To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A man drinking pombe on the porch of Bonno Thoden van Velzen (Ibala village, 1967).
A man drinking pombe on the porch of Bonno Thoden van Velzen (Ibala village, 1967).

Millet beer, also known as Bantu beer, malwa, pombe "Tchouk" or opaque beer, is an alcoholic beverage made from malted millet that is common throughout Africa.[1] Its production process varies across regions and in the southern parts of Africa is more commonly known as umqombothi. Millet Beer varies in taste and alcoholic content between ethnic groups.[citation needed] It is served in calabash gourds.


This type of beer is common throughout Africa. Related African drinks include maize beer and sorghum beer.

In the Balkans and Turkey a form of millet beer named boza is produced.[2]

In the U.S., Sprecher Brewery produces a type of beer that contains a mix of millet and sorghum known as Shakparo.[3]

A form of millet beer is also produced by the Ainu.[4]

Production process

Millet kernels are soaked in warm water until they sprout, with the goal to increase the content of maltose in the grain. The millet is then dried out to arrest the germination process.[citation needed] The malted grain is then pulverized and mixed with water. This mixture is commonly known as wort. The wort is later boiled in order to remove any potential bacterial threat. Once the boiling process is complete and the wort cools down yeast is added. The mixture is then allowed to ferment. The entire process takes five days.[5]

Cultural significance

In many cultures of West Africa, millet beer is involved in every aspect of daily life, such as:

  • Sacrifices;
  • Rites of passage;
  • Dances;
  • Births, marriages, burials, and funeral celebrations;
  • Welcoming a guest;
  • Sealing a contract;
  • Agricultural cooperatives;
  • Thatching a roof;
  • Pounding a courtyard;
  • Domestic construction projects (barn raising);
  • Discussions between village elders;
  • Social gatherings at home and the market.[6]

In some West African cultures, village women open their homes as 'pubs' one day a week, to sell millet beer.[citation needed] This gathering point provides social cohesion in the village. The millet beer is served in a calabash. Drinkers hold the calabash with the right hand, pouring a few drops on the ground in honor of ancestors before drinking. After drinking, drinkers pour the dregs on the ground in a straight line.

Words for "millet beer" in African languages

  • Ajon - Ateso (Uganda).
  • Malwa - Luganda (Uganda)
  • Tchouk ("chook") (Togo)
  • Chibuku - Southern and Central Africa.
  • Dolo - Djioula - West Africa (Burkina Faso)

See also


  1. ^ "Brewing with Millet". Scott Janish. 2016-11-07. Retrieved 2020-05-30.
  2. ^ Omda (2007-01-17). "Boza /Millet-Ale/". Retrieved 2015-12-17.
  3. ^ "Shakparo (Fire-Brewed African Style-Ale) | Sprecher Brewing Company". BeerAdvocate. 2009-11-25. Retrieved 2015-12-17.
  4. ^ "Ainu: Spirit of a Northern People". 2013-11-03. Retrieved 2015-12-17.
  5. ^ "Michael and Doria's Travel Tales: Homebrew, Bobo Style". 2007-01-21. Retrieved 2015-12-17.
  6. ^ Roberts, David (2013). Parlons kabiyè. Paris: Harmattan. pp 249-252

Further reading

  • Haggblade, Steven, and Wilhelm H. Holzapfel. (2004). "Industrialization of Africa's Indigenous Beer Brewing", Industrialization of Indigenous Fermented Foods, 2nd ed. New York City: CRC Press.

External links

This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 22:34
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.