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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Misogyny (/mɪˈsɒɪni/) is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against women or girls. Misogyny is manifest in numerous ways, including social exclusion, sex discrimination, hostility, androcentrism, patriarchy, male privilege, belittling of women, violence against women, and sexual objectification.[1][2] Misogyny can be found within sacred texts of religions, mythologies, and Western philosophies.[1][3]

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  • ✪ Misogyny and the Roots of Chauvinism
  • ✪ Misogyny of the Ancient World | Ascent of Woman
  • ✪ The Adorkable Misogyny of The Big Bang Theory
  • ✪ Male Chauvinism and Misogyny


Welcome to the Endless Knot! Today I’m looking at the tangled roots of chauvinism. If you heard the word chauvinist today, you’d probably either think of a quaint term for a man who looks down on women as inferior, or of someone who is blindly and excessively patriotic. The second meaning is the older, so let’s start there. The word is in fact an eponym, meaning it comes from a person’s name, in this case the possibly legendary Nicolas Chauvin, a soldier who supposedly served in the French Army under Napoleon. There isn’t any evidence that he actually existed, but nevertheless he became famous as a figure of blind patriotism and fervour for Napoleon, long after the Emperor’s ousting, and thus a figure of ridicule. The word in French goes back to the 1830s, and makes its way into English at least as early as the 1860s. Towards the late 19th century, the term broadened to refer not only to excessive patriotism but also to other forms of excessive loyalty or belief in the superiority of one’s own kind. It was then picked up in Communist Party circles in phrases such as race chauvinism and white chauvinism, in particular to counter racism in the United States. And following the model of those phrases, women in the Communist Party seem to have coined the term male chauvinism in the 1930s. After a brief vogue, the term mostly disappeared from view, that is until the feminist movements of the 60’s and 70’s. The children of former Communist Party members apparently revived the word, and from 1968 it took off again. However, the term didn’t seem to have much staying power and began to decline in frequency from the late 1970s. The phrase had been further expanded to male chauvinist pig, perhaps initially to soften its effect through humour, though this was soon picked up by mainstream media to mock feminists — in fact the earliest citation of that full phrase in the Oxford English Dictionary is in Playboy magazine, so perhaps it’s not surprising that the term fell out of favour! Before the word chauvinism arose, the word misogyny could be used to refer to hatred of women. Greek misogynia and misogynes, used originally in reference to a disease or to a comic trope of a grumpy old man who hates his wife, are composed of the elements misos “hatred” and gyne “woman”, distantly related to the English word queen. Misogyny and misogynist make it into English in the 17th century, and develop an extended meaning of prejudice against women in the 20th century, but as we’ll soon see, starting much earlier, Greek misogyny played a significant role in the development of western misogyny. But first we have to finish looking at the word chauvinism and related terms. It was around the time that the term male chauvinism came into vogue, specifically in 1970, when the word patriarchy started to be used by feminists to mean a society dominated by men at the expense of women. The word actually goes back to Greek, coming from pater “father” and arkhein “to rule”, and was used in various Christian senses such as referring to certain bishops in the early church, with patriarchy first appearing in English in a 1561 translation of a text by protestant reformer John Calvin, after whom the Calvinist church is named. John Calvin, or Jean Calvin as he was known in his native French, is tied into this story in another way, as the name Calvin is the Northern French equivalent of the name Chauvin, from which we get the word chauvinism. It should be further noted that the name Chauvin is derived from the French word chauve meaning “bald” from Latin calvus. So I suppose you could say that this etymology, along with the paternalistic fatherly patriarchy, at least coincidentally, highlights the fact that we have old men to blame for sexual discrimination. And it was this coincidental connection between Calvin and chauvinism that inspired me to look at the religious roots of misogyny and the ties between chauvinism and other types of discrimination. It turns out that the confluence of the Christian tradition and Greek philosophy created a toxic environment for women in western society for 2000 years. Of course the west doesn’t hold a monopoly on misogyny, which can be found in many cultures around the world, and all available evidence suggests that misogyny is the oldest human prejudice, but since we’re looking at English vocabulary we’ll have to stick with western culture. And to do that, we’ll have to first turn to the Jewish tradition, which would later become the foundation of Christianity. That early Jewish society was patriarchal is not particularly surprising in the context of the ancient world. What is notable is that they had a monotheistic religion with a fall of man creation myth. In the book of Genesis, Adam was created by God in his image and placed in paradise, the Garden of Eden. Eve was more of an afterthought, made from Adam’s rib. Now of course different churches which share this story (which is found in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) interpret the culpability of Adam and Eve in their expulsion from Eden differently, but as the story in Genesis goes, Eve gave in to the temptations of the serpent and ate the forbidden fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, then shared that fruit with Adam, and following this they both become ashamed of their nakedness. Thus many have held Eve doubly responsible, or at least more responsible than Adam. In addition to their expulsion from paradise, they are made to live mortal lives and Adam must work for the necessities of life, in other words engage in agriculture, and Eve and all women who follow her are given the extra punishments of being subservient to their husbands and suffering the pains of childbirth. So this story both justifies a patriarchal society with a lower status for women but also figures women in terms of their role in sexuality (remember the shame of their nakedness) and childbirth. Interestingly, the Ancient Greeks also have a fall of man myth, the story of Pandora, whose name means either “all gifted” or “all giving”. In the story as told by Hesiod in the 6th c BC men (and only men) had a trouble free and happy existence, though they didn’t have the secret of fire and had to eat their meat raw. The Titan Prometheus illicitly gave fire to men, and as part of the punishment for this, Zeus ordered the creation of the first human woman, Pandora, not just as an afterthought but specifically as a punishment, as she is endowed with seductive qualities as well as a deceitful character, and she is referred to as kalon kakon “beautiful evil”. Pandora has with her a sealed jar that she is not supposed to open, but overcome with curiosity she opens it, releasing pain and evil among men, leaving only hope in the jar. This myth and the fact that the king of the Gods Zeus is depicted in many myths as a serial rapist, provide a backdrop to Greek society. Now outside of Athens there is a lack of evidence of what life was actually like for Greek women, but it’s Athenian culture which became the most profoundly influential on later western culture. Perhaps paradoxically, along with democracy, Athens in the 5th c BC developed an exceedingly misogynistic attitude. It’s important to remember that that democracy was extremely limited, including only adult male citizens, and supported through a slave economy. In this society, women remained legally children always under the guardianship of a man, they were (at least ideally) kept in a segregated part of the house and were not allowed to leave the house unaccompanied, and received little to no education. In addition to the practical reality of women’s social inferiority in Athens, Athenian philosophers developed a theoretical basis for misogyny, and the two most responsible for this are Plato and Aristotle. Somewhat paradoxically, Plato is sometimes taken as almost a protofeminist, since in his work The Republic he describes an ideal society in which women receive the same education as men and are among the ruling elite with the same responsibilities, and men and women only differ in their biological roles in reproduction. But this comes at the cost of the denial of their sexuality. His is a sterile imagined world in which breeding is regulated and the parent-child relationship is denied in favour of communally raised children. However, it’s Plato’s idea of dualism which was to cause the most harm in the long run. Plato developed the theory of Forms in which he makes a distinction between a higher reality in which exist ideal Forms of which physical existence is an imperfect reflection. Only the intellect could engage with that higher reality, and all the stuff of physical existence, including sexuality, was lesser, a falling away from perfection. This dualism then becomes the philosophical basis for misogyny, with men associated with the intellect and women with sexuality and the imperfect physical existence. And the standard understanding of the nature of women in the ancient world, both in Greece and later in Rome, is that they are sexually rapacious as a result of their connection to the physical world. So the misogynistic response to this was rooted in fear of women and of their sexuality, hence the need to regulate and control them. Plato’s student Aristotle doubled down on this misogyny in scientific terms. He explicitly held women to be inferior to men, and believed that women were mutilated, undercooked, or imperfect males. Oh, and in an odd connection to the roots of chauvinism, he believed that the lack of baldness among women was proof of their childlike undeveloped nature! Moving forward, it’s during the Roman period that Christianity grows out of the Jewish tradition, while also being heavily influenced by Greco-Roman philosophy. It’s a terrible irony that Christianity would become one of the systemic drivers of misogyny, given that in its early years women played a key role in its formation and spread. Jesus’s statements about women in the gospels are free from misogyny; he frequently defended women, and there were women among his followers. And women seemed to have played central roles in the activities of the new religion as it grew and spread. The apostle Paul’s contributions to the nature of Christianity are perhaps only second to those of Jesus, and his attitudes toward women are somewhat contradictory. Though he states that “there is neither male nor female, for you are all one in Jesus Christ” he also doubles down on the story of Adam and Eve, saying that women should be subservient to their husbands. And from Paul we get the notion that sexuality is sinful and that celibacy is the ideal, but that if one couldn’t handle chastity, it was better to marry than to burn. So early Christianity provided the opportunity for women to choose a live a life of celibacy, which at least provided women with some control over their own fertility, giving them perhaps for the first time institutionally sanctioned reproductive choice. By the way, the word celibacy comes from Latin caelebs “unmarried”, of unknown origin but perhaps connected to the Proto-Indo-European roots *kaiwelo- “alone” or *kehi-lo- “whole”, and only in the 1950s came to refer not only to ‘remaining unmarried’ but also to ‘voluntary abstinence from sexuality’, but we’ll come back to this later. But it’s when Christianity adopts that Platonic idea of dualism that things really go downhill. The early Christian theologian and philosopher Augustine was influenced by neoplatonic philosophy, seeing his own struggles as a contest between the desires of the flesh and the striving of the will. And Augustine is largely responsible for the concept of Original Sin, that that first trespass in the Garden of Eden caused human beings to fall away from perfection, and ever since humans have carried the burden of that sin, at least until the crucifixion of Christ. Over the course of the middle ages that dualistic divide would continue to be the source of misogyny, and paradoxically it would come along with the increasing elevation of the figure of Mary mother of Jesus. In AD 431 the Roman Church declared Mary was not only the mother of Jesus, but the Mother of God. She had also been declared a perpetual virgin. If God was thought to be perfect, the mother of God couldn’t be tainted by sin either. It’s actually kind of a domino effect. The early churches first argued about whether Jesus was human or divine or some combination, and Mary’s status rose as a result of Jesus’s elevation. She was also deemed not to have suffered death, but to have been assumed body and soul directly into heaven, a notion traceable back to at least the 5th century. And she became known as the Queen of Heaven. But in the long run that wasn’t enough. To explain her perfection, theologians eventually came up with the notion of the Immaculate Conception, that from the moment of her conception God acted to keep her free from Original Sin so that she existed in the state of perfection that Adam and Eve had before the fall, effectively removing all notions of sexuality from her, thus giving women an impossible standard to live up to: be perfect like Mary or you’ll be the source of sin like Eve. The 13th century theologian John Duns Scotus, so named because he hailed from Duns, Berwickshire in Scotland, did a lot to develop this notion of the Immaculate Conception, though it didn’t become church dogma until much later. Scotus, by the way, is also known for engaging with Plato’s notion of Forms, specifically the metaphysical problem of universals, arguing that universals, basically qualities, actually exist and are not just mental constructs. His philosophical followers, the Scotists, were later derisively referred to as Dunses by humanists and protestant reformation theologians, thus giving us the word dunce, which like chauvinist is a pejorative word derived from a person’s name. Duns Scotus is tied to the word chauvinism in another way, since Scotus’s ideas about intuitive cognition influenced Chauvin’s name double, the protestant reformer John Calvin, to argue that God can be “experienced”. Speaking of the Protestant Reformation, it would have mixed consequences for women. The Protestants, who by the way downplayed the significance of Mary, allowed clergy to marry, doing away with the rule requiring priestly celibacy. This idea of celibacy had been gradually developed in the Roman Church but only became an absolute rule in the 12th century. The Protestant view contradicted Paul’s teachings about the sinfulness of sexuality even in marriage, and by doing so raised the status of marriage and therefore women. But they also got rid of the monasteries and convents, thus removing options for women, who could no longer choose a life outside of marriage and have control over their bodies in terms of reproduction. Protestants stressed the importance of direct access to scripture, which meant it was important for both men and women to be able to read, thus improving education for women. But they doubled down on patriarchal family structure with the father leading the household in daily prayer. Reformers like John Calvin felt that the woman’s place was in the home, and John Knox, the founder of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland, wrote a polemical work with the fiery title The First Blast Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women even attacking the idea of women holding any civil authority. In the 19th century and even later some churches, such as the Presbyterian Church of Scotland, opposed the use of anaesthesia for women giving birth, since that meant they wouldn’t suffer the pains prescribed as their punishment in the story of Adam and Eve. Now of course different Protestant churches had different ideas about women, such as the Quakers who did sometimes allow women to preach, and in more recent years many Protestant churches have supported social reforms like women’s suffrage, and in the 20th century women clergy. To date though women are still barred from the clergy in the Catholic Church. And again, views differ around reproductive rights such as birth control and abortion with not only Catholics but also many Protestants digging in their heels. Getting back to the middle ages though, when more progressive ideas about women and sexuality did arise, the Church unsurprisingly tended to crack down on them. One dramatic example is the Church’s reaction against Catharism, from the south of France. The Cathars, from Latin Cathari meaning “the pure”, ultimately from Greek katharos “pure”, thus related to catharsis, literally “a cleansing or purging”, took the idea of dualism to extremes. They believed that there were two Gods, the God of the Old Testament and the God of the New Testament. The Old Testament God created the physical world and was evil, while the New Testament God created the spiritual world and was good. Catharism had almost protofeminist beliefs, believing that gender wasn’t a part of the spiritual realm, and thus allowing women to preach and become part of the spiritual elite. They gave special significance to Mary Magdalene, who in the Bible was the first to see the newly arisen Christ and reported the news to the apostles, thus earning her the title apostle to the apostles. Pope Innocent III cracked down on the Cathars, calling for the Albigensian Crusade to wipe them out. It was called the Albigensian Crusade after the town Albi in the south of France, from the Roman personal name Albius from a root meaning “white”. This word may have another tie in to our story in the word bigot, related in sense to the word chauvinist, though the more common etymology has a different connection. The usual theory about the origin of the word bigot, which had the earlier sense of “sanctimonious person or religious hypocrite”, is that it came from the Germanic expression bi God “by God”. The story goes that in the 10th century the Viking Rollo of Normandy, upon receiving his dukedom from King Charles the Simple of France, refused to kiss the king’s foot, saying “Nese, bi God!” or “No, by God!” Thus the French derisively referred to the Normans as bigots. In support of this theory of labelling a group by its favourite swear words, it’s been pointed out that in France during the time of Joan of Arc, the English were referred to as goddams, and during WWI American soldiers in France were called les sommobiches, but the story does still have an air of folk etymology to it. Alternatively, in a less well-known but perhaps more plausible version, bigot might be an abbreviation of albigot in reference to the Albigensian heresy, in other words the Cathars, and the word does first appear in French at around that time in the south of France. Now returning to more recent words for misogyny, though as we’ve seen the concepts it describes aren't new, it's in the 20th century that people have noticed them enough to need new words to label them, such as sexist and sexism. These words are surprisingly recent, at least in their modern sense of gender-based discrimination, and like male chauvinism have their origins in racial discrimination, again highlighting the important connection between sexism and racism, and I suppose at least retroactively demonstrating the importance of intersectional feminism. Sexist was introduced into feminist discourse by Pauline M. Leet in a 1965 speech given at Franklin and Marshall College, in which she explicitly proposed it as a term parallel to racist. The text of the speech was privately distributed among feminists, until sexism appeared in print for the first time in Caroline Bird’s 1968 book Born Female. And that same year, possibly independently coined, the words sexism and sexist were used in a pamphlet written by Sheldon Vanauken, again with the parallel with racism explicitly made. Vanauken recommended sexism and sexist as better terms than male chauvinism and chauvinist, and in the end it looks like his advice was followed. Of course the countering of sexism had its own terminology, and we can see a trajectory similar to that of male chauvinism with the term women’s liberation.The earlier term had been feminism, which first appeared in the 19th century originally as a generic term equivalent to femininity or in biological or medical senses, but soon enough feminism and feminist were adopted by 19th century advocates for women’s rights, and it should be pointed out that feminism when used by feminists themselves doesn’t meant hatred of men or discrimination against men, but instead equality of all people. After women’s suffrage was achieved, these words went into decline, and in the 60’s and 70’s feminists often preferred the term women’s liberation (which had been around since the end of the 19th century). But soon enough women’s liberation was adopted by their opponents in such formulations as women’s lib and libber, and by the mid 70s it too went out of fashion, with feminism reemerging to fill the void. And so from this historical and etymological trail we can see the foundations of misogyny in modern western culture. We see the battle for control over reproduction informed by Eve’s punishment, not to mention body shaming and calls for female modesty and dress codes that frame girls as an irresistible temptation for boys, drawing them away from intellectual pursuits in schools. Thus women are the target of slut shaming, and the word slut provides an informative example. A word of uncertain etymology, slut originally meant a “dirty or untidy woman” and still can in some dialects. It gradually gained more pejorative senses such as a “woman of low character” or a “bold or impudent girl”, but could also be used in a playful way without implying serious criticism, much as we use the word scamp, originally meaning a “highway robber”, to refer affectionately to a mischievous boy. But there’s always a double standard, and by the 20th century the word slut developed the disparaging sense of a sexually promiscuous woman. And still today women are policed for their sexuality with this word, are sexualized in the media, and are blamed for their own rapes. And women continue to be thought of as a sexual commodity, as we can see so explicitly with the rise of incels, short for ‘involuntary celibates’. The term, coined in 1993 by a college student known only as Alana to refer to a website and mailing list that offered a support group for lonely people who felt marginalised by things such as rigid gender norms, mental illness, or social awkwardness, has since been co-opted by often violent and dangerous misogynistic men, calling themselves ‘incels’, who are driven by their resentment at not having sex with women, and who call for “forced sexual redistribution” of the “resource” that is women’s bodies. Ironic then that a word which originally just meant “unmarried” and was associated with an opportunity for women to have reproductive choice should now be associated with the most extreme form of misogynistic control—basically government enforced rape. Now of course in this video I’ve only briefly summarised one strand of the story of misogyny, which is a deep and complex phenomenon. But hopefully looking at these etymologies and and their historical connections to philosophy and religion can provide some fresh insight into this ever present problem. So let me say in closing: don’t be a dunce, reject this bald sexism, and don’t be a chauvinist. Thanks for watching! If you’ve enjoyed these etymological explorations and cultural connections, please subscribe, & click the little bell to be notified of every new episode. And check out our Patreon, where you can make a contribution to help me make more videos. I’m @Alliterative on Twitter, and you can visit our website for more language and connections in our podcast, blog, and more!



According to sociologist Allan G. Johnson, "misogyny is a cultural attitude of hatred for females because they are female". Johnson argues that:

Misogyny .... is a central part of sexist prejudice and ideology and, as such, is an important basis for the oppression of females in male-dominated societies. Misogyny is manifested in many different ways, from jokes to pornography to violence to the self-contempt women may be taught to feel toward their own bodies.[4]

Sociologist Michael Flood at the University of Wollongong defines misogyny as the hatred of women, and notes:

Though most common in men, misogyny also exists in and is practiced by women against other women or even themselves. Misogyny functions as an ideology or belief system that has accompanied patriarchal, or male-dominated societies for thousands of years and continues to place women in subordinate positions with limited access to power and decision making. […] Aristotle contended that women exist as natural deformities or imperfect males […] Ever since, women in Western cultures have internalised their role as societal scapegoats, influenced in the twenty-first century by multimedia objectification of women with its culturally sanctioned self-loathing and fixations on plastic surgery, anorexia and bulimia.[5]

Dictionaries define misogyny as "hatred of women"[6][7][8] and as "hatred, dislike, or mistrust of women".[9] In 2012, primarily in response to events occurring in the Australian Parliament,[10] the Macquarie Dictionary (which documents Australian English and New Zealand English) expanded the definition to include not only hatred of women but also "entrenched prejudices against women".[11] The counterpart of misogyny is misandry, the hatred or dislike of men; the antonym of misogyny is philogyny, the love or fondness of women.

Historical usage

Classical Greece

In his book City of Sokrates: An Introduction to Classical Athens, J.W. Roberts argues that older than tragedy and comedy was a misogynistic tradition in Greek literature, reaching back at least as far as Hesiod.[12] The term misogyny itself comes directly into English from the Ancient Greek word misogunia (μισογυνία), which survives in several passages.

The earlier, longer, and more complete passage comes from a moral tract known as On Marriage (c. 150 BC) by the stoic philosopher Antipater of Tarsus.[13][14] Antipater argues that marriage is the foundation of the state, and considers it to be based on divine (polytheistic) decree. He uses misogunia to describe the sort of writing the tragedian Euripides eschews, stating that he "reject[s] the hatred of women in his writing" (ἀποθέμενος τὴν ἐν τῷ γράφειν μισογυνίαν). He then offers an example of this, quoting from a lost play of Euripides in which the merits of a dutiful wife are praised.[14][15]

The other surviving use of the original Greek word is by Chrysippus, in a fragment from On affections, quoted by Galen in Hippocrates on Affections.[16] Here, misogyny is the first in a short list of three "disaffections"—women (misogunia), wine (misoinia, μισοινία) and humanity (misanthrōpia, μισανθρωπία). Chrysippus' point is more abstract than Antipater's, and Galen quotes the passage as an example of an opinion contrary to his own. What is clear, however, is that he groups hatred of women with hatred of humanity generally, and even hatred of wine. "It was the prevailing medical opinion of his day that wine strengthens body and soul alike."[17] So Chrysippus, like his fellow stoic Antipater, views misogyny negatively, as a disease; a dislike of something that is good. It is this issue of conflicted or alternating emotions that was philosophically contentious to the ancient writers. Ricardo Salles suggests that the general stoic view was that "[a] man may not only alternate between philogyny and misogyny, philanthropy and misanthropy, but be prompted to each by the other."[18]

Aristotle has also been accused of being a misogynist; he has written that women were inferior to men. According to Cynthia Freeland (1994):

Aristotle says that the courage of a man lies in commanding, a woman's lies in obeying; that 'matter yearns for form, as the female for the male and the ugly for the beautiful'; that women have fewer teeth than men; that a female is an incomplete male or 'as it were, a deformity': which contributes only matter and not form to the generation of offspring; that in general 'a woman is perhaps an inferior being'; that female characters in a tragedy will be inappropriate if they are too brave or too clever[.][19]

In the Routledge philosophy guidebook to Plato and the Republic, Nickolas Pappas describes the "problem of misogyny" and states:

In the Apology, Socrates calls those who plead for their lives in court "no better than women" (35b)... The Timaeus warns men that if they live immorally they will be reincarnated as women (42b-c; cf. 75d-e). The Republic contains a number of comments in the same spirit (387e, 395d-e, 398e, 431b-c, 469d), evidence of nothing so much as of contempt toward women. Even Socrates' words for his bold new proposal about marriage... suggest that the women are to be "held in common" by men. He never says that the men might be held in common by the women... We also have to acknowledge Socrates' insistence that men surpass women at any task that both sexes attempt (455c, 456a), and his remark in Book 8 that one sign of democracy's moral failure is the sexual equality it promotes (563b).[20]

Misogynist is also found in the Greek—misogunēs (μισογύνης)—in Deipnosophistae (above) and in Plutarch's Parallel Lives, where it is used as the title of Heracles in the history of Phocion. It was the title of a play by Menander, which we know of from book seven (concerning Alexandria) of Strabo's 17 volume Geography,[21][22] and quotations of Menander by Clement of Alexandria and Stobaeus that relate to marriage.[23] A Greek play with a similar name, Misogunos (Μισόγυνος) or Woman-hater, is reported by Marcus Tullius Cicero (in Latin) and attributed to the poet Marcus Atilius.[24]

Cicero reports that Greek philosophers considered misogyny to be caused by gynophobia, a fear of women.[25]

It is the same with other diseases; as the desire of glory, a passion for women, to which the Greeks give the name of philogyneia: and thus all other diseases and sicknesses are generated. But those feelings which are the contrary of these are supposed to have fear for their foundation, as a hatred of women, such as is displayed in the Woman-hater of Atilius; or the hatred of the whole human species, as Timon is reported to have done, whom they call the Misanthrope. Of the same kind is inhospitality. And all these diseases proceed from a certain dread of such things as they hate and avoid.[25]

— Cicero, Tusculanae Quaestiones, 1st century BC.

In summary, Greek literature considered misogyny to be a disease—an anti-social condition—in that it ran contrary to their perceptions of the value of women as wives and of the family as the foundation of society. These points are widely noted in the secondary literature.[14]


Ancient Greek

In Misogyny: The World's Oldest Prejudice, Jack Holland argues that there is evidence of misogyny in the mythology of the ancient world. In Greek mythology according to Hesiod, the human race had already experienced a peaceful, autonomous existence as a companion to the gods before the creation of women. When Prometheus decides to steal the secret of fire from the gods, Zeus becomes infuriated and decides to punish humankind with an "evil thing for their delight". This "evil thing" is Pandora, the first woman, who carried a jar (usually described—incorrectly—as a box) which she was told to never open. Epimetheus (the brother of Prometheus) is overwhelmed by her beauty, disregards Prometheus' warnings about her, and marries her. Pandora cannot resist peeking into the jar, and by opening it she unleashes into the world all evil; labour, sickness, old age, and death.[26]


In his book The Power of Denial: Buddhism, Purity, and Gender, professor Bernard Faure of Columbia University argued generally that "Buddhism is paradoxically neither as sexist nor as egalitarian as is usually thought." He remarked, "Many feminist scholars have emphasized the misogynistic (or at least androcentric) nature of Buddhism" and stated that Buddhism morally exalts its male monks while the mothers and wives of the monks also have important roles. Additionally, he wrote:

While some scholars see Buddhism as part of a movement of emancipation, others see it as a source of oppression. Perhaps this is only a distinction between optimists and pessimists, if not between idealists and realists... As we begin to realize, the term "Buddhism" does not designate a monolithic entity, but covers a number of doctrines, ideologies, and practices--some of which seem to invite, tolerate, and even cultivate "otherness" on their margins.[27]


Eve rides astride the Serpent on a capital in Laach Abbey church, 13th century
Eve rides astride the Serpent on a capital in Laach Abbey church, 13th century

Differences in tradition and interpretations of scripture have caused sects of Christianity to differ in their beliefs with regard their treatment of women.

In The Troublesome Helpmate, Katharine M. Rogers argues that Christianity is misogynistic, and she lists what she says are specific examples of misogyny in the Pauline epistles. She states:

The foundations of early Christian misogyny — its guilt about sex, its insistence on female subjection, its dread of female seduction — are all in St. Paul's epistles.[28]

In K. K. Ruthven's Feminist Literary Studies: An Introduction, Ruthven makes reference to Rogers' book and argues that the "legacy of Christian misogyny was consolidated by the so-called 'Fathers' of the Church, like Tertullian, who thought a woman was not only 'the gateway of the devil' but also 'a temple built over a sewer'."[29]

However, some other scholars have argued that Christianity does not include misogynistic principles, or at least that a proper interpretation of Christianity would not include misogynistic principles. David M. Scholer, a biblical scholar at Fuller Theological Seminary, stated that the verse Galatians 3:28 ("There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus") is "the fundamental Pauline theological basis for the inclusion of women and men as equal and mutual partners in all of the ministries of the church."[30][31] In his book Equality in Christ? Galatians 3:28 and the Gender Dispute, Richard Hove argues that—while Galatians 3:28 does mean that one's sex does not affect salvation—"there remains a pattern in which the wife is to emulate the church's submission to Christ (Eph 5:21-33) and the husband is to emulate Christ's love for the church."[32]

In Christian Men Who Hate Women, clinical psychologist Margaret J. Rinck has written that Christian social culture often allows a misogynist "misuse of the biblical ideal of submission". However, she argues that this a distortion of the "healthy relationship of mutual submission" which is actually specified in Christian doctrine, where "[l]ove is based on a deep, mutual respect as the guiding principle behind all decisions, actions, and plans".[33] Similarly, Catholic scholar Christopher West argues that "male domination violates God's plan and is the specific result of sin".[34]


The fourth chapter (or sura) of the Quran is called "Women" (An-Nisa). The 34th verse is a key verse in feminist criticism of Islam.[35] The verse reads: "Men are the maintainers of women because Allah has made some of them to excel others and because they spend out of their property; the good women are therefore obedient, guarding the unseen as Allah has guarded; and (as to) those on whose part you fear desertion, admonish them, and leave them alone in the sleeping-places and beat them; then if they obey you, do not seek a way against them; surely Allah is High, Great."

In his book Popular Islam and Misogyny: A Case Study of Bangladesh, Taj Hashmi discusses misogyny in relation to Muslim culture (and to Bangladesh in particular), writing:

[T]hanks to the subjective interpretations of the Quran (almost exclusively by men), the preponderance of the misogynic mullahs and the regressive Shariah law in most "Muslim" countries, Islam is synonymously known as a promoter of misogyny in its worst form. Although there is no way of defending the so-called "great" traditions of Islam as libertarian and egalitarian with regard to women, we may draw a line between the Quranic texts and the corpus of avowedly misogynic writing and spoken words by the mullah having very little or no relevance to the Quran.[36]

In his book No god but God, University of Southern California professor Reza Aslan wrote that "misogynistic interpretation" has been persistently attached to An-Nisa, 34 because commentary on the Quran "has been the exclusive domain of Muslim men".[37]


Guru Nanak in the center, amongst other Sikh figures
Guru Nanak in the center, amongst other Sikh figures

Scholars William M. Reynolds and Julie A. Webber have written that Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh faith tradition, was a "fighter for women's rights" that was "in no way misogynistic" in contrast to some of his contemporaries.[38]


In his book Scientology: A New Slant on Life, L. Ron Hubbard wrote the following passage:

A society in which women are taught anything but the management of a family, the care of men, and the creation of the future generation is a society which is on its way out.

In the same book, he also wrote:

The historian can peg the point where a society begins its sharpest decline at the instant when women begin to take part, on an equal footing with men, in political and business affairs, since this means that the men are decadent and the women are no longer women. This is not a sermon on the role or position of women; it is a statement of bald and basic fact.

These passages, along with other ones of a similar nature from Hubbard, have been criticised by Alan Scherstuhl of The Village Voice as expressions of hatred towards women.[39] However, Baylor University professor J. Gordon Melton has written that Hubbard later disregarded and abrogated much of his earlier views about women, which Melton views as merely echoes of common prejudices at the time. Melton has also stated that the Church of Scientology welcomes both genders equally at all levels—from leadership positions to auditing and so on—since Scientologists view people as spiritual beings.[40]

Misogynistic ideas among prominent western thinkers

Numerous influential Western philosophers have been expressed ideas that can be characterized as misogynistic, including Aristotle, René Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, David Hume, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, G. W. F. Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrich Nietzsche, Charles Darwin, Sigmund Freud, Otto Weininger, Oswald Spengler, and John Lucas.[3] Because of the influence of these thinkers, feminist scholars trace misogyny in western culture to these philosophers and their ideas.[41]


Aristotle believed women were inferior and described them as "deformed males".[42][43] In his work Politics, he states

as regards the sexes, the male is by nature superior and the female inferior, the male ruler and the female subject 4 (1254b13-14).[43]

Another example is Cynthia's catalog where Cynthia states "Aristotle says that the courage of a man lies in commanding, a woman's lies in obeying; that 'matter yearns for form, as the female for the male and the ugly for the beautiful'; that women have fewer teeth than men; that a female is an incomplete male or 'as it were, a deformity'.[42] Aristotle believed that men and women naturally differed both physically and mentally. He claimed that women are "more mischievous, less simple, more impulsive ... more compassionate[,] ... more easily moved to tears[,] ... more jealous, more querulous, more apt to scold and to strike[,] ... more prone to despondency and less hopeful[,] ... more void of shame or self-respect, more false of speech, more deceptive, of more retentive memory [and] ... also more wakeful; more shrinking [and] more difficult to rouse to action" than men.[44]

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau is well known for his views against equal rights for women for example in his treatise Emile, he writes: "Always justify the burdens you impose upon girls but impose them anyway... . They must be thwarted from an early age... . They must be exercised to constraint, so that it costs them nothing to stifle all their fantasies to submit them to the will of others." Other quotes consist of "closed up in their houses", "must receive the decisions of fathers and husbands like that of the church".[45]

Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin wrote on the subject female inferiority through the lens of human evolution.[46] He noted in his book The Descent of Men: "young of both sexes resembled the adult female in most species" which he extrapolated and further reasoned "males were more evolutionarily advanced than females". Darwin believed all savages, children and women had smaller brains and therefore led more by instinct and less by reason.[46] Such ideas quickly spread to other scientists such as Professor Carl Vogt of natural sciences at the University of Geneva who argued "the child, the female, and the senile white" had the mental traits of a "grown up Negro", that the female is similar in intellectual capacity and personality traits to both infants and the "lower races" such as blacks while drawing conclusion that women are closely related to lower animals than men and "hence we should discover a greater apelike resemblance if we were to take a female as our standard".[46] Darwin's beliefs about women were also reflective of his attitudes towards women in general for example his views towards marriage as a young man in which he was quoted ""how should I manage all my business if obligated to go everyday walking with my wife – Ehau!" and that being married was "worse than being a Negro".[46] Or in other instances his concern of his son marrying a woman named Martineau about which he wrote "... he shall be not much better than her "nigger." Imagine poor Erasmus a nigger to so philosophical and energetic a lady ... Martineau had just returned from a whirlwind tour of America, and was full of married women's property rights ... Perfect equality of rights is part of her doctrine...We must pray for our poor "nigger.""[46]

Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer has been noted as a misogynist by many such as the philosopher, critic, and author Tom Grimwood.[47] In a 2008 article Grimwood wrote published in the philosophical journal of Kritique, Grimwood argues that Schopenhauer's misogynistic works have largely escaped attention despite being more noticeable than those of other philosophers such as Nietzsche.[47] For example, he noted Schopenhauer's works where the latter had argued women only have "meagre" reason comparable that of "the animal" "who lives in the present". Other works he noted consisted of Schopenhauer's argument that women's only role in nature is to further the species through childbirth and hence is equipped with the power to seduce and "capture" men.[47] He goes on to state that women's cheerfulness is chaotic and disruptive which is why it is crucial to exercise obedience to those with rationality. For her to function beyond her rational subjugator is a threat against men as well as other women, he notes. Schopenhauer also thought women's cheerfulness is an expression of her lack of morality and incapability to understand abstract or objective meaning such as art.[47] This is followed up by his quote "have never been able to produce a single, really great, genuine and original achievement in the fine arts, or bring to anywhere into the world a work of permanent value".[47] Arthur Schopenhauer also blamed women for the fall of King Louis XIII and triggering the French Revolution, in which he was later quoted as saying:[47]

"At all events, a false position of the female sex, such as has its most acute symptom in our lady-business, is a fundamental defect of the state of society. Proceeding from the heart of this, it is bound to spread its noxious influence to all parts."[47]

Schopenhauer has also been accused of misogyny for his essay "On Women" (Über die Weiber), in which he expressed his opposition to what he called "Teutonico-Christian stupidity" on female affairs. He argued that women are "by nature meant to obey" as they are "childish, frivolous, and short sighted".[3] He claimed that no woman had ever produced great art or "any work of permanent value".[3] He also argued that women did not possess any real beauty:[48]

It is only a man whose intellect is clouded by his sexual impulse that could give the name of the fair sex to that under-sized, narrow-shouldered, broad-hipped, and short-legged race; for the whole beauty of the sex is bound up with this impulse. Instead of calling them beautiful there would be more warrant for describing women as the unaesthetic sex.


In Beyond Good and Evil, Friedrich Nietzsche stated that stricter controls on women was a condition of "every elevation of culture".[49] In his Thus Spoke Zarathustra, he has a female character say "You are going to women? Do not forget the whip!"[50] In Twilight of the Idols, Nietzsche writes "Women are considered profound. Why? Because we never fathom their depths. But women aren't even shallow."[51] There is controversy over the questions of whether or not this amounts to misogyny, whether his polemic against women is meant to be taken literally, and the exact nature of his opinions of women.[52]


Hegel's view of women can be characterized as misogynistic.[53] Passages from Hegel's Elements of the Philosophy of Right illustrate the criticism:[54]

Women are capable of education, but they are not made for activities which demand a universal faculty such as the more advanced sciences, philosophy and certain forms of artistic production... Women regulate their actions not by the demands of universality, but by arbitrary inclinations and opinions.

Online misogyny

Misogynistic rhetoric is prevalent online and has grown rhetorically more aggressive. The public debate over gender-based attacks has increased significantly, leading to calls for policy interventions and better responses by social networks like Facebook and Twitter.[55][56]

A 2016 study conducted by the think tank Demos concluded that 50% of all misogynistic tweets on Twitter come from women themselves.[57]

Most targets are women who are visible in the public sphere, women who speak out about the threats they receive, and women who are perceived to be associated with feminism or feminist gains. Authors of misogynistic messages are usually anonymous or otherwise difficult to identify. Their rhetoric involves misogynistic epithets and graphic and sexualized imagery, centers on the women's physical appearance, and prescribes sexual violence as a corrective for the targeted women. Examples of famous women who spoke out about misogynistic attacks are Anita Sarkeesian, Laurie Penny, Caroline Criado Perez, Stella Creasy, and Lindy West.[55]

The insults and threats directed at different women tend to be very similar. Sady Doyle who has been the target of online threats noted the "overwhelmingly impersonal, repetitive, stereotyped quality" of the abuse, the fact that "all of us are being called the same things, in the same tone".[55]

Psychological impact

Internalized misogyny

Internalized sexism is when an individual enacts sexist actions and attitudes towards themselves and people of their own sex.[58] On a larger scale, internalized sexism falls under the broad topic of internalized oppression, which "consists of oppressive practices that continue to make the rounds even when members of the oppressor group are not present".[58] Women who experience internalized misogyny may express it through minimizing the value of women, mistrusting women, and believing gender bias in favor of men.[59] Women, after hearing men demean the value and skills of women repeatedly, eventually internalize their beliefs and apply the misogynistic beliefs to themselves and other women.[60] A common manifestation of internalized misogyny is lateral violence.

Feminist theory

Subscribers to one model say that some misogyny results from the Madonna–whore complex, which is the inability to see women as anything other than "mothers" or "whores"; people with this complex place each encountered woman into one of these categories. Another variant model alleges that one cause of misogyny is some men thinking in terms of a virgin/whore dichotomy, which results in them considering as "whores" any women who do not adhere to an Abrahamic standard of moral purity.[61]

In the late 20th century, second-wave feminist theorists argued that misogyny is both a cause and a result of patriarchal social structures.[62]

Sociologist Michael Flood has argued that "misandry lacks the systemic, trans-historic, institutionalized, and legislated antipathy of misogyny".[63]

British legal situation

In recent years there has been increasing discussion in the UK of misogyny being added to the list of aggravating factors that are commonly referred to by the media as “hate crimes”. Aggravating factors in criminal sentencing currently include hostility to a victim due to characteristics such as sexuality, race or disability.[64]

In 2016, Nottinghamshire Police began a pilot project to record misogynistic behaviour as either hate crime or hate incidents, depending on whether the action was a criminal offence.[65] Over two years (April 2016-March 2018) there were 174 reports made, of which 73 were classified as crimes and 101 as incidents.[66]

In September 2018 it was announced that the Law Commission would conduct a review into whether misogynistic conduct, as well as hostility due to ageism, misandry or towards groups such as goths, should be treated as a hate crime.[67][68]

In October 2018, two senior police officers, Sara Thornton, chair of the National Police Chiefs' Council, and Cressida Dick, Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, stated that police forces should focus on more serious crimes such as burglary and violent offences, and not on recording incidents which are not crimes.[69] Thornton said that "treating misogyny as a hate crime is a concern for some well-organised campaigning organisations", but that police forces "do not have the resources to do everything".[70]

Criticism of the concept

Camille Paglia, a self-described "dissident feminist" who has often been at odds with other academic feminists, argues that there are serious flaws in the Marxism-inspired[71] interpretation of misogyny that is prevalent in second-wave feminism. In contrast, Paglia argues that a close reading of historical texts reveals that men do not hate women but fear them.[72] Christian Groes-Green has argued that misogyny must be seen in relation to its opposite which he terms philogyny. Criticizing R. W. Connell's theory of hegemonic masculinities, he shows how philogynous masculinities play out among youth in Maputo, Mozambique.[73]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b Code, Lorraine (2000). Encyclopedia of Feminist Theories (1st ed.). London: Routledge. p. 346. ISBN 978-0-415-13274-9.
  2. ^ Kramarae, Cheris (2000). Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women. New York: Routledge. pp. 1374–1377. ISBN 978-0-415-92088-9.
  3. ^ a b c d Clack, Beverley (1999). Misogyny in the Western Philosophical Tradition: A Reader. New York: Routledge. pp. 95–241. ISBN 978-0-415-92182-4.
  4. ^ Johnson, Allan G (2000). The Blackwell dictionary of sociology: A user's guide to sociological language. ISBN 978-0-631-21681-0. Retrieved November 21, 2011., ("ideology" in all small capitals in original).
  5. ^ Flood, Michael (July 18, 2007). International encyclopedia of men and masculinities. ISBN 978-0-415-33343-6.
  6. ^ The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles (Oxford: Clarendon Press (Oxford Univ. Press), [4th] ed. 1993 (ISBN 0-19-861271-0)) (SOED) ("[h]atred of women").
  7. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 1992 (ISBN 0-395-44895-6)) ("[h]atred of women").
  8. ^ Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged (G. & C. Merriam, 1966) ("a hatred of women").
  9. ^ Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary (N.Y.: Random House, 2d ed. 2001 (ISBN 0-375-42566-7)).
  10. ^ "Transcript of Julia Gillard's speech". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  11. ^ Daley, Gemma (17 October 2012). "Macquarie Dictionary has last word on misogyny". Archived from the original on 19 October 2012.
  12. ^ Roberts, J.W (2002-06-01). City of Sokrates: An Introduction to Classical Athens. ISBN 978-0-203-19479-9.
  13. ^ The editio princeps is on page 255 of volume three of Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta (SVF, Old Stoic Fragments), see External links.
  14. ^ a b c A recent critical text with translation is in Appendix A to Will Deming, Paul on Marriage and Celibacy: The Hellenistic Background of 1 Corinthians 7, pp. 221–226. Misogunia appears in the accusative case on page 224 of Deming, as the fifth word in line 33 of his Greek text. It is split over lines 25–26 in von Arnim.
  15. ^ 38-43, fr. 63, in von Arnim, J. (ed.). Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta. Vol. 3. Leipzig: Teubner, 1903.
  16. ^ SVF 3:103. Misogyny is the first word on the page.
  17. ^ Teun L. Tieleman, Chrysippus' on Affections: Reconstruction and Interpretations, (Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2003), p. 162. ISBN 90-04-12998-7
  18. ^ Ricardo Salles, Metaphysics, Soul, and Ethics in Ancient Thought: Themes from the Work of Richard Sorabji, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2005), 485.
  19. ^ "Feminist History of Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". Retrieved 2013-10-01.
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  21. ^ Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon (LSJ), revised and augmented by Henry Stuart Jones and Roderick McKenzie, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940). ISBN 0-19-864226-1
  22. ^ Strabo,Geography, Book 7 [Alexandria] Chapter 3.
  23. ^ Menander, The Plays and Fragments, translated by Maurice Balme, contributor Peter Brown, Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-19-283983-7
  24. ^ He is supported (or followed) by Theognostus the Grammarian's 9th century Canones, edited by John Antony Cramer, Anecdota Graeca e codd. manuscriptis bibliothecarum Oxoniensium, vol. 2, (Oxford University Press, 1835), p. 88.
  25. ^ a b Marcus Tullius Cicero, Tusculanae Quaestiones, Book 4, Chapter 11.
  26. ^ Holland, J: Misogyny: The World's Oldest Prejudice, pp. 12–13. Avalon Publishing Group, 2006.
  27. ^ "Sample Chapter for Faure, B.: The Power of Denial: Buddhism, Purity, and Gender". Archived from the original on 2013-10-05. Retrieved 2013-10-01.
  28. ^ Rogers, Katharine M. The Troublesome Helpmate: A History of Misogyny in Literature, 1966.
  29. ^ Ruthven, K. K (1990). Feminist literary studies: An introduction. ISBN 978-0-521-39852-7.
  30. ^ "Galatians 3:28 – prooftext or context?". The council on biblical manhood and womanhood. Archived from the original on February 6, 2015. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  31. ^ Hove, Richard. Equality in Christ? Galatians 3:28 and the Gender Dispute (Wheaton: Crossway, 1999), p. 17.
  32. ^ Campbell, Ken M (October 1, 2003). Marriage and family in the biblical world. ISBN 978-0-8308-2737-4.
  33. ^ Rinck, Margaret J. (1990). Christian Men Who Hate Women: Healing Hurting Relationships. Zondervan. pp. 81–85. ISBN 978-0-310-51751-1.
  34. ^ Weigel, Christopher West ; with a foreword by George (2003). Theology of the body explained : a commentary on John Paul II's "Gospel of the body". Leominster, Herefordshire: Gracewing. ISBN 978-0-85244-600-3.
  35. ^ "Verse 34 of Chapter 4 is an oft-cited Verse in the Qur'an used to demonstrate that Islam is structurally patriarchal, and thus Islam internalizes male dominance." Dahlia Eissa, "Constructing the Notion of Male Superiority over Women in Islam: The influence of sex and gender stereotyping in the interpretation of the Qur'an and the implications for a modernist exegesis of rights", Occasional Paper 11 in Occasional Papers (Empowerment International, 1999).
  36. ^ Hashmi, Taj. Popular Islam and Misogyny: A Case Study of Bangladesh. Retrieved August 11, 2008.
  37. ^ Nomani, Asra Q. (October 22, 2006). "Clothes Aren't the Issue". Washington Post.
  38. ^ Julie A. Webber (2004). Expanding curriculum theory: dis/positions and lines of flight. Psychology Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-8058-4665-2.
  39. ^ Scherstuhl, Alan (June 21, 2010). "The Church of Scientology does not want you to see L. Ron Hubbard's woman-hatin' book chapter". The Village Voice. Archived from the original on June 25, 2010.
  40. ^ "Gender and Sexuality". 2012-07-26. Retrieved 2013-10-01.
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  43. ^ a b Smith, Nicholas D. (1983). "Plato and Aristotle on the Nature of Women". Journal of the History of Philosophy. 21 (4): 467–478. doi:10.1353/hph.1983.0090.
  44. ^ History of Animals, 608b. 1–14
  45. ^ Blum, C. (2010). "Rousseau and Feminist Revision". Eighteenth-Century Life. 34 (3): 51–54. doi:10.1215/00982601-2010-012.
  46. ^ a b c d e Bergman, Gerald (2002-12-01). "The history of the human female inferiority ideas in evolutionary biology". Rivista di Biologia. 95 (3): 379–412. ISSN 0035-6050. PMID 12680306.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g Grimwood, Tom (2008-01-01). "The Limits of Misogyny: Schopenhauer, "On Women"". Kritike: An Online Journal of Philosophy. 2 (2): 131–145. doi:10.3860/krit.v2i2.854.
  48. ^ Durant, Will (1983). The Story of Philosophy. New York, N.Y.: Simon and Schuster. p. 257. ISBN 978-0-671-20159-3.
  49. ^ Nietzsche, Friedrich (1886). Beyond Good and Evil. Germany. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
  50. ^ Burgard, Peter J. (May 1994). Nietzsche and the Feminine. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-8139-1495-4.
  51. ^ Nietzsche, Friedrich (1889). Twilight of the Idols. Germany. ISBN 978-0-14-044514-5. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
  52. ^ Robert C. Holub, Nietzsche and The Women's Question. Coursework for Berkley University.
  53. ^ Gallagher, Shaun (1997). Hegel, history, and interpretation. SUNY Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-7914-3381-2.
  54. ^ Alanen, Lilli; Witt, Charlotte (2004). Feminist Reflections on the History of Philosophy. ISBN 978-1-4020-2488-7.
  55. ^ a b c Jane, Emma Alice (2014). "'Back to the kitchen, cunt': speaking the unspeakable about online misogyny". Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies. 28 (4): 558–570. doi:10.1080/10304312.2014.924479.
  56. ^ Philipovic, Jill (2007). "Blogging While Female: How Internet Misogyny Parallels Real-World Harassment". Yale Journal of Law and Feminism. 19 (2): 295–303.
  57. ^ Twitter abuse - '50% of misogynistic tweets from women', BBC
  58. ^ a b Bearman, Steve, Neill Korobov, and Avril Thorne. "The fabric of internalized sexism." Journal of Integrated Social Sciences 1, no. 1 (2009): 10-47.
  59. ^ Szymanski, Gupta, and Carr. 2009. "Internalized Misogyny as a Moderator of the Link between Sexist Events and Women’s Psychological Distress." Sex Roles 16, no. 1-2: 101–109.
  60. ^ Bearman, Steve; Korobov, Neill; Thorne, Avril. 2009. "The fabric of internalized sexism." Journal of Integrated Social Sciences 1, no. 1: 10-47.
  61. ^ Wyman, Leah M.; Dionisopolous, George N. (2000). "Transcending The Virgin/Whore Dichotomy: Telling Mina's Story in Bram Stoker's Dracula". Women's Studies in Communication. Taylor & Francis. 23 (2): 209–237. doi:10.1080/07491409.2000.10162569. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
  62. ^ E.g., Kate Millet's Sexual Politics, adapted from her doctoral dissertation is normally cited as the originator of this viewpoint; though Katharine M Rogers had also published similar ideas previously.
  63. ^ Flood, Michael (2007-07-18). "International encyclopedia of men and masculinities". ISBN 978-0-415-33343-6.
  64. ^ "Aggravating and mitigating factors", Sentencing Council.
  65. ^ Brooks, Libby, "UK police chiefs urged to adopt harassment of women as hate crime", The Guardian, July 9, 2018.
  66. ^ "Misogyny hate crime in Nottinghamshire gives 'shocking' results", BBC News, July 9, 2018.
  67. ^ "Misogyny could become hate crime as legal review is announced", BBC News, September 6, 2018.
  68. ^ Grierson, Jamie, "Review of UK hate crime law to consider misogyny and ageism", The Guardian, October 16, 2018.
  69. ^ Tobin, Olivia, "Met chief Cressida Dick backs senior police officer Sara Thornton on tackling burglars and violence ahead of hate crimes", Evening Standard, November 2, 2018.
  70. ^ "Focus on violent crime not misogyny, says police chief", BBC News, November 1, 2018.
  71. ^ "Marxist feminists reduced the historical cult of woman’s virginity to her property value, her worth on the male marriage market.", Paglia, 1991, Sexual Persona, p. 27.
  72. ^ Paglia, Camille (1991). Sexual Personae, NY: Vintage, Chapter 1 and passim.
  73. ^ Groes-Green, Christian (2011). "Philogynous Masculinities: Contextualizing Alternative Manhood in Mozambique". Men and Masculinities. 15 (2): 91–111. doi:10.1177/1097184x11427021.


External links

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