Montenegrin
Religion
Montenegrin Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Muslim minority
Related ethnic groups
Montenegrins, Montenegrin Americans, Montenegrin Australians
Part of a series on
Montenegrins
Coat of arms of Montenegro
By region or country
 
Recognized populations
Montenegro
Serbia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Croatia
North Macedonia
Kosovo
Albania
<span style="color:black">Diaspora</span>
Europe
 · Austria · Denmark
France · Germany
Italy · Luxembourg
Russia · Slovenia
Sweden · Switzerland
United Kingdom
North America
United States · Canada · Mexico
South America
Argentina · Chile
Bolivia · Brazil · Colombia
Oceania
Australia · New Zealand
Culture
Literature · Music · Art · Cinema
Cuisine · Dress · Sport
Religion
Catholicism
Islam
Language and dialects
Montenegrin  · Serbian
History
History of Montenegro
Rulers

Montenegrin Canadians (Montenegrin: Kanadski Crnogorci) are Canadian citizens of Montenegrin descent or Montenegro-born people who reside in Canada. According to the 2011 Census, 2,970 Canadians claimed full or partial Montenegrin ancestry, compared to 2,370 in 2006.[2]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
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    259 630
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    31 853
  • ✪ The Fight for Montenegro & The Disaster Of Kut I THE GREAT WAR Week 78
  • ✪ The First Piper in Montenegro
  • ✪ Small Arms of WWI Primer 089: British Vickers MkI
  • ✪ World War One Q&A with Othais from C&Rsenal
  • ✪ Small Arms of WWI Primer 088: Ottoman 1890 and German Capture

Transcription

The Gallipoli campaign, which was now over, was a huge failure for the Allies, especially for the British, a scale of failure that was virtually unknown to the British Empire, but this week, far away in Mesopotamia, Britain fails again. I’m Indy Neidell; welcome to the Great War. The big news last week was the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Montenegro. By the end of the week, the Montenegrin capital, Cetinje, was occupied. In the Middle East, British force struggling up the Tigris to relieve an army under siege at Kut saw action that jeopardized their mission. Scattered attacks continued up and down both the western and eastern fronts. Here’s what happened next. I mentioned scattered attacks in the east so let’s look there first. There were skirmishes all week but the Russian offensive in East Galicia and Bessarabia died down January 15th. The goal had seemed to be Czernowitz, the capital of Austrian Bukovina. The total result was thousands upon thousands of Russians killed, wounded, or captured, and they inflicted fairly heavy losses on the Germans and Austrians facing them, but they certainly weren’t gaining territory even though the fighting was fierce and often at very close range. After just three days rest, they tried again, east of Czernowitz, and over the next few days took heavy losses repeatedly storming strongly fortified Austrian positions. A final attack, an artillery one, took place the 22nd, but after this the Russians would only attack sporadically for the rest of the month and pretty much all of February, except for the usual artillery duels. And here’s a side note about Russia: the Russian rifle situation had finally improved. There were 1.2 million at the front, 155,700 had landed at Archangel, 530,000 at Alexandrovsk, 113,000 soon to arrive from Britain, and 850,000 more to arrive by the end of April. This was very good news for the Russians. And here’s some more good news for Russia from the battlefield: On the 16th a new offensive began in Transcaucasia, and the following day the Turks retreated toward Erzurum, as the Russians took Koprukoi. The Turkish 3rd army took 25,000 casualties and narrowly avoided being encircled. (SEGUE 1) The Central Powers were also celebrating what seemed to be good news this week. On the 17th, Austria-Hungary announced the capitulation of Montenegro. Celebrations of the great victory broke out in both Germany and Austria-Hungary. The allies didn’t think that Montenegro would lose so quickly, and it was suggested that King Nicholas of Montenegro had secretly come to terms with Austria early in the invasion, or that a compact between the two had been in existence for several months, but this was untrue. King Nicholas had rejected the conditions of peace that Austria had set forth, and what was also untrue was the Austrian announcement that the Montenegrins had laid down their arms. They hadn’t. Though many of them were captured, many more joined the Serbian forces that were on the move in Albania. The British were also on the move this week, in Mesopotamia. Lieutenant-General Fenton Aylmer’s relief force moved up the Tigris and attacked the enemy the 21st at Um-el-hanna, just 40 kilometers from Kut, where Charles Townshend’s forces had been under siege for six weeks. This attack was a complete failure, which isn’t surprising since the British were attacking a force three times their size that had machine guns. Two and a half thousand of the roughly 10,000 British fell in the mud that day and the relief expedition, now seriously depleted, was forced to return to base at Ali Gharbi. One of the British men fighting at Hanna, and wounded there, was future Prime Minister Captain Clement Attlee. One killed was Robert Palmer, grandson of former Prime Minister Lord Salisbury and cousin of Foreign Secretary Edward Grey. Palmer had had a poem published in the Times just a few months earlier. You’ve asked for more war poetry, so here’s Robert Palmer’s poem, “How long, O lord?” From sodden plains in west and east the blood Of kindly men streams up in mists of hate, Polluting they clean air: and nations great In reputation of the arts that bind The world with hopes of heaven, sink to state Of brute barbarians, whose ferocious mind Gloats o’er the bloody havoc of their kind, Not knowing love or mercy.” In Kut itself, it was winter, and you might not think winter happens much in Mesopotamia, but Kut was in the grip of sleet, icy winds, and freezing temperatures, and that same day the British lines completely flooded and the freezing water was up to the men’s necks. You know what? The relief operation had pretty much followed the pattern of Townshend’s original expedition. The British began with plenty of confidence, but they didn’t have good river transport or a strong supply train to the main base 300 kilometers away in Basra. They didn’t have artillery that was suitable for trench warfare conditions, but there was one big difference- this time they were in a hurry. Well, there was another big difference too: a lot of the Turkish troops now there had fought at Gallipoli and were very good at defensive operations. And they also had a great leader, German Field Marshal Colmar von der Goltz. In all of Aylmer’s January attacks there was a similarity. The Turks had equal or superior forces in strong defensive positions; a series of concealed trenches that didn’t leave the British much room to maneuver and were situated to leave a gap of around a mile between the river and the flooded marshlands, so you got frontal assaults across open ground against experienced enemies without decent artillery support. That is a recipe for disaster, but Aylmer didn’t see that he had much choice; the annual floods would begin in March and he had been ordered to attack no matter the odds. Seems like a stupid waste of men, I know, but this war was full of that, and on that note, I’d like to say a few final words about Gallipoli, the final evacuation of which ended last week. Peter Hart wrote a book entitled simply Gallipoli, in which he dispels what he sees as the myths of Gallipoli, particularly the underlying British myth, which he calls “riddled with the kind of self-delusion and boastful assumption of racial superiority that had been responsible for the Gallipoli disaster in the first place.” The landings, back last April 25th, have often been hailed as a great military achievement, right? People refer to the Turkish machine guns, the gallant heroism on display, and the struggle against incredible odds. Okay, there was gallant heroism on display, yes indeed, by both sides, but the incredible odds were faced by the Turks, not the British. This may well have been the first big landing made in the face of modern weapons, but it could hardly have gone worse for the British or better for the Turks, though General Sir Ian Hamilton, who was in charge of the British forces landing wrote, “when the official history of the Dardanelles comes out we shall learn... how sweeping were the victories won at ANZAC and Helles by the afternoon of the 25th April, 1915.” Okay, that’s Hamilton, now here’s Peter Hart, “The official histories show nothing of the kind. The British Empire could hardly have survived too many more “sweeping victories” like those “won” on April 25th... Endemic military incompetence at command and staff levels was then lethally combined with troops that had little or no experience of modern warfare in 1915. The lesson was clear to those who would heed it: raw courage was not enough to combat bolt-action rifles, machine guns, trench systems, barbed wire, and, above all, artillery... the British army needed a more professional approach if it was to triumph in the Great War.” An approach it seemed to not yet have in Mesopotamia. And here are some notes to round out the week. On the 15th, the remnants of the Serbia army begin landing on Corfu. They will continue to do so for weeks. On the 18th, the Germans evacuate South Cameroon, retiring into Spanish territory, and on the 20th, the British government buys 800,000 tons of wheat from Romania. And we come to the end of the week, with the British relief expedition failing on the Tigris, Montenegrin forces escaping the Austrian invaders into Albania, and the Russians beginning one offensive in Anatolia and ending another further north. So the relief expedition to Kut had failed, but I think many of us in hindsight could have seen that coming. It wasn’t close to the scale of Gallipoli, of course, but the principles were the same. The British overseas forces had always dominated their colonial enemies and the powers that be in London had assumed this was still the case. I mean, fighting against Arabs and Turks? Many people in Britain thought of them as inferior races, and so they made the same mistakes time and again, attacking defenders of equal or greater numbers who were well dug in and armed with machine guns. How hard could it be to learn not to do that? They had by now learned it on the Western Front against the Germans, how long would it take in the Middle East? How many lives lost needlessly? How many devastating letters home to family? Only time will tell. One man who fought on the Ottoman side of Gallipoli was Mustafa Kemal, today known as Attatürk. If you want to find out more about him and his legendary defense at the Dardanelles, you can click right here for our bio episode. Our Patreon supporter of the week is Jaroslav Stráník. If you want to support our show financially and get cool perks in return, support us on Patreon. Check out our Facebook page for more background info on the Mesopotamiam campaign and don’t forget to subscribe.

Contents

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Statistics Canada. "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Retrieved 9 March 2014.
  2. ^ Canadian census

Further reading

Notetable Person

External links


This page was last edited on 15 March 2019, at 04:07
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