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Moller M400 Skycar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Skycar M400
Moller Skycar M400.jpg
Moller Skycar M400
Role Flying car
Manufacturer Moller International
Designer Paul Moller
Status Experimental
A poster advertising the Skycar
A poster advertising the Skycar

The Moller Skycar is a prototype personal VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) aircraft – a "flying car" – concept invented by Paul Moller who has been attempting to develop such a vehicle type for more than fifty years.[1] After four decades of failed attempts,[2] as of 2019, no Moller air vehicle has flown in free, non-tethered flight, a condition imposed by FAA for testing his concept.

The parent company, Moller International, has been dormant since 2015.[3]


The M400 craft, previously under development, is purported to ultimately transport four people; single-seat up to six-seat variations are also planned.[4] It is described as a car since it is aimed at being a popular means of transport for anyone who can drive, incorporating automated flight controls, with the driver only inputting direction and speed required.

After forty years and $100,000,000 in expenditure[5] the Skycar demonstrated tethered hovering capability in 2003.[6] It has been extensively marketed for pre-order sale since the 1990s as Moller attempted to raise more money for development.

In April 2009, the National Post characterized the Moller M400 Skycar as a "failure", and described the Moller company as "no longer believable enough to gain investors".[7] On May 18, 2009, Paul Moller filed for personal protection under the Chapter 11 reorganization provisions of the federal bankruptcy law[8] and it is unknown how this will impact the fate of his ideas; Moller International itself did not file for bankruptcy but reduced operations.[2]

As explained in a Freedom Motors newsletter from August 2019, Moller International has been dormant since 2015.[3] Shares of Moller International were revoked by the SEC in September 2019.[9]


A Skycar is not piloted like a traditional fixed wing airplane, and has limited pilot controls, which the pilot uses to inform the computer control system of the desired flight maneuvers.[10] The Skycar's ducted fans deflect air vertically for takeoff and horizontally for forward flight. The ducted fans encase the propellers and engines, which prevents bystanders from being exposed to moving blades as well as improving aerodynamic efficiency at low speeds and generating lift in forward flight.

Rotapower engines

The engines to be used are being developed by an affiliate Moller company called Freedom Motors.[11] They are Wankel engines branded "Rotapower" which have a direct drive to a propulsion fan.[12][13] Each fan is contained in Kevlar-lined housings which provide further protection for bystanders.[12] The Skycar has four nacelles, each with two computer-controlled Rotapower engines. All eight engines operate independently and, as demonstrated during a tethered flight, allow for a vertical controlled landing should any one fail.[12]

The Rotapower Wankel engine announced by Freedom Motors has the claimed ability to operate on any fuel[13] including, but not limited to, gasoline, diesel, methanol, and clean renewable ethanol. Earlier Rotapower models used gasoline. The Rotapower engine is based on a rotary engine developed by Outboard Marine Corporation (OMC) in the 1970s.[14]

On November 1, 2013 Moller announced that the 530 cc Rotapower engine had achieved 102 horsepower (76 kW) using alcohol (ethanol) on their test stand, yielding an effective 3 horsepower per pound (5 kW/kg) of weight.[15]

Despite announcements since 2001[16] the Rotapower engine has never been mass produced. As of 2015, Moller claims to have a backlog of conditional orders and letters of intent for over 3.5 million Rotapower engines.

FAA Certification

On June 21, 2011 Moller International applied for Experimental Airworthiness Certification of the M400 Skycar with the FAA who accepted the application. Demonstration flight plans were scheduled for October 2011 and a flight test consultant was maintained by Moller International.[17][18] However, no demonstration flight ever occurred.


The only flight demonstrations have been hover tests performed in 2003 by a Skycar prototype that for insurance reasons was tethered, but not hung, to a crane.[19] The ongoing lack of funding for the Moller company to actually fly the M400 led the National Post to characterize the Skycar as a 'failure'.[20]

Although the physics behind the Skycar design is rarely criticized, the management of the company and the inability to bring a product to market draws the most ire from commentators.[7]

SEC fraud complaint

In 2003, the Securities and Exchange Commission sued Moller for civil fraud (Securities And Exchange Commission v. Moller International, Inc., and Paul S. Moller, Defendants) in connection with the sale of unregistered stock, and for making unsubstantiated claims about the performance of the Skycar, even though Moller's statements had passed the review and received "cleared comments" from the SEC during the filing and public information phase prior to being listed as a publicly traded company. Without admitting any wrongdoing, Moller agreed to pay $50,000 to settle the matter quickly so as not to delay the initial public offering of the stock.[21] In the words of the SEC complaint, "As of late 2002, MI's approximately 40 years' [sic] of development has resulted in a prototype Skycar capable of hovering about fifteen feet above the ground."[21] The shareholders of Moller International banded together to form a group known as "Shareholders of Moller International ("SoMI"),[22]


In October 2006, Moller attempted to auction the only prototype of its M200X model on eBay. It failed to sell. The highest bid was $3,000,100; Moller reported at the annual meeting of stockholders on October 21, 2006 in Davis, California, that the reserve price had been $3,500,000.[23] A previous attempt in 2003 to sell the M400 via eBay was also unsuccessful,[24] as were two subsequent attempts to sell the M400 prototype on eBay in July 2017.

Joint venture

A memorandum of understanding (MOU) was signed in January 2013 between Moller International and a US-China and e-business network agreeing to the goal of developing production for Moller Skycars in the United States and the People's Republic of China.[25]

As of October 2015 nothing further has been reported on developments of this previously announced joint venture despite Moller International's January 2013 press release having stated the following: "The JV will initially invest $80 million (USD) of a planned $480 million investment with the objective of producing a variety of VTOL aircraft by 2014."[26]

Crowdfunding campaign

On November 5, 2013 Moller kicked off a crowdfunding campaign with an official announcement on the Happening Now program on Fox News Channel in the US. He subsequently followed the broadcast announcement with a press release and a radio-broadcast announcement on the Coast to Coast AM radio program with host John B. Wells interviewing Moller for 2 hours.

The campaign was formulated to raise money to further develop the systems to fly the Skycar without a tether and with a pilot on-board - something that Moller had yet to accomplish with the flights that had been conducted to date with the M400X prototype vehicle. Moller launched a donation-only crowdfunding campaign - not subject to SEC scrutiny - and promised to provide gifts and other items to donors, included a ride in the M400X as the top gift of the campaign. The Moller crowdfunding campaign ended on January 4, 2014 and raised a total of US$29,429.00 from 188 funders, far short of its $950,000 goal.[27]


Moller M150 Skycar
The initial single seat technology demonstrator, incorporating the fuselage of a Bede BD-5 with two of Moller's ducted fan units. Prototype only; no public demonstration flights.
Moller M400 Skycar
The prototype version powered by four Moller propulsors incorporating Rotapower 500 Wankel rotary engines; has flown several times without a pilot but tethered via slack safety line to an overhead crane
Moller 400 Skycar
Production version; unbuilt.
Moller 100LS and 200LS
Proposed 1-and-2 seat volantor air vehicles, similar to the 400 Skycar
A two-seater, round, flying saucer-like aircraft that uses 8 Rotapower rotary engines.
Designed as a high-rise rescue vehicle, that would carry up to 3 passengers and 1 operator.

Specifications (M400 Skycar)

Data from [28] and [29]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Capacity: 4
  • Length: 21 ft 6 in (6.5 m)
  • Wingspan: 8 ft 6 in (2.6 m)
  • Height: 7 ft 6 in (2.3 m)
  • Empty weight: 2,400 lb (1,088 kg)
  • Gross weight: 3,120 lb (1,415 kg)
  • Powerplant: 8 × 530cc Rotapower rotary engines, 180 hp (138 kW) each


  • Maximum speed: 331 mph (533 km/h, 288 kn)
  • Cruise speed: 308 mph (496 km/h, 268 kn)
  • Range: 805 mi (1,213 km, 700 nmi)
  • Endurance: 5.9 hours
  • Service ceiling: 36,000 ft (10,973 m)
  • Rate of climb: 4,800 ft/min (24 m/s)

Notable appearances in media

See also


  1. ^ Kennedy, George (2016-04-09). "Self-driving cars are coming; can flying be next?". The Boston Globe.
  2. ^ a b Page, Lewis (2009-11-23). "Moller Skycar to finally crash and burn?". The Register.
  3. ^ a b August 2019 Newsletter -Freedom Motors Blog. Accessed on 30 September 2019.
  4. ^ Interview with Paul Moller about future cars Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine (August 3, 2007)
  5. ^ option=com_content&view=article&id=78&Itemid=93#4.2 M400 Skycar FAQ - Moller International
  6. ^ "Skycar tethered test". Archived from the original on 2010-05-05. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
  7. ^ a b "Flying cars"; National Post, April 9, 2009
  8. ^ "MI Financial Statements"
  9. ^
  10. ^ "Operation". Archived from the original on 2010-07-10. Retrieved 2010-03-03.
  11. ^ Freedom Motors
  12. ^ a b c "The Skycar Volantor" (PDF). Moller International. January 14, 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-03.[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ a b Rotapower Engine Technology
  14. ^ "Freedom Motors".
  15. ^ Moller’s Skycar® Rotary Engine Proves Ability To Produce 3 Horsepower Per Pound. 1 November 2014.
  16. ^ "A Powerful New Engine". NASA Spinoff. 2001.
  17. ^ Janice Wood (June 23, 2011). "Moller files for experimental certification for Skycar". General Aviation News. Retrieved 2019-03-19.
  18. ^ The Editor (June 30, 2011). "Skycar Gets FAA Experimental Airworthiness Certificate – Thunderbirds Are Go !". UAS Vision. Retrieved 2019-03-19.
  19. ^ Test Archived 2007-10-11 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ Grainger, David; "Flying cars"; National Post, April 11, 2009
  21. ^ a b Securities And Exchange Commission v. Moller International, Inc., and Paul S. Moller, Defendants from the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission website
  22. ^ Shareholders of Moller International website
  23. ^ "eBay Watch: Moller M400X Skycar prototype" from
  24. ^ "The Skycar: Transportation of the Future" from official Moller website (PDF file)
  25. ^ "Skycar® developer, Moller International, Signs MOU with US-based Firm". January 23, 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-17. from
  26. ^ "Skycar® developer, Moller International, Signs MOU with US-based Firm". January 24, 2013. Retrieved 2015-10-07.
  27. ^ "Moller launches crowdfunding campaign for Skycar test flight". Fox News. November 5, 2013. Archived from the original on February 16, 2015.
  28. ^ "M400 Skycar Specs". Moller International. 2016. Retrieved 2016-06-06.
  29. ^ thrust, SFC

External links

This page was last edited on 21 October 2021, at 13:42
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