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Moldovan language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

limba moldovenească (in Latin alphabet)
лимба молдовеняскэ (in Moldovan Cyrillic)
лимба молдовенѣскъ (in Romanian Cyrillic)
Pronunciation[ˈlimba moldoveˈne̯askə]
Native toMoldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
Official status
Official language in
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-1ro
ISO 639-2rum (B)
ron (T)
ISO 639-3ron
Linguasphere51-AAD-c (varieties: 51-AAD-ca to -cb and -ck)

Moldovan (Latin alphabet: limba moldovenească; Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet: лимба молдовеняскэ), also known historically as Moldavian, is one of the two local names of the Romanian language in Moldova.[3][4] "Moldovan" is declared the official language in Article 13 of the constitution adopted in 1994,[5] while the 1991 Declaration of Independence of Moldova uses the name "Romanian". In 2003, the Moldovan parliament adopted a law defining "Moldovan" and "Romanian" as glottonyms for the same language.[6] In 2013, the Constitutional Court of Moldova interpreted that Article 13 of the constitution is superseded by the Declaration of Independence,[7] thus giving official status to the name "Romanian."[8][9] The breakaway region of Transnistria continues to recognize "Moldovan" as one of its official languages, alongside Russian and Ukrainian.[10]

The language of the Moldovans had historically been identified by both terms, however during the Soviet Union, Moldovan, or, as it was called at the time, "Moldavian," was the only term officially recognized. Soviet policy emphasized distinctions between Moldavians and Romanians based on their allegedly different histories. Its resolution declared Moldavian a distinct Romance language from Romanian.

While a majority of inhabitants of the capital city of Chișinău[11] and, according to surveys, people with higher education[12] call their language "Romanian," most rural residents indicated "Moldovan" as their native language in the 2004 census.[11] In schools in Moldova, the term "Romanian language" has been used since independence.[13]

The variety of Romanian spoken in Moldova is the Moldavian subdialect, which is spread approximately within the territory of the former Principality of Moldavia (now split between Moldova, Romania, and Ukraine). Moldavian is considered one of the five major spoken varieties of Romanian. However, all five are written identically, and Moldova and Romania share the same literary language.[14][15]

The standard alphabet used in Moldova is equivalent to the Romanian alphabet, which is based on the Latin alphabet. Until 1918, varieties of the Romanian Cyrillic alphabet were used. The Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet (derived from the Russian alphabet and standardised in the Soviet Union) was used in 1924–1932 and 1938–1989 and remains in use in Transnistria.[16]

History and politics

1999 Moldovan stamp celebrating 10 years since reverting to the Latin script
1999 Moldovan stamp celebrating 10 years since reverting to the Latin script
Book in Moldovan language published in interwar Romania
Book in Moldovan language published in interwar Romania

The history of the Moldovan language refers to the historical evolution of the glottonym Moldavian/Moldovan in Moldova and beyond. It is closely tied to the region's political status, as during long periods of rule by Russia and the Soviet Union, officials emphasized the language's name as part of separating the Moldovans from those people who began to identify as Romanian in a different nation-building process. Cyrillic script was in use. From a linguistic perspective, "Moldovan" is an alternative name for the varieties of the Romanian language spoken in the Republic of Moldova (see History of the Romanian language).

Before 1918, during the period between the wars, and after the union of Bessarabia with Romania, scholars did not have consensus that Moldovans and the Romanians formed a single ethnic group.[17] The Moldovan peasants had grown up in a different political entity and missed the years of creating a pan-Romanian national political consciousness. They identified as Moldovans speaking the language "Moldovan". This caused reactions from pan-Romanian nationalists.[18] The concept of the distinction of Moldovan from Romanian was explicitly stated only in the early 20th century. It accompanied the raising of national awareness among Moldovans, with the Soviets emphasizing distinctions between Moldavians and Romanians.[19] "Moldavian" has also been recorded by the 1960s' Romanian Linguistic Atlas as the answer to the question "What [language] do you speak?" in parts of Western Moldavia (Galați and Iași counties).[20]

Major developments since the fall of the Soviet Union include resuming use of a Latin script rather than Cyrillic letters in 1989, and several changes in the statutory name of the official language used in Moldova. At one point of particular confusion about identity in the 1990s, all references to geography in the name of the language were dropped, and it was officially known simply as limba de stat — "the state language".

Moldovan was assigned the code mo in ISO 639-1 and code mol in ISO 639-2 and ISO 639-3.[21] Since November 2008, these have been deprecated, leaving ro and ron (639-2/T) and rum (639-2/B), the language identifiers as of 2013 to be used for the variant of the Romanian language also known as Moldavian and Moldovan in English, the ISO 639-2 Registration Authority said in explaining the decision.[22][23]

In 1989, the contemporary Romanian version of the Latin alphabet was adopted as the official script of the Moldavian SSR.[24]

Since independence

The Declaration of Independence[25] of Moldova (27 August 1991) named the official language as "Romanian." The 1994 constitution, passed under a Communist government, declared "Moldovan" as the state language.

When in 1993 the Romanian Academy changed the official orthography of the Romanian language, the Institute of Linguistics at the Academy of Sciences of Moldova did not initially make these changes, which however have since been adopted.[citation needed]

In 1996, the Moldovan president Mircea Snegur attempted to change the official name of the language back to "Romanian"; the Moldovan Parliament, Communist-dominated, dismissed the proposal as promoting "Romanian expansionism."

In 2003, a Moldovan–Romanian dictionary (Dicționar Moldovenesc–Românesc (2003)) by Vasile Stati was published aiming to prove that there existed two distinct languages. Reacting to this, linguists of the Romanian Academy in Romania declared that all the Moldovan words are also Romanian words, although some of its contents are disputed as being Russian loanwords. In Moldova, the head of the Academy of Sciences' Institute of Linguistics, Ion Bărbuță [ro], described the dictionary as "an absurdity, serving political purposes". Stati, however, accused both of promoting "Romanian colonialism". At that point, a group of Romanian linguists adopted a resolution stating that promotion of the notion of a distinct Moldovan language is an anti-scientific campaign.[26]

In 2003, the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova adopted a law defining "Moldovan" and "Romanian" as designations for the same language (glottonyms).[6]

In the 2004 census, 16.5% (558,508) of the 3,383,332 people living in Moldova declared Romanian as their native language, whereas 60% declared Moldovan. Most of the latter responses were from rural populations. While the majority of the population in the capital city of Chișinău gave their language as "Romanian", in the countryside more than six-sevenths of the Romanian/Moldovan speakers indicated "Moldovan" as their native language, reflecting historic conservatism.[27]

In schools in Moldova, the term "Romanian language" has been used since independence.[13]

In December 2007, Moldovan president Vladimir Voronin asked for the term to be changed to "Moldovan language", but due to public pressure against that choice, the term was not changed.[28]

In December 2013, the Constitutional Court of Moldova ruled that the Declaration of Independence takes precedence over the Constitution and that the state language should be called Romanian.[7][29]

As of March 2017, the presidential website under Igor Dodon has seen the Romanian language option changed to "Moldovan",[30] which is described to be "in accordance with the constitution" by said president. The change was reverted on 24 December 2020, the day Maia Sandu assumed office.[31]

In June 2021, during a meeting between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Romania Bogdan Aurescu and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine Dmytro Kuleba, the former asked Ukraine to recognize the inexistence of the Moldovan language to improve the situation of the Romanians in Ukraine. Kuleba responded to this saying that they were trying to do the paperwork for this as soon as possible.[32]


Demonstration in Chișinău, January 2002. The text on the inscription is "Romanian people—Romanian language".
Demonstration in Chișinău, January 2002. The text on the inscription is "Romanian people—Romanian language".

The matter of whether or not "Moldovan" is a separate language continues to be contested politically within and beyond the Republic of Moldova. The 1989 Language Law of the Moldavian SSR, which is still in effect in Moldova, according to the Constitution,[33] asserts a "linguistic Moldo-Romanian identity".[24] Article 13 of the Moldovan Constitution names it "the national language of the country" (the original uses the phrase limba de stat, which literally means the language of the state).

In the breakaway region of Transnistria, Moldovan is declared an official language, together with Ukrainian and Russian.[10]

Standard "Moldovan" is widely considered to be identical to standard Romanian.[34] Writing about "essential differences", Vasile Stati, supporter of Moldovenism, is obliged to concentrate almost exclusively on lexical rather than grammatical differences. Whatever language distinctions may once have existed, these have been decreasing rather than increasing. King wrote in 2000 that "in the main, Moldovan in its standard form was more Romanian by the 1980s than at any point in its history".[35]

In 2002, the Moldovan Minister of Justice Ion Morei said that Romanian and Moldovan were the same language and that the Constitution of Moldova should be amended to reflect this—not by substituting "Romanian" for the word "Moldovan", but by adding that "Romanian and Moldovan are the same language".[36] The education minister Valentin Beniuc [ro] said: "I have stated more than once that the notion of a Moldovan language and a Romanian language reflects the same linguistic phenomenon in essence."[37] The President of Moldova Vladimir Voronin acknowledged that the two languages are identical, but said that Moldovans should have the right to call their language "Moldovan".[38]

In the 2004 census, of the 3.38 million people living in Moldova, 60% identified Moldovan as their native language; 16.5% chose Romanian. While 37% of all urban Romanian/Moldovan speakers identified Romanian as their native language, in the countryside 86% of the Romanian/Moldovan speakers indicated Moldovan, a historic holdover.[27] Independent studies found a Moldovan linguistic identity asserted in particular by the rural population and post-Soviet political class.[39] In a survey conducted in four villages near the border with Romania, when asked about their native language the interviewees identified the following: Moldovan 53%, Romanian 44%, Russian 3%.[40]

In November 2007, when reporting on EU Council deliberations regarding an agreement between the European Community and Moldova, the Romanian reporter Jean Marin Marinescu included a recommendation to avoid formal references to the 'Moldovan language.'[41] The Romanian press speculated that the EU banned the usage of the phrase "Moldovan language".[42] However, the European Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy, Benita Ferrero-Waldner, denied these allegations. She said that the Moldovan language is referred to in the 1998 Cooperation Agreement between the EU and Moldova, and hence it is considered a part of the acquis, binding to all member states.[43]


A welcome sign in Moldovan Cyrillic in Tiraspol, the capital of Transnistria, in 2012. The phrase in Latin alphabet is Bine ați venit!
A welcome sign in Moldovan Cyrillic in Tiraspol, the capital of Transnistria, in 2012. The phrase in Latin alphabet is Bine ați venit!

The language was generally written in a Romanian Cyrillic alphabet (based on the Old Church Slavonic alphabet) before the 19th century. Both Cyrillic and, rarely, Latin, were used until after World War I; after Bessarabia was included in Romania in 1918, the Cyrillic alphabet was officially forbidden in the region. In the interwar period, Soviet authorities in the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic alternately used Latin or Cyrillic for writing the language, mirroring the political goals of the moment. Between 1940 and 1989, i.e., during Soviet rule, the new Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet replaced Latin as the official alphabet in Moldova (then Moldavian SSR).[44] In 1989, the Latin script was once again adopted in Moldova by Law 3462 of 31 August 1989, which provided rules for transliterating Cyrillic to Latin, along with the orthographic rules used in Romania at the time. Transnistria, however, uses the Cyrillic alphabet.[10]

Though not immediately adopting these, the Academy of Sciences of Moldova acknowledged both the Romanian Academy's decision of 1993 and the orthographic reform of 2005.[45] In 2000, the Moldovan Academy recommended adopting the spelling rules used in Romania,[46] and in 2010 launched a schedule for the transition to the new rules that was completed in 2011 (regarding its publications).[47] However, these changes were not implemented by Moldova's Ministry of Education, so the old orthographic conventions were maintained in the education sector such as in school textbooks.

On 17 October 2016, Minister of Education Corina Fusu signed Order No. 872 on the application of the revised spelling rules as adopted by the Moldovan Academy of Sciences, coming into force on the day of signing.[48] Since then the spelling used by institutions subordinated to the Ministry of Education is in line with the spelling norms used in Romania since 1993. This order, however, has no application to other government institutions, nor has Law 3462 been amended to reflect these changes; thus, those institutions continue to use the old spelling.



Moldovan consonant phonemes
Labial Alveolar Palato-Alveolar Palatal Velar
hard soft hard soft hard soft
Nasal m ⟨м⟩ mʲ ⟨-мь⟩ n ⟨н⟩ nʲ ⟨-нь⟩ ɲ ⟨н(и,е,а)
Plosive unvoiced p ⟨п⟩ pʲ ⟨-пь⟩ t ⟨т⟩ tʲ ⟨-ть⟩ c ⟨к(и,е,а) k ⟨к⟩ kʲ ⟨-кь⟩
voiced b ⟨б⟩ bʲ ⟨-бь⟩ d ⟨д⟩ dʲ ⟨-дь⟩ ɟ ⟨г(и,е,а) g ⟨г⟩ gʲ ⟨-гь⟩
Affricate unvoiced t͡s ⟨ц⟩ t͡sʲ ⟨-ць⟩ t͡ʃ ⟨ч⟩
voiced d͡z ⟨дз⟩ ʒ ⟨ӂ,ж⟩
Fricative voiced v ⟨в⟩ vʲ ⟨-вь⟩ z ⟨з⟩ zʲ ⟨-зь⟩ ʝ ⟨ж(и,е,а)
unvoiced f ⟨ф⟩ fʲ ⟨-фь⟩ s ⟨с⟩ sʲ ⟨-сь⟩ ʃ ⟨ш⟩ ç ⟨ш(и,е,а) x ⟨х⟩ xʲ ⟨-хь⟩
Approximant w ⟨ў,у⟩ r ⟨р⟩ rʲ ⟨-рь⟩ j ⟨й,и⟩
l ⟨л⟩ lʲ ⟨-ль⟩


Moldovan vowel phonemes
Front Central Back
Close i ⟨и⟩ ɨ ⟨ы,-э⟩ u ⟨у⟩
Mid e ⟨е⟩ ə ⟨э⟩ o ⟨о⟩
Open a ⟨а⟩

Distinguishing features

See also


  1. ^ "Romanian, Moldavian, Moldovan". IANA language subtag registry. 25 November 2008. Retrieved 11 February 2019. The purpose of this registration is to track a change made to ISO 639-2 effective 2008-11-03, deprecating the code element ‘mo’ and adding its associated names “Moldavian” and “Moldovan” to the existing code element for Romanian.
  2. ^ "Moldova". IANA language subtag registry. 16 October 2005. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  3. ^ Kogan Page 2004, p. 242
  4. ^ Directorate-General for Translation of the European Commission (2008), A Field Guide to the Main Languages of Europe – Spot That Language and How to Tell Them Apart (PDF) (Third ed.), archived from the original (PDF) on 17 November 2015, retrieved 7 April 2020
  5. ^ ""Article 13, line 1 – of Constitution of Republic of Moldova"" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2008.
  6. ^ a b "Politics of National Conception of Moldova". Law No. 546/12-19-2003 (in Romanian). Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  7. ^ a b "Hotărâre Nr. 36 din 05.12.2013 privind interpretarea articolului 13 alin. (1) din Constituție în corelație cu Preambulul Constituției și Declarația de Independență a Republicii Moldova (Sesizările nr. 8b/2013 și 41b/2013)" (in Romanian). Constitutional Court of Moldova. Retrieved 20 December 2013. 124. ... Prin urmare, Curtea consideră că prevederea conținută în Declarația de Independență referitoare la limba română ca limbă de stat a Republicii Moldova prevalează asupra prevederii referitoare la limba moldovenească conținute în articolul 13 al Constituției.
  8. ^ "Moldovan court rules official language is 'Romanian,' replacing Soviet-flavored 'Moldovan'". Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  9. ^ "Chisinau Recognizes Romanian As Official Language". Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  10. ^ a b c "Article 12 of the Constitution of Pridnestrovskaia Moldavskaia Respublika". 24 December 1995. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  11. ^ a b "Population by main nationalities, mother tongue and language usually spoken, 2004" (XLS). National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  12. ^ "CBS AXA/IPP nov. 2012" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 December 2013.
  13. ^ a b "Ministerul Educatiei a Republicii Moldova : Acte Normative și Publicații : Acte normative și legislative : Domeniul învațămîntului preuniversitar". 4 October 2004. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 24 August 2021.
  14. ^ * James Minahan, Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1989, p. 276
  15. ^ (in Russian) Л. И. Лухт, Б. П. Нарумов. Румынский язык // Языки мира. Романские языки. М., Academia, Институт языкознания РАН, 2001
  16. ^ Denis Deletant, Slavonic Letters in Moldova, Wallachia & Transylvania from the Tenth to the Seventeenth Centuries, Ed. Enciclopedicӑ, Bucharest, 1991
  17. ^ King 2000, pp. 57–59.
  18. ^ King 1999, p. 120.
  19. ^ Fedor, Helen (1995). Belarus and Moldova : country studies. Washington DC: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. pp. 121–122. Retrieved 4 June 2020. Stalin justified the creation of the Moldavian SSR by claiming that a distinct "Moldavian" language was an indicator that "Moldavians" were a separate nationality from the Romanians in Romania. In order to give greater credence to this claim, in 1940 Stalin imposed the Cyrillic alphabet on "Moldavian" to make it look more like Russian and less like Romanian; archaic Romanian words of Slavic origin were imposed on "Moldavian"; Russian loanwords and phrases were added to "Moldavian"; and a new theory was advanced that "Moldavian" was at least partially Slavic in origin. In 1949 Moldavian citizens were publicly reprimanded in a journal for daring to express themselves in literary Romanian. The Soviet government continued this type of behavior for decades. Proper names were subjected to Russianization (see Glossary) as well. Russian endings were added to purely Romanian names, and individuals were referred to in the Russian manner by using a patronymic (based on one's father's first name) together with a first name.
  20. ^ Arvinte, Vasile (1983). Român, românesc, România. București: Editura Științifică și Enciclopedică. p. 50.
  21. ^ SIL International: ISO 639 code sets: Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: mol
  22. ^ "Code Changes: ISO 639-2 Registration Authority". US Library of Congress. The identifiers mo and mol are deprecated, leaving ro and ron (639-2/T) and rum (639-2/B) the current language identifiers to be used for the variant of the Romanian language also known as Moldavian and Moldovan in English and moldave in French. The identifiers mo and mol will not be assigned to different items, and recordings using these identifiers will not be invalid
  23. ^ "ISO 639 JAC decision re mo/mol". Retrieved 26 February 2011.
  24. ^ a b (in Romanian) Legea cu privire la funcționarea limbilor vorbite pe teritoriul RSS Moldovenești nr. 3465-XI din 01.09.89 Vestile nr. 9/217, 1989 (Law regarding the usage of languages spoken on the territory of the Republic of Moldova): "Moldavian SSR supports the desire of the Moldovans that live across the borders of the Republic, and considering the really existing linguistical Moldo-Romanian identity – of the Romanians that live on the territory of the USSR, of doing their studies and satisfying their cultural needs in their mother tongue."
  25. ^ "Declaratia de Independenta a Republicii Moldova" [Moldovan Declaration of Independence] (in Romanian). 27 August 1991. Archived from the original on 5 March 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  26. ^ " – Linguists condemn "Moldovan language"" (in Romanian). Retrieved 10 November 2007.
  27. ^ a b "2004 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  28. ^ "Professors from the University of Balti protest against replacing 'Romanian language' with 'Moldovan language'". DECA-Press. 18 December 2007. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  29. ^ "Moldovan court rules official language is 'Romanian,' replacing Soviet-flavored 'Moldovan'", Fox News, 5 December 2013.
  30. ^ "Președinția Republicii Moldova". 2 March 2017. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  31. ^ "Președinția Republicii Moldova". 24 December 2020. Archived from the original on 24 December 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  32. ^ "Ministerul de Externe: Bogdan Aurescu cere Ucrainei să recunoască oficial inexistența "limbii moldovenești"". Digi24 (in Romanian). 19 June 2021.
  33. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Moldova, Title 7, Article 7 Archived 8 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine: "The law of 1 September 1989 regarding the usage of languages spoken on the territory of the Republic of Moldova remains valid, excepting the points where it contradicts this constitution."
  34. ^ Kogan Page 2004, p 291 ; IHT [clarification needed], 16 June 2000, p. 2 ; Dyer 1999, 2005
  35. ^ King 2000
  36. ^ Ion Morei: "The Moldovan language is identical to the Romanian language", Moldova Azi, 10 September 2002
  37. ^ (in Romanian) Din nou fără burse Archived 11 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Jurnal de Chișinău, 25 May 2004
  38. ^ "Ştiri de ultima ora si ultimele ştiri - ştiri online - Mediafax".
  39. ^ Ciscel 2008, p. 104
  40. ^ Arambașa 2008, pp. 358, 364
  41. ^ Marinescu, Marian-Jean (7 November 2007). "Report on the proposal for a Council decision concerning the conclusion of the Agreement between the European Community and Republic of Moldova on the readmission of persons residing without authorisation" (DOC). European Parliament Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  42. ^ (in Romanian) "Orban a eliminat "limba moldovenească" de pe site-ul Comisiei Europene" Archived 2 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  43. ^ Answer given by Mrs Ferrero-Waldner on behalf of the Commission, 19 December 2007
  44. ^ "Language policy in the Soviet Union" Grenoble 2003, pp. 89–93
  45. ^ „La solicitarea Consiliului Științific al Institutului de Filologie al Academiei de Științe a Moldovei din 24 noiembrie 2009 și în conformitate cu Hotărârea Adunării Generale a Academiei Române din 17 februarie 1993, privind revenirea la â și sunt în grafia limbii române, Consiliul Suprem pentru Știință și Dezvoltare Tehnologică, întrunit în ziua de 25 decembrie 2009, a hotărât să se adreseze Parlamentului Republicii Moldova cu rugămintea de a lua o hotărâre în problema revenirii în grafia limbii române la utilizarea lui â în interiorul cuvintelor, a formei sunt (suntem, sunteți) și la normele ortografice cuprinse în Dicționarul ortografic, ortoepic și morfologic al limbii române (DOOM, ediția a II-a, București, 2005).” Modificări în ortografia limbii române, nr. 1(16), martie 2010
  46. ^ The new edition of Dicționarul ortografic al limbii române (ortoepic, morfologic, cu norme de punctuație) [The orthographic dictionary of the Romanian language (orthoepic, morphological, with punctuation rules)] – introduced by the Academy of Sciences of Moldova and recommended for publishing following a conference on 15 November 2000 – applies the decision of the General Meeting of the Romanian Academy from 17 February 1993, regarding the return to "â" and "sunt" in the orthography of the Romanian language. (Introduction, Institute of Linguistics of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova)
  47. ^ "Gheorghe Duca: Trebuie schimbată atitudinea de sorginte proletară față de savanți și în genere față de intelectuali" (in Romanian). Allmoldova. 4 June 2010. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 3 January 2011.
  48. ^ "Normele ortografice ale scrierii lui "â" și "sunt" în grafia limbii române – obligatorii în instituțiile de învățământ" [The orthographic norms of "â" and "sunt" in the Romanian language - mandatory in educational institutions]. Moldovan Ministry of Education, Culture and Research (in Romanian). 18 October 2016.


Further reading

  • Ciscel, Matthew H. (2007). The Language of the Moldovans: Romania, Russia, and Identity in an Ex-Soviet Republic. Lanham: Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-1443-8. – About the identity of the contemporary Moldovans in the context of debates about their language.

External links

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