To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Military of the European Union

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Flag of Europe.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
European Union

The military of the European Union comprises the various cooperative structures that have been established between the armed forces of the member states, both intergovernmentally and within the institutional framework of the union; the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) branch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP).

The policy area of defence is traditionally the domain of individual sovereign states. The main military alliance in Europe remains the intergovernmental North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), which presently includes 22 EU member states together with five non-EU European countries; Iceland, Norway, Albania, Montenegro and Turkey as well as the United States and Canada. Although long impeded by concerns relating to national sovereignty and potential duplication of existing NATO structures, European defence integration has intensified in the beginning of the 21st century, bringing about the deployment of numerous CSDP operations and the establishment of a European Defence Agency (headed by the High Representative) as well as EU battlegroups. The latter have however never been engaged in operations, and other, recent initiatives of military integration, such as the European corps, gendarmerie force and air transport command are at present intergovernmental and outside the CFSP framework of the union.

Article 42 of the Treaty on European Union provides for substantial military integration within the institutional framework of the union:[2]

  • Article 42.2 provides for complete integration, which would require unanimity in the European Council of heads of state or government and has as such been blocked by the United Kingdom, which is the main opponent of EU defence integration[3], in particular. (The United Kingdom is however scheduled to withdraw from the union in 2019.)
  • Article 42.6 enables the armed forces of a subset of member states to establish Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) between themselves. In December 2017. 25 Member states of the European Union agreed to establish PESCO.

However the debate has intensified by the standoff between the EU and Russia over Ukraine, Brexit and the presidency of Donald Trump in the US. With new calls for an EU military by EU commission president Jean-Claude Juncker and by other European leaders and policy makers like the head of the German parliament's foreign policy committee Norbert Röttgen, saying an EU army was "a European vision whose time has come".[4][5] The mutual defence clause, Article 42.7, was invoked for the first time in November 2015 following the terrorist attacks in Paris, which were described by French President François Hollande as an attack against Europe as a whole.[6][7]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    6 049 254
    4 058
    64 591
  • The European Union Explained*
  • EU CFSP - a definition
  • Disturbing EU Internet Regulation Could Destroy Free Speech
  • Think Indigenous 3 Evan Taypotat_March_19_2015
  • ESIL Lecture: Marise Cremona


Where, is the European Union? Obviously here somewhere, but much like the the European continent itself, which has an unclear boundary, the European Union also has some fuzzy edges to it. To start, the official members of the European Union are, in decreasing order of population: * Germany * France * The United Kingdom * Italy * Spain * Poland * Romania * The Kingdom of the Netherlands * Greece * Belgium * Portugal * The Czech Republic * Hungary * Sweden * Austria * Bulgaria * Denmark * Slovakia * Finland * Ireland * Croatia * Lithuania * Latvia * Slovenia * Estonia * Cyprus * Luxembourg * Malta The edges of the EU will probably continue to expand further out as there are other countries in various stages of trying to become a member. How exactly the European Union works is hideously complicated and a story for another time, but for this video you need know only three things: 1. Countries pay membership dues and 2. Vote on laws they all must follow and 3. Citizens of member countries are automatically European Union citizens as well This last means that if you're a citizen of any of these countries you are free to live and work or retire in any of the others. Which is nice especially if you think your country is too big or too small or too hot or too cold. The European Union gives you options. By the way, did you notice how all three of these statements have asterisks attached to this unhelpful footnote? Well, get used to it: Europe loves asterisks that add exceptions to complicated agreements. These three, for example, point us toward the first bit of border fuzziness with Norway, Iceland and little Liechtenstein. None of which are in the European Union but if you're a EU citizen you can live in these countries and Norwegians, Icelanders, or Liechtensteiner(in)s can can live in yours. Why? In exchange for the freedom of movement of people they have to pay membership fees to the European Union -- even though they aren't a part of it and thus don't get a say its laws that they still have to follow. This arrangement is the European Economic Area and it sounds like a terrible deal, were it not for that asterisk which grants EEA but not EU members a pass on some areas of law notably farming and fishing -- something a country like Iceland might care quite a lot about running their own way. Between the European Union and the European Economic Area the continent looks mostly covered, with the notable exception of Switzerland who remains neutral and fiercely independent, except for her participation in the Schengen Area. If you're from a country that keeps her borders extremely clean and / or well-patrolled, the Schengen Area is a bit mind-blowing because it's an agreement between countries to take a 'meh' approach to borders. In the Schengen Area international boundaries look like this: no border officers or passport checks of any kind. You can walk from Lisbon to Tallinn without identification or need to answer the question: "business or pleasure?". For Switzerland being part of Schengen but not part of the European Union means that non-swiss can check in any time they like, but they can never stay. This koombaya approach to borders isn't appreciated by everyone in the EU: most loudly, the United Kingdom and Ireland who argue that islands are different. Thus to get onto these fair isles, you'll need a passport and a good reason. Britannia's reluctance to get fully involved with the EU brings us to the next topic: money. The European Union has its own fancy currency, the Euro used by the majority, but not all of the European Union members. This economic union is called the Eurozone and to join a country must first reach certain financial goals -- and lying about reaching those goals is certainly not something anyone would do. Most of the non-Eurozone members when they meet the goals, will ditch their local currency in favor of the Euro but three of them Denmark, Sweden and, of course, the United Kingdom, have asterisks attracted to the Euro sections of the treaty giving them a permanent out-out. And weirdly, four tiny European countries Andorra, San Marino, Monaco & Vatican City have an asterisk giving them the reverse: the right print and use Euros as their money, despite not being in the European Union at all. So that's the big picture: there's the EU, which makes all the rules, the Eurozone inside it with a common currency, the European Economic Area outside of it where people can move freely and the selective Schengen, for countries who think borders just aren't worth the hassle. As you can see, there's some strange overlaps with these borders, but we're not done talking about complications by a long shot one again, because empire. So Portugal and Spain have islands from their colonial days that they've never parted with: these are the Madeira and Canary Islands are off the coast of Africa and the Azores well into the Atlantic. Because these islands are Spanish and Portuguese they're part of the European Union as well. Adding a few islands to the EU's borders isn't a big deal until you consider France: the queen of not-letting go. She still holds onto a bunch of islands in the Caribbean, Reunion off the coast of Madagascar and French Guiana in South America. As far as France is concerned, these are France too, which single handedly extends the edge-to-edge distance of the European Union across a third of Earth's circumference. Collectively, these bits of France, Spain and Portugal are called the Outermost Regions -- and they're the result of the simple answer to empire: just keep it. On the other hand, there's the United Kingdom, the master of maintaining complicated relationships with her quasi-former lands -- and she's by no means alone in this on such an empire-happy continent. The Netherlands and Denmark and France (again) all have what the European Union calls Overseas Territories: they're not part of the European Union, instead they're a bottomless well of asterisks due to their complicated relationships with both with the European Union and their associated countries which makes it hard to say anything meaningful about them as a group but... in general European Union law doesn't apply to these places, though in general the people who live there are European Union citizens because in general they have the citizenship of their associated country, so in general they can live anywhere in the EU they want but in general other European Union citizens can't freely move to these territories. Which makes these places a weird, semipermeable membrane of the European Union proper and the final part we're going to talk about in detail even though there are still many, more one-off asterisks you might stumble upon, such as: the Isle of Man or those Spanish Cities in North Africa or Gibraltar, who pretends to be part of Southwest England sometimes, or that region in Greece where it's totally legal to ban women, or Saba & friends who are part of the Netherlands and so should be part of the EU, but aren't, or the Faeroe Islands upon which while citizens of Denmark live they lose their EU citizenship, and on and on it goes. These asterisks almost never end, but this video must.



Following the end of World War II and the defeat of the Axis Powers, the Dunkirk Treaty (the United States was not part of it) was signed by France and the United Kingdom on 4 March 1947 as a Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance against a possible German attack in the aftermath of World War II. The Dunkirk Treaty entered into force on 8 September 1947. The 1948 Treaty of Brussels established the military Western Union Defence Organisation with an allied European command structure under Field Marshal Montgomery. Western European powers, except for Ireland, Sweden, Finland and Austria, signed the North Atlantic Treaty alongside the United States and Canada which only created a passive defence association until 1951 when, during the Korean War, the existing and fully functioning Western Union Defence Organisation was augmented to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, NATO.

Western European Union

In the early 1950s, France, Germany, Italy and the Benelux countries made an attempt to integrate the militaries of mainland western Europe, through the treaty establishing the European Defence Community (EDC). This scheme did not enter into force, however, as it failed to obtain approval for ratification in the French National Assembly where Gaullists feared for national sovereignty and Communists opposed a European military consolidation that could rival the Soviet Union. The failure to establish the EDC resulted in the 1954 amendment of the Treaty of Brussels at the London and Paris Conferences which, in replacement of EDC, established the political Western European Union (WEU) out of the earlier established military Western Union Defence Organisation and included West Germany and Italy in both WEU and NATO as the conference ended the occupation of West Germany and the defence aims had shifted from Germany to the Soviet Union.

Common Security and Defence Policy

 Map showing European membership of the EU and NATO   EU member only   NATO member only   Member of both
Map showing European membership of the EU and NATO
  EU member only
  NATO member only
  Member of both

Out of the 28 EU member states, 22 are also members of NATO. Another three NATO members are EU applicants—Albania, Montenegro and Turkey. Two others—Iceland and Norway—have opted to remain outside of the EU, however participate in the EU's single market. In 1996, the Western European Union (WEU) was tasked by NATO to implement a European Security and Defence Identity within NATO, which later was passed over to the EU Common Security and Defence Policy as all Western European Union functions were transferred to the European Union through the Lisbon Treaty. The memberships of the EU and NATO are distinct, and some EU member states are traditionally neutral on defence issues. Several of the new EU member states were formerly members of the Warsaw Pact. The Berlin Plus agreement is a comprehensive package of agreements made between NATO and the EU in 2002; it allows the EU to draw on some of NATO's assets in its own peacekeeping operations, subject to a "right of first refusal" in that NATO must first decline to intervene in a given crisis.

Following the Kosovo War in 1999, the European Council agreed that "the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and the readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises without prejudice to actions by NATO". To that end, a number of efforts were made to increase the EU's military capability, notably the Helsinki Headline Goal process. After much discussion, the most concrete result was the EU Battlegroups initiative, each of which is planned to be able to quickly deploy about 1,500 personnel.[8]

The EU currently has a limited mandate over defence issues, with a role to explore the issue of European defence agreed to in the Amsterdam Treaty, as well as oversight of the Helsinki Headline Goal Force Catalogue (the 'European Rapid Reaction Force') processes. However, some EU states may and do make multilateral agreements about defence issues outside of the EU structures.

Initiative of the four

The European Defence Initiative is a proposal for enhanced European Union defence cooperation presented by France, Germany, Belgium and Luxembourg in Brussels on 29 April 2003. It was based on the reinforced cooperation principle and aimed for better reactivity under the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP).

Some critics felt that this intra-European process would be a source of tension in the transatlantic arena with NATO and some felt that this was a duplication of existing means with the call for a distinct European headquarters. There were also some concerns about a multi-speed Europe. Britain was initially opposed to the concept but subsequently modified its position in favour.[9]

It is sometimes referred to as the "Initiative of the Four".


On 20 February 2009 the European Parliament voted in favour of the creation of Synchronised Armed Forces Europe (SAFE) as a first step towards a true European military force. SAFE will be directed by an EU directorate, with its own training standards and operational doctrine. There are also plans to create an EU "Council of Defence Ministers" and "a European statute for soldiers within the framework of Safe governing training standards, operational doctrine and freedom of operational action".[10] EU forces have been deployed on peacekeeping missions from middle and northern Africa to Western Balkans and western Asia.[11] EU military operations are supported by a number of bodies, including the European Defence Agency, European Union Satellite Centre and the European Union Military Staff.[12] In an EU consisting of 28 members, substantial security and defence co-operation is increasingly relying on great power co-operation.[13]

The entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon triggered member states of the Western European Union (WEU) to scrap the organisation, which had largely become dormant, but they have kept the mutual defence clause of the Treaty of Brussels as the basis for the EU mutual defence arrangement.

Common Security and Defence Policy

 Federica Mogherini is the current High Representative of the union.
Federica Mogherini is the current High Representative of the union.

The defence arrangements which have been established under the EU institutions are part of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), a branch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). It should be noted that Denmark has an opt-out from the CSDP.[1]


Security strategy

The European Security Strategy is the document in which the European Union clarifies its security strategy which is aimed at achieving a secure Europe in a better world, identifying the threats facing the Union, defining its strategic objectives and setting out the political implications for Europe.[14] The European security strategy was for the first time drawn up in 2003 under the authority of the EU's High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy, Javier Solana, and adopted by the Brussels European Council of 12 and 13 December 2003.

Global Strategy

The European Union Global Strategy, introduced by Federica Mogherini in 2016, replaced the 2003 Security Strategy.


Defence Agency

The European Defence Agency (EDA) is an agency of the union based in Brussels. Set up on 12 July 2004, it is a Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) body reporting to the Council of the European Union. Its primary role is to foster European defence cooperation.

Military Committee and Staff

Coats of arms of the Military Committee (left) and Staff

The European Union Military Staff (EUMS) is the body of the European External Action Service (EEAS) led by a Director General a General Officer, Admiral, or Air Officer of three-star level that supervises operations carried out by the union. The EUMS is overseen by the European Union Military Committee (EUMC). The EUMC is chaired by a General Officer, Admiral, or Air Officer of four-star level.

Institute for Security Studies

The European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) is a Paris-based agency of the European Union. The EUISS evolved from Western European Union Institute for Security Studies following a gradual transfer of powers from the Western European Union (WEU) to the EU. It now operates under the Union's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP).

The EUISS is an autonomous agency with full intellectual freedom. As a think tank it researches security issues of relevance for the EU and provides a forum for debate. In its capacity as an EU agency, it also offers analyses and forecasting to the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Federica Mogherini.

Security and Defence College

 Coat of arms of the college
Coat of arms of the college

The European Security and Defence College (ESDC) is a virtual institution for strategic level training within the area of Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). ESDC was created in 2005 by a decision of the Council of the European Union,[15] and takes the form of a network of various national institutions of the European Union member states, such as defence colleges, and the European Union Institute for Security Studies.[16]


Battle groups

 Irish Army personnel from the Nordic Battle Group at an exercise in 2010
Irish Army personnel from the Nordic Battle Group at an exercise in 2010

The battle groups adhere to the CSDP, and are based on contributions from a coalition of member states. Each of the eighteen Battlegroups consists of a battalion-sized force (1,500 troops) reinforced with combat support elements.[17][18] The groups rotate actively, so that two are ready for deployment at all times. The forces are under the direct control of the Council of the European Union.

The Battlegroups reached full operational capacity on 1 January 2007, although, as of January 2013 they are yet to see any military action.[19] They are based on existing ad hoc missions that the European Union (EU) has undertaken and has been described by some as a new "standing army" for Europe.[18] The troops and equipment are drawn from the EU member states under a "lead nation". In 2004, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan welcomed the plans and emphasised the value and importance of the Battlegroups in helping the UN deal with troublespots.[20]

Helsinki Headline Goal

The Helsinki Headline Goal Catalogue is a listing of rapid reaction forces composed of 60,000 troops managed by the European Union, but under control of the countries who deliver troops for it.

Permanent structured co-operation

 In 2009 the Treaty of Lisbon (signing depicted) entered into force, enabling permanent structured cooperation in defence between a subset of willing member states. As of 2015 this option remains unused.
In 2009 the Treaty of Lisbon (signing depicted) entered into force, enabling permanent structured cooperation in defence between a subset of willing member states. As of 2015 this option remains unused.

The Treaty of Lisbon added the possibility for those members whose military capabilities fulfill higher criteria and which have made more binding commitments to one another in this area with a view to the most demanding missions shall establish permanent structured cooperation (PESCO) within the EU framework (PSCD).[21]

Those states shall notify their intention to the Council and to the High Representative. The Council then adopts, by qualified majority a decision establishing PESCO and determining the list of participating Member States. Any other member state, that fulfills the criteria and wishes to participate, can join the PSCD following the same procedure, but in the voting for the decision will participate only the states already part of the PSCD. If a participating state no longer fulfills the criteria a decision suspending its participation is taken by the same procedure as for accepting new participants, but excluding the concerned state from the voting procedure. If a participating state wishes to withdraw from PSCD it just notifies the Council to remove it from the list of participants. All other decisions and recommendations of the Council concerning PSCD issues unrelated to the list of participants are taken by unanimity of the participating states.[21]

The criteria established in the PSCD Protocol are the following:[21]

On 7 September 2017 an agreement was made between EU foreign affairs ministers to move forward with PESCO with 10 initial projects. Although the details are still to be established, the aim would be for it to be as inclusive of member states as possible and is anticipated to be activated in December 2017.[22][23][24][25]

Potential for a common defence

The Treaty of Lisbon introduced the following in the founding treaties of the union:

Multinational forces supporting the CSDP through Article 42.3 TEU

This section presents an incomplete list of forces and bodies established intergovernmentally amongst a subset of member states. The military forces that have been established are typically dedicated in priority to the European Union (EU) through Article 42.3 of TEU, but may also be deployed either in a NATO environment, acting as part of the European branch of NATO, acting upon the mandate of the participating countries, or acting upon the mandate of other international organisations, such as United Nations, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, or any other international entity.



Finabel is an organisation that promotes cooperation and interoperability between the armies of its participating nations.[27] Founded in 1953, Finabel has a small permanent secretariat, and is controlled by the army chiefs of staff of its participating nations. The organisation maintains working groups that publish studies relating to standardisation of equipment, procedures, testing methods and glossaries.


 Personnel of the European Corps in Strasbourg, France, during a change of command ceremony in 2013
Personnel of the European Corps in Strasbourg, France, during a change of command ceremony in 2013

The European Corps, often shortened as Eurocorps, is an army corps of approximately 1,000 soldiers stationed in Strasbourg, France. Based in the French city of Strasbourg, the corps had its headquarters established in May 1992, activated in October 1993 and declared operational in 1995. The nucleus of the force is the Franco-German Brigade, established in 1987.[28]

I. German/Dutch Corps

 Coat of arms of the corps
Coat of arms of the corps

I. German/Dutch Corps is a multinational formation consisting of units from the Dutch and German armies. The corps headquarters also takes part in NATO Response Force readiness rotations. The Corps' headquarters are situated in Münster (Westphalia), formerly the headquarters of the German Army's I. Corps out of which 1 German/Netherlands Corps evolved. The corps has national and multinational operational responsibilities, and its commanding officer is the only one in Europe to have OPCON in peacetime.[29] Due to its role as a NATO High Readiness Forces Headquarters, soldiers from other NATO member states, the United States, Denmark, Norway, Spain, Italy, the United Kingdom amongst others, are also stationed at Münster.

Multinational Corps Northeast

 Coat of arms of the corps
Coat of arms of the corps

The Multinational Corps Northeast was formed on 18 September 1999 at Szczecin, Poland, which became its headquarters. It evolved from what was for many years the only multinational corps in NATO, Allied Land Forces Schleswig-Holstein and Jutland (LANDJUT) (in its turn, a part of Allied Forces Northern Europe). From 1962 LANDJUT had been responsible for the defence of the Baltic Approaches from a headquarters at Rendsburg, Germany. It comprised the 6th Panzergrenadier Division and the Danish Jutland Division.

Gendarmerie Force

The European Gendarmerie Force (EUROGENDFOR or EGF) is an intervention force with militarised police functions and specialisation in crisis management, designed after the French Gendarmerie, the Spanish Guardia Civil, and the Italian Carabinieri and its Multinational Specialized Units (M.S.U.).[30][31] The force was created in 2006, and had its status enshrined in the Treaty of Velsen, signed 18 October 2007.[32]


Air Group

The European Air Group (EAG) an organisation that promotes cooperation and interoperability between the air forces of its participating nations. It was established in 1995 to promote collaboration between the British and French air forces in the first Gulf War and the subsequent Balkans operations.

Air Transport Command

 The seat of the command, which is under construction and will be inaugurated in 2016[33]
The seat of the command, which is under construction and will be inaugurated in 2016[33]

The European Air Transport Command (EATC) is the command centre that exercises the operational control of the majority of the aerial refueling capabilities and military transport fleets of its participating nations. Located at Eindhoven Airbase in the Netherlands, the command also bears a limited responsibility for exercises, aircrew training and the harmonisation of relevant national air transport regulations.[34][35]

The command was established in 2010 with a view to provide a more efficient management of the participating nations' assets and resources in this field.


Maritime Force

The European Maritime Force (Euromarfor or EMF) is a non-standing,[36] military force[37] that may carry out naval, air and amphibious operations, with an activation time of 5 days after an order is received.[38] The force was formed in 1995 to fulfill missions defined in the Petersberg Declaration, such as sea control, humanitarian missions, peacekeeping operations, crisis response operations, and peace enforcement.


Movement Coordination Centre

Movement Coordination Centre Europe (MCCE) is an organisation located at Eindhoven Airport in the Netherlands that aims to coordinate and optimise the use of airlift, sealift and land movement assets owned or leased by its participating nations. Established on 1 July 2007 when the earlier European Airlift Centre (EAC) and the Sealift Co-ordination Centre (SCC) merged, the MCCE was a response to the shortage of aerial and naval strategic lift capabilities reported by the EU and NATO in 1999. The centre is presently staffed by 30 military and civilians personnel from its participating nations. In addition to its EU members, the United States and Turkey participate in the MCCE.

Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation

 The national acquisitions of the A400M transport aircraft (depicted in 2010) were made jointly made through OCCAR.
The national acquisitions of the A400M transport aircraft (depicted in 2010) were made jointly made through OCCAR.

The Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation (shortened OCCAR; the French acronym) is an organisation that facilitates and manages collaborative armament programmes through their lifecycle between its participating nations.

Combined Joint Expeditionary Force

 French president Nicolas Sarkozy and British prime minister David Cameron signing the Lancaster House Treaties in 2010, establishing the Franco-British Expeditionary Force
French president Nicolas Sarkozy and British prime minister David Cameron signing the Lancaster House Treaties in 2010, establishing the Franco-British Expeditionary Force

The Combined Joint Expeditionary Force (CJEF) is a Franco-British military force. It draws upon both the British Armed Forces and the French Armed Forces to field a deployable force with land, air and maritime components together with command and control and supporting logistics. It is distinct from the similarly named UK Joint Expeditionary Force.

The Combined Joint Expeditionary Force (or CJEF) is envisaged as a deployable, combined Franco-British military force for use in a wide range of crisis scenarios, up to and including high intensity combat operations. As a joint force it involves all three armed Services: a land component composed of formations at national brigade level, maritime and air components with their associated Headquarters, together with logistics and support functions.

The CJEF is not conceived as a standing force but rather as available at notice for UK-French bilateral, NATO, European Union, United Nations or other operations. Combined air and land exercises commenced during 2011 with a view towards developing a full capability. The CJEF is also seen as a potential stimulus towards greater interoperability and coherence in military doctrine, training and equipment requirements.


Finabel European Corps European Gendarmerie Force European Air Transport Command European Air Group European Maritime Force Movement Coordination Centre Europe[a] Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation
Arms Arms of Finabel.svg Coat of arms of Eurocorps.svg Arms of the European Gendarmerie Force.svg Coat of arms of the European Air Transport Command.svg Coat of arms of the European Air Group.svg Coat of arms of Euromarfor.svg Coat of arms of Movement Coordination Centre Europe.svg None
Branch Terrestrial Aerial Naval Multi-component
Description Organisation promoting interoperability Corps Gendarmerie Command for refueling and transport capabilities Organisation promoting interoperability Non-standing force Control centre for movement Organisation facilitating armament programmes
Founded 1953 1992 2006 2010 1995 1995 2007 1996
Seat Brussels Strasbourg Vicenza Eindhoven Buckinghamshire N/A Eindhoven Bonn
Capacity N/A 60 000 troops 2 300 troops 220 aircraft N/A N/A N/A N/A
Response time N/A 30 days 30 days N/A N/A 5 days N/A N/A
Motto Reflexion serving military action None Lex paciferat Integrated, innovative, efficient Improved capability through interoperability At sea for peace None None
Working language English English Unknown English Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
Membership (year of accession)
Austria coat of arms official.svg Austria No No N/A No No N/A 2010 No
Royal Arms of Belgium.svg Belgium 1953 1993 N/A 2010 1997 No 2007 2003
Coat of arms of Bulgaria (version by constitution).svg Bulgaria No No No No No No 2017 No
Lesser coat of arms of Cyprus.svg Cyprus 2008 No N/A No No No No No
Coat of arms of Croatia.svg Croatia 2017 No N/A No No No 2011 No
Small coat of arms of the Czech Republic.svg Czech Republic 2012 No N/A No No N/A 2010 No
National Coat of arms of Denmark no crown.svg Denmark No No N/A No No No 2007 No
Small coat of arms of Estonia.svg Estonia No No N/A No No No 2007 No
Coat of arms of Finland.svg Finland 2008 No N/A No No No 2007 No
Armoiries république française.svg France 1953 1992 2006 2010 1995 1995 2007 1996
Coat of arms of Germany.svg Germany 1956 1992 N/A 2010 1997 No 2007 1996
Lesser coat of arms of Greece.svg Greece 1996 No N/A No No No No No
Arms of Hungary.svg Hungary 2015 No No No No N/A 2007 No
Coat of arms of Ireland.svg Ireland No No N/A No No No No No
Emblem of Italy.svg Italy 1953 No 2006 2015 1997 1995 2007 1996
Arms of Latvia.svg Latvia 2016 No N/A No No No 2007 No
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Lithuania No No Partner No No No 2015 No
Arms of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg 1953 1996 N/A 2012 No N/A 2007 No
Arms of Malta.svg Malta 2010 No N/A No No No No No
Royal Arms of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands 1953 No 2006 2010 1997 No 2007 No
Herb Polski.svg Poland 2006 No 2011 No No No 2008 No
Shield of the Kingdom of Portugal (1481-1910).png Portugal 1996 No 2006 No No 1995 2010 No
Coat of arms of Romania.svg Romania 2008 No 2009 No No No 2008 No
Coat of arms of Slovakia.svg Slovakia 2006 No N/A No No N/A 2015 No
Coat of arms of Slovenia.svg Slovenia 2016 No N/A No No No 2007 No
Arms of Spain.svg Spain 1990 1994 2006 2014 1997 1995 2007 2005
Shield of arms of Sweden.svg Sweden 2015 No N/A No No No 2007 No
Arms of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 1973 No N/A No 1995 No 2007 1996

National militaries

Six EU states host nuclear weapons: France and the United Kingdom each have their own nuclear programmes, while Belgium, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands host US nuclear weapons as part of NATO's nuclear sharing policy. Combined, the EU possesses 525 warheads, and hosts between 90 and 130 US warheads. The EU has the third largest arsenal of nuclear weapons, after the United States and Russia.

Expenditure and personnel

The following table presents the military expenditures of the members of the European Union in euros (€). The combined military expenditure of the member states amounts to just over €194,7 billion.[1] This represents 1.42% of European Union GDP.[1] European military expenditure includes spending on joint projects such as the Eurofighter Typhoon and joint procurement of equipment. The European Union's combined active military forces in 2014 totaled 1,423,097 personnel. According to the European Defence Agency, the European Union had an average of 31,570 land force personnel deployed around the world (or 2.2% of the total military personnel). In a major operation the EU could readily deploy up-to 417,180 land force personnel and sustain 79,352 of those during an enduring operation.[1]

In a speech in 2012, Swedish General Håkan Syrén criticised the spending levels of European Union countries, saying that in the future those countries' military capability will decrease, creating "critical shortfalls".[39]

Guide to table:

  • All figure entries in the table below are provided by the European Defence Agency for the year 2014. Figures from other sources are not included.
Member state Expenditure (€ mn.) Per capita (€) % of GDP Military personnel (active) Deployable land forces
Total/average[1] 194,782 387 1.42 1,423,097 417,180
Austria Austria[1] 2,491 292 0.76 22,689 2,234
Belgium Belgium[1] 3,913 351 0.97 30,174 6,691
Bulgaria Bulgaria[1] 563 78 1.34 25,188 6,380
Croatia Croatia[1] 606 143 1.41 15,380 2,098
Cyprus Cyprus[1] 270 315 1.54 11,747 237
Czech Republic Czech Republic[1] 1,493 142 0.96 20,222 7,867
Denmark Denmark[1]
Estonia Estonia[1] 386 294 1.98 6,285 483
Finland Finland[1] 2,714 497 1.33 8,275 1,738
France France[1] 39,198 592 1.83 207,000 63,350
Germany Germany[1] 34,749 422 1.20 178,800
Greece Greece[1] 4,001 364 2.23 113,517 21,500
Hungary Hungary[1] 912 92 0.88 22,667 3,714
Republic of Ireland Ireland[1] 893 193 0.48 9,280 850
Italy Italy[1] 18,427 303 1.14 183,465
Latvia Latvia[1] 223 112 0.93 4,646 1,242
Lithuania Lithuania[1] 322 110 0.89 8,568
Luxembourg Luxembourg[1] 190 341 0.54 821 242
Malta Malta[1] 43 100 0.54 1,662 105
Netherlands Netherlands[1] 7,788 462 1.19 42,102 14,685
Poland Poland[1] 7,565 197 1.83 99,500 1,464
Portugal Portugal[1] 2,501 241 1.45 30,302 7,878
Romania Romania[1] 2,029 102 1.35 69,556 9,605
Slovakia Slovakia[1] 749 138 1.00 13,338 4,602
Slovenia Slovenia[1] 366 178 0.98 6,765 3,000
Spain Spain[1] 9,508 205 0.90 121,848 43,812
Sweden Sweden[1] 4,711 486 1.10 15,570 2,818
United Kingdom UK[1] 48,172 747 2.17 153,730 69,808

Naval forces

 HMS Queen Elizabeth aircraft carrier is the largest commissioned warship in the European Union.
HMS Queen Elizabeth aircraft carrier is the largest commissioned warship in the European Union.

The combined component strength of the naval forces of member states is some 563 commissioned warships. Of those in service, 4 are fleet carriers, the largest of which is the 70,600 tonne Queen Elizabeth-class carrier. The EU also has 5 amphibious assault ships and 25 amphibious support ships in service. Of the EU's 63 submarines, 21 are nuclear-powered submarines (11 British and 10 French) while 42 are conventional attack submarines.

Operation Atalanta (formally European Union Naval Force Somalia) is the first ever (and still ongoing) naval operation of the European Union. It is part of a larger global action by the EU in the Horn of Africa to deal with the Somali crisis. As of January 2011 twenty-three EU nations participate in the operation.

Guide to table:

Member state Fleet carrier Amphibious assault ship Amphibious support ship Destroyer Frigate Corvette Patrol vessel Anti‑mine ship Missile sub. Attack sub. Total Tonnage
European Union EU 4 5 23 37 87 35 128 150 8 55 500 518 1,500,000 ~1,600,000
Austria Austria 0 0
Belgium Belgium[40] 2 2 5 9 10,009
Bulgaria Bulgaria 1 4 3 1 10 18 15,160
Croatia Croatia 5 2 7 2,869
Cyprus Cyprus 0 0
Czech Republic Czech Republic 0 0
Denmark Denmark[41] 5 4 9 18 51,235
Estonia Estonia 3 3 2,000
Finland Finland 4 4 12 20 5,429
France France[42] 1 3 10 11 23 18 4 6 79 319,195
Germany Germany[43] 3 7 5 8 15 4 44 82,790
Greece Greece[44] 5 13 26 4 11 51 137,205
Hungary Hungary 0 0
Republic of Ireland Ireland[45] 8 8 12,133
Italy Italy[46] 2 3 4 15 2 10 10 8 54 301,305
Latvia Latvia 5 5 3,025
Lithuania Lithuania[47] 4 4 8 5,678
Luxembourg Luxembourg 0 0
Malta Malta[48] 2 2 1,419
Netherlands Netherlands[49] 2 4 2 4 6 4 22 116,308
Poland Poland[50] 5 2 1 3 19 5 28 19,724
Portugal Portugal[51] 5 7 7 2 23 34,686
Romania Romania[52] 3 7 6 5 21 23,090
Slovakia Slovakia 0 0
Slovenia Slovenia[53] 2 2 900
Spain Spain[54] 1 2 5 6 18 7 3 42 148,607
Sweden Sweden[55] 6 11 5 22 14,256
United Kingdom UK[56] 1 1 6 6 13 4 15 4 7 52 342,850

Land forces

 The Leopard 2 main battle tank
The Leopard 2 main battle tank

Combined, the member states of the European Union maintain large numbers of various land-based military vehicles and weaponry.

Guide to table:

  • The table is not exhaustive and only includes land forces equipment of EU-NATO member countries under the Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty (CFE treaty).
  • The CFE treaty only includes equipment geographically stationed within Europe. Equipment overseas on operations are not counted.
  • The "main battle tank" category also includes tank destroyers (such as the Italian B1 Centauro) or any self-propelled armoured fighting vehicle, capable of heavy firepower. According to the CFE treaty.
  • The "armoured fighting vehicle" category includes any armoured vehicle primarily designed to transport infantry and equipped with an automatic cannon of at least 20 mm calibre. According to the CFE treaty.
  • The "artillery" category includes self-propelled or towed howitzers and mortars of 100 mm calibre and above. Other types of artillery are not included regardless of characteristics. According to the CFE treaty.
  • The "attack helicopter" category includes any rotary wing aircraft armed and equipped to engage targets or equipped to perform other military functions (such as the Apache or the Wildcat). According to the CFE treaty.
Member state Main battle tank Armoured fighting vehicle Artillery Attack helicopter
European Union EU[57] 7,451 17,800 9,019 788
Austria Austria 59 112 83
Belgium Belgium[57] 32 152 113 26
Bulgaria Bulgaria[57] 314 556 950 12
Croatia Croatia
Cyprus Cyprus
Czech Republic Czech Republic[57] 123 440 179 17
Denmark Denmark[57] 56 249 31 12
Estonia Estonia
Finland Finland 140 196 732
France France[57] 484 3,130 505 232
Germany Germany[57] 816 1,485 345 72
Greece Greece[57] 1,621 2,254 1,890 29
Hungary Hungary[57] 74 575 30 18
Republic of Ireland Ireland 24
Italy Italy[57] 1,168 2,340 1,086 94
Latvia Latvia
Lithuania Lithuania
Luxembourg Luxembourg
Malta Malta
Netherlands Netherlands[57] 18 500 131 28
Poland Poland[57] 984 1,691 852 87
Portugal Portugal[57] 220 407 374
Romania Romania[57] 725 1,304 1,286 22
Slovakia Slovakia[57] 30 315 67
Slovenia Slovenia
Spain Spain[57] 476 1,046 829 31
Sweden Sweden[58][59][60] 120 509 36
United Kingdom UK[57] 408 5,244 268 120

Air forces

The air forces of EU member states operate a wide range of military systems and hardware. This is primarily due to the independent requirements of each member state and also the national defence industries of some member states. However such programmes like the Eurofighter Typhoon and Eurocopter Tiger have seen many European nations design, build and operate a single weapons platform. 60% of overall combat fleet was developed and manufactured by member states, 32% are US-origin, but some of these were assembled in Europe, while remaining 8% are soviet-made aircraft. As of 2014, it is estimated that the European Union had around 2,000 serviceable combat aircraft (fighter aircraft and ground-attack aircraft).[61]

The EUs air-lift capabilities are evolving with the future introduction of the Airbus A400M (another example of EU defence cooperation). The A400M is a tactical airlifter with strategic capabilities.[62] Around 140 are initially expected to be operated by 6 member states (UK, Luxembourg, France, Germany, Spain and Belgium).

Guide to tables:

  • The tables are sourced from figures provided by Flight International for the year 2014.
  • Aircraft are grouped into three main types (indicated by colors): red for combat aircraft, green for aerial refueling aircraft, and grey for strategic and tactical transport aircraft.
  • The two "other" columns include additional aircraft according to their type sorted by colour (i.e. the "other" category in red includes combat aircraft, while the "other" category in grey includes both aerial refueling and transport aircraft). This was done because it was not feasible allocate every aircraft type its own column.
  • Other aircraft such as trainers, helicopters, UAVs and reconnaissance or surveillance aircraft are not included in the below tables or figures.
Fighter and ground-attack
Member state Typhoon Rafale Mirage 2000 Gripen F-16 F/A-18 F-35 Tornado Harrier II MiG-29 Other Total
European Union EU[61] 416 123 174 125 437 148 21 241 32 58 238 2,013
Austria Austria[61] 15 28 Saab 105 15
Belgium Belgium[61] 59 59
Bulgaria Bulgaria[61] 15 15
Croatia Croatia[61] 12 MiG-21 12
Cyprus Cyprus[61] 0
Czech Republic Czech Republic[61] 14 19 L-159 31
Denmark Denmark[61] 60 60
Estonia Estonia[61] 0
Finland Finland[61] 62 62
France France[61] 123 131 254
Germany Germany[61] 125 85 210
Greece Greece[61] 43 166 46 F-4 255
Hungary Hungary[61] 14 14
Republic of Ireland Ireland[61] 0
Italy Italy[61] 86 8 76 16 53 AMX 239
Latvia Latvia[61] 0
Lithuania Lithuania[61] L-39 1
Luxembourg Luxembourg[61] 0
Malta Malta[61] 0
Netherlands Netherlands[61] 61 (2) 61
Poland Poland[61] 48 31 36 Su-22 115
Portugal Portugal[61] 31 31
Romania Romania[61] 12 36 MiG-21 38
Slovakia Slovakia[61] 12 L-39 19
Slovenia Slovenia[61] 0
Spain Spain[61] 58 86 16 147
Sweden Sweden[61] 97 97
United Kingdom UK[61] 145 14 80 239
Aerial refueling and transport
Member state A330 MRTT A310 MRTT KC-135/707 C-17 C-130 C-160 C-27J CN-235/C-295 An-26 A400M Other Total
European Union EU[61] 15 4 16 8 120 107 30 83 16 41 53 459
Austria Austria[61] 5 5
Belgium Belgium[61] 11 1 A321 12
Bulgaria Bulgaria[61] 2 2 1 A319 5
Croatia Croatia[61] 4 2 An-32B 6
Cyprus Cyprus[61] 0
Czech Republic Czech Republic[61] 4 6 2 A319 12
DenmarkDenmark[61] 4 4
Estonia Estonia[61] 0
Finland Finland[61] 2 1 F27 3
France France[61] 1 14 14 36 27 11 3 A310
3 A340
Germany Germany[61] 4 71 13 1 A310
2 A319
Greece Greece[61] 15 8 21
Hungary Hungary[61] 4 4
Republic of Ireland Ireland[61] 2 1 BNT-2 CC2/B 3
Italy Italy[61] 16 12 4 KC-767 3 KC-130J 3A319 1Airbus A340-500 39
Latvia Latvia[61] 0
Lithuania Lithuania[61] 3 3
Luxembourg Luxembourg[61] 0
Malta Malta[61] 2 BNT-2 CC2/B
2 King Air 200
Netherlands Netherlands[61] 4 2 (K)DC-10 6
Poland Poland[61] 5 16 20
Portugal Portugal[61] 6 7 13
Romania Romania[61] 2 7 2 11
Slovakia Slovakia[61] 2 2
Slovenia Slovenia[61] 0
Spain Spain[61] 2 7 21 1 5 KC-130H
2 A310
Sweden Sweden[61] 7 1 KC-130H 8
United Kingdom UK[61] 14 8 24 16 4 BAe 146
3 BNT-2 CC2/B

See also


  1. ^ The membership of Movement Coordination Centre Europe also includes some countries outside the union.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Defence Data Portal, Official 2012 defence statistics from the European Defence Agency
  2. ^ Article 42, Treaty on European Union
  3. ^
  4. ^ Jean-Claude Juncker calls for EU army , The Guardian. 2015-03-08
  5. ^ [1], Euractiv. 2015-03-09
  6. ^ Peter Spiegel in Brussels and Jim Brunsden in Paris (2015-11-16). "Hollande makes unusual appeal to EU collective defence article -". Retrieved 2016-02-19. 
  7. ^ Source: CNNAdded on 1418 GMT (2218 HKT) November 16, 2015 (2015-11-16). "Francois Hollande: 'France is at war' - CNN Video". Retrieved 2016-02-19. 
  8. ^ Council of the European Union (July 2009). "EU BATTLEGROUPS" (PDF). Europa web portal. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  9. ^ Sarkozy's bold European defence initiative
  10. ^ Waterfield, Bruno (18 February 2009). "Blueprint for EU army to be agreed". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  11. ^ Council of the European Union (April 2003). "Overview of the missions and operations of the European Union". Europa web portal. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  12. ^ Council of the European Union. "CSDP structures and instruments". Europa web portal. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  13. ^ "The Russo-Georgian War and Beyond: towards a European Great Power Concert, Danish Institute of International Studies". Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  14. ^ "European security strategy", SCADPLUS, September 4, 2006
  15. ^ Luxembourg Presidency Press Release June 26, 2005: The European Security and Defence College has been established
  16. ^ SCADPlus: European Security and Defence College (ESDC) Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Retrieved on March 4, 2008
  17. ^
  18. ^ a b New force behind EU foreign policy BBC News – 15 March 2007
  19. ^ Charlemagne: Europe in a foreign field
  20. ^ Value of EU 'Battlegroup' plan stressed by Annan Archived 13 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. 15 October 2004
  21. ^ a b c d Article 42(6), Article 43(1), Article 46, Protocol 10 of the amended Treaty on European Union
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^ "Treaty of Lisbon". EU. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. 
  27. ^ Finabel information folder: "Finabel: Contributing to European Army Interoperability since 1953" Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  28. ^ "Eurocorps' official website / History". Retrieved 23 February 2008. 
  29. ^ pp.26-27, Thomas-Durell Young, Multinational Land Formations and NATO: Reforming practices and structures, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, PA, 1997
  30. ^ Hovens, J.L., and Van Elk, G.A.G., eds. (2011). Gendarmeries and the security challenges of the 21st century, FIEP Seminar Publication 2011.
  31. ^ Arcudi, Giovanni, and Smith, Michael E. (2013). The European Gendarmerie Force: a solution in search of problems?. European Security, 22(1), 1-20.
  32. ^, Treaty establishing the European Gendarmerie Force, Retrieved on January 24, 2014
  33. ^ "Paul de Ruiter Architects". Retrieved 2016-02-19. 
  34. ^ Eindhoven regelt internationale militaire luchtvaart (in Dutch)
  35. ^ "Claude-France Arnould Visits EATC Headquarters". Retrieved 2016-02-19. 
  36. ^ EUROMARFOR – At Sea for Peace pamphlet[permanent dead link]. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  37. ^ Biscop, Sven (2003). Euro-Mediterranean security: a search for partnership. Ashgate Publishing. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-7546-3487-4. 
  38. ^ EUROMARFOR Retrospective – Portuguese Command[permanent dead link], page 12. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  39. ^ Croft, Adrian (19 September 2012). "Some EU states may no longer afford air forces-general". Reuters. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  40. ^ Marinecomponent Hoofdpagina. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  41. ^ Jane's Fighting Ships 2009
  42. ^ Liste des bâtiments de combat de la Marine nationale par unité, 10 August 2016.
  43. ^ (in German) Offizieller Internetauftritt der Marine. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  44. ^ Πολεμικό Ναυτικό – Επίσημη Ιστοσελίδα. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  45. ^ Home | Defence Forces. Military.i.e. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  46. ^ Marina Militare. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  47. ^ (in Lithuanian) Lithuanian Armed Forces :: Structure » Navy. (21 January 2010). Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  48. ^ AFM - MARITIME PATROL VESSELS. Retrieved on 2015-04-08.
  49. ^ Koninklijke Marine | Ministerie van Defensie. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  50. ^ (in Polish) Marynarka Wojenna. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  51. ^ Marinha Portuguesa. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  52. ^ (in Romanian) Fortele Navale Române[permanent dead link]. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  53. ^ Slovensko obalo bo varovala "Kresnica" :: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  54. ^ Presentación Buques Superficie – Ships – Armada Española. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  55. ^ The Swedish Navy – Försvarsmakten Archived 18 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. (2 September 2008). Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  56. ^ Home. Royal Navy. Retrieved on 2011-12-17.
  57. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Ministry of Defence - Vehicle & Aircraft Holdings within the scope of the Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty: Annual: 2016 edition,, (pp.10-14), Retrieved 19 July 2016
  58. ^ "Vapnen Sverige kan sätta in vid ett angrepp" [The weapons Sweden can deploy in an attack]. (in Swedish). Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  59. ^ "Stridsfordon 90" [Combat Vehicle 90] (in Swedish). FMV. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  60. ^ "Försvaret får 24 extra Archer-haubitsar". Ny Teknik. Retrieved 3 May 2017. 
  61. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg World Air Force 2014 - Flight International,, Retrieved 23 November 2014
  62. ^ "RAF – A400m." RAF, MOD. Retrieved: 15 May 2010.

External links

This page was last edited on 11 February 2018, at 11:52.
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.