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Millennium of Russia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Millennium of Russia
Native name
Russian: Тысячелетие России
Новгородский кремль Памятник тысячелетию Руси.jpg
LocationVeliky Novgorod, Novgorod Oblast, Russia
Height15.7m
Built1862
Official nameHistoric Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings
TypeCultural
Criteriaii, iv, vi
Designated1992 (16th session)
Reference no.604
State PartyRussia
RegionEastern Europe
The Millennium of Russia.
The Millennium of Russia.
The Millennium of Russia (1862), with Saint Sophia Cathedral in the background. The upper row of figures is cast in the round and the lower one is in relief.
The Millennium of Russia (1862), with Saint Sophia Cathedral in the background. The upper row of figures is cast in the round and the lower one is in relief.

The Millennium of Russia (Russian: Тысячелетие России, romanizedTysyacheletiye Rossii) is a bronze monument in the Novgorod Kremlin. It was erected in 1862 to celebrate the millennium of Rurik's arrival to Novgorod, an event traditionally taken as a starting point of the history of Russian statehood.

History

A competition to design the monument was held in 1859. An architect Viktor Hartmann and an artist Mikhail Mikeshin were declared the winners. Mikeshin's design called for a grandiose, 15-metre-high globus cruciger on a bell-shaped pedestal. It was to be encircled with several tiers of sculptures representing Russian monarchs, clerics, generals, and artists active during various periods of Russian history.

Mikeshin himself was no sculptor, therefore the 129 individual statues for the monument were made by the leading Russian sculptors of the day, including his friend Ivan Schroeder and the celebrated Alexander Opekushin. Rather unexpectedly for such an official project, the tsars and commanders were represented side by side with sixteen eminent personalities of Russian culture: Lomonosov, Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Karl Brullov, Mikhail Glinka, etc. As for the Russian rulers, Ivan the Terrible is famously absent from the monument due to his role in the 1570 pillage and massacre of Novgorod by the Oprichnina. Alongside the Muscovite princes, the medieval Lithuanian dynasts such as Gediminas or Vytautas the Great who reigned over the Eastern Slavs of the present-day Belarus and Ukraine are represented.

The most expensive Russian monument up to that time, it was erected at a cost of 400,000 roubles, mostly raised by public subscription. In order to provide an appropriate pedestal for the huge sculpture, sixteen blocks of Sortavala granite were brought to Novgorod, each weighing in excess of 35 tons. The bronze monument itself weighs 100 tons.

Commemorative coin issued in the USSR in 1988.
Commemorative coin issued in the USSR in 1988.

At the time when the monument was inaugurated, many art critics felt that it was overloaded with figures. Supporters regard Mikeshin's design as harmonious with the medieval setting of the Kremlin, and subtly accentuating the vertical thrust and grandeur of the nearby 11th-century Saint Sophia Cathedral.

During World War II, the Germans dismantled the monument, and prepared it to be transported to Germany. However, the Red Army regained control of Novgorod and the monument was restored to public view in 1944. A 5-ruble commemorative coin was released in the USSR in 1988 to commemorate the monument. The Millennium of Baptism of Russia was the first state-sponsored national and religious festival since the cessation of the State atheistic policy during the early 1980s.[1]

Upper level

Picture Description
Памятник 1000-летию России. Ангел с крестом. - panoramio.jpg
An angel (personification of the Orthodox Church) supporting the cross and blessing a kneeling woman in Russian national costume, leaning on a shield with the coat of arms and the date "1862". The figures are made by Ivan Schroeder, the cross was made according to the drawing by Viktor Hartmann. This group is installed at the top of the orb (symbol of the monarch's power), covered with a cross pattern. The orb is surrounded by an inscription: "To the Millennium of the Russian state, which happened in the prosperous reign of Emperor Alexander II, year 1862"

Middle level

Picture Name Name in Russian Historical year Description
1000 Rurik.JPG
The arrival of the Varangians in Rus Призвание варягов на Русь 862 The statue of the first warrior prince Rurik with helmet and shield with the inscription "year 6370" (since the creation of the world). Rurik wears a fur on his shoulders, behind him the pagan Slavic god Veles can be seen. The figure looks south-west, in the direction of Kiev.
1000 Vladimir up.jpg
The Christianization of Rus Крещение Руси 988 In the center, the Kievan Grand Prince Vladimir the Great can be found, raises an Orthodox cross. Besides, a woman holds her child for baptism and a Slav dispossesses the pagan god Perun. The composition looks in the south-eastern direction.
Dmitry Donskoi (Millennium Monument in Novgorod).jpg
Beginning of the expulsion of the Tatars Начало изгнания татар 1380 Dmitry Donskoi, the victor in the Battle of Kulikovo, holds a Russian mace in his right hand. At his feet lies Mamai, the defeated warlord of the Golden Horde. In the left hand Dmitry Donskoi holds a captured bunchuk, the Tatar symbol of power. The composition looks east.
1000 Ivan III 2.jpg
Foundation of an independent Russian Tsardom Основание самодержавного царства Русского 1491 Ivan the Great in a dress of Byzantine emperors with Monomach's Cap. In his hands he holds a scepter and a globus cruciger. In front of him, a Tatar is kneeling, beside him, a Lithuanian is lying, representing Grand Duchy of Lithuania, as well as a Teutonic knight with a broken sword, representing the Order of Teutonic Knights. The composition looks north-east.
1000 Mikhail F Romanov.jpg
Enthronement of the Romanov dynasty Начало династии Романовых 1613 The young Tsar Michael of Russia ascends to the Russian throne after the overcoming of the Time of Troubles. Prince Dmitry Pozharsky who represents the nobility protects him with his sword while Kuzma Minin who represents the people offers him the Monomach's Cap and the scepter. In the background, a figure of a Siberian Cossack can be found which symbolizes the colonization of Siberia to come.
Millennium of Russia 2.6.jpg
Creation of the Russian Empire Образование Российской империи 1721 Peter the Great with laurel wreath and scepter in the right hand is supported by an angel showing him the way to the north-west where the future city of Saint-Petersburg shall be founded. At Peter's feet, defeated Swede can be found trying to protect his torn flag. This symbolizes the Russian victory in the Great Northern War. The composition looks north-west.

Bottom level

Men of enlightenment: Statesmen: Military men and heroes: Writers and artists:
1000 Kirill i Mefody.jpg
Cyril and Methodius, missionaries of Slavs Yaroslav the Wise, Grand Prince of Kiev
1000 Sviatoslav.jpg
Sviatoslav I of Kiev, Grand Prince of Kiev
1000 Lomonosov.jpg
Mikhail Lomonosov, polymath
1000 Olga.jpg
Olga of Kiev, Grand Princess of Kiev
1000 Monomah.jpg
Vladimir Monomakh, Grand Prince of Kiev
1000 Udaloi.jpg
Mstislav Mstislavich, Prince of Novgorod and Galicia
1000 Fonvizin.jpg
Denis Fonvizin, playwright
1000 Vladimir Sviat.jpg
Vladimir the Great, Grand Prince of Kiev
1000 Gediminas.jpg
Gediminas, Grand Prince of Lithuania
1000 Galitsky.jpg
Daniel of Galicia, Prince of Galicia
1000 Kokorinov.jpg
Alexander Kokorinov, architect
1000 Avraam.jpg
Abraham, bishop of Rostov
1000 Algirdas.jpg
Algirdas, Grand Prince of Lithuania
1000 Dovmont.jpg
Daumantas, Prince of Pskov
1000 Derjavin.jpg
Gavrila Derzhavin, poet and statesman
1000 Antony Pechersky.jpg
Anthony of Kiev, founder of the Monastery of the Caves
1000 Vitovt.jpg
Vytautas, Grand Prince of Lithuania
1000 Aldr Nevsky.jpg
Alexander Nevsky, Grand Prince of Vladimir
1000 Volkov.jpg
Fyodor Volkov, actor
1000 Feodosy Pechersky.jpg
Theodosius of Kiev, Kievan monk
1000 Ivan III.jpg
Ivan the Great, Grand Prince of Moscow
1000 Mihail Yarosl.jpg
Michael, Prince of Tver
1000 Karamzin.jpg
Nikolai Karamzin, playwright and historian
1000 Kuksha.jpg
Kuksha of the Kiev Caves, Kievan monk
1000 Silvestr.jpg
Sylvester, clergyman and statesman
1000 Donskoi na frize.jpg
Dmitry Donskoi, Grand Prince of Moscow
И. А. Крылов на Памятнике "1000-летие России" в Великом Новгороде.jpg
Ivan Krylov, poet of fables
1000 Nestor.jpg
Nestor the Chronicler, chronicler of the Russian history
1000 Anastsia Romanovna.jpg
Anastasia Romanovna, first wife of Ivan the Terrible
1000 Keistut.jpg
Kęstutis, Grand Prince of Lithuania
1000 Jukovsky.jpg
Vasily Zhukovsky, poet and translator
1000 Kirill Belozersky.jpg
Cyril of White Lake, Founder of the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery
1000 Adashev.jpg
Alexey Adashev, Ivan IV's bosom friend and advisor
1000 Holmsky.jpg
Daniil Kholmsky, general
1000 Gnedich.jpg
Nikolay Gnedich, Poet and translator
1000 Stefan Permsky.jpg
Stephen of Perm, Bishop and Missionary of Perm
1000 Germogen.jpg
Hermogenes, Patriarch of Moscow
1000 Vorotynsky.jpg
Mikhail Vorotynsky, Field Marshal
1000 Griboedov.jpg
Aleksandr Griboyedov, Writer and Diplomat
1000 Aleksy.jpg
Alexius, Metropolitan of Kiev and Moscow
1000 Mikhail Romanov.jpg
Michael Romanov, first Romanov tsar
1000 Shenya.jpg
Daniil Shchenya, military leader
1000 Lermontov.jpg
Mikhail Lermontov, poet and writer
1000 Sergy Rad.jpg
Sergius of Radonezh, spiritual leader
1000 Filaret.jpg
Filaret, Patriarch of Moscow
1000 Marfa.jpg
Marfa Boretskaya, Posadnik of Novgorod
1000 Pushkin.jpg
Alexander Pushkin, poet and writer
1000 Piotr Mogila.jpg
Peter Mogila, Metropolitan of Kiev
1000 Ordin.jpg
Afanasy Ordin-Nashchokin, Diplomat
1000 Ermak.jpg
Yermak Timofeyevich, Cossack leader
1000 Gogol.jpg
Nikolai Gogol, Writer
1000 Zosima.jpg
Zosima of Solovki, Founder of the Solovetsky Monastery
1000 Matveev.jpg
Artamon Matveyev, Statesman and Diplomat
1000 Skopin.jpg
Mikhail Skopin-Shuisky, military leader
1000 Glinka.jpg
Mikhail Glinka, Composer
1000 Maksim Grek.jpg
Maximus the Greek, Writer and scholar
1000 Alex Mikh.jpg
Alexis, Tsar
1000 Pojarsky 2.jpg
Dmitry Pozharsky, Prince
1000 Brullov.jpg
Karl Briullov, Painter
1000 Savvaty.jpg
Savvatiy, Founder of the Solovetsky Monastery
1000 Petr I.jpg
Peter the Great, Tsar and first emperor
1000 Minin.jpg
Kuzma Minin, Organizer of the People's Army
1000 Bortniansky.jpg
Dmitry Bortniansky, Composer
1000 Iona.jpg
Jonah, Metropolitan of Moscow
1000 Dolgorukov.jpg
Yakov Dolgorukov, advisor to Peter I
1000 Palitsyn.jpg
Avraamy Palitsyn, Monk and Writer
1000 Makary.jpg
Macarius, Metropolitan of Moscow
1000 Betskoi.jpg
Ivan Betskoy, Statesman and Reformer
1000 Bogdan.jpg
Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Hetman of the Zaporizhian cossacks
1000 Varsonofy.jpg
Varsonofius, Archbishop of Tver
1000 Ekaterina II.jpg
Catherine the Great, Empress
1000 Susanin.jpg
Ivan Susanin, Folk hero
1000 Gury.jpg
Guriy, Archbishop of Kazan
1000 Bezborodko.jpg
Alexander Bezborodko, Statesman and Diplomat
1000 Sheremetiev.jpg
Boris Sheremetev, Field Marshal and Diplomat
1000 Ostrojsky.jpg
Konstantin Ostrozhsky, Prince and voivode of Kiev
1000 Potiomkin.jpg
Grigory Potyomkin, Statesman and Diplomat
1000 Golitsyn.jpg
Mikhail Golitsyn, Field Marshal
1000 Nikon.jpg
Nikon, Patriarch of Moscow
1000 Kochubei.jpg
Viktor Kochubey, Statesman and Diplomat
1000 Saltykov.jpg
Pyotr Saltykov, Field Marshal
1000 Rtishev.jpg
Fyodor Rtishchev, Philanthropist
1000 Alexandr 1.jpg
Alexander I, Emperor
1000 Minih.jpg
Burkhard von Münnich, Field Marshal
1000 Rostovsky.jpg
Dimitry of Rostov, Churchman and composer
1000 Speransky.jpg
Mikhail Speransky, Statesman
1000 Orlov-Chesmensky.jpg
Alexei Orlov, General
1000 Tihon Zadonsky.jpg
Tikhon of Zadonsk, Archbishop of Ladoga and Voronezh
1000 Vorontsov.jpg
Mikhail Vorontsov, Field Marshal
1000 Rumiantsev-Zadunaisky.jpg
Pyotr Rumyantsev, Field Marshal
1000 Mitrofan.jpg
Mitrofan, Archbishop of Voronezh
1000 Nikolai 1.jpg
Nicholas I, Emperor
1000 Suvorov.jpg
Alexander Suvorov, Generalissimo
1000 Konissky.jpg
Georgy Konissky, Archbishop of Belarus
1000 Barklai.jpg
Michael Barclay de Tolly, Field Marshal
1000 Feofan Prokopovich.jpg
Feofan Prokopovich, Archbishop of Novgorod; Statesman
1000 Kutuzov.jpg
Mikhail Kutuzov, Field Marshal
1000 Platon.jpg
Platon Levshin, Metropolitan of Moscow
1000 Senyavin.jpg
Dmitry Senyavin, Admiral
1000 Innokenty.jpg
Innocent, Archbishop of Chersonesos Taurica
1000 Platov.jpg
Matvei Platov, General
1000 Bagration.jpg
Pyotr Bagration, General
1000 Dibich.jpg
Karl Diebitsch-Zabalkansky, Field Marshal
1000 Paskevich.jpg
Ivan Paskevich, Field Marshal
1000 Lazarev.jpg
Mikhail Lazarev, Admiral
1000 Kornilov.jpg
Vladimir Kornilov, Vice-Admiral
1000 Nahimov.jpg
Pavel Nakhimov, Admiral

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Krindatch, Alexey D. (2006). "Religion, Public Life and the State in Putin's Russia". Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe. XXVI (2): 28. ISSN 1474-225X. OCLC 8092797053. Retrieved July 20, 2021 – via Paperity.org.

External links

This page was last edited on 8 September 2021, at 22:09
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