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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mexican Navy
Armada de México  (Spanish)
LOGO Marina Armada de Mexico NEGRO.svg
FoundedJanuary 19, 1821; 200 years ago (January 19, 1821)
CountryMexico
TypeNavy
RoleNaval warfare
Size75,000 marines (2021)
Part ofSecretariat of The Navy
AnniversariesJune 1, National Navy Day[1]
Engagements
Commanders
Current
commander
Admiral José Rafael Ojeda Durán
Insignia
Naval jack
Mexican Navy Jack

The Mexican Navy is one of the two independent armed forces of Mexico. The actual naval forces are called the Armada de México. The Secretaría de Marina (SEMAR) (English: Naval Secretariat) includes both the Armada itself and the attached ministerial and civil service. The commander of the Navy is the Secretary of the Navy, who is both a cabinet minister and a career naval officer.

The Mexican Navy's stated mission is "to use the naval force of the federation for external defense, and to help with internal order".[2] As of 2020, the Navy consists of about 68,200 men and women plus reserves,[3] over 189 ships, and about 130 aircraft.[4][5] The Navy attempts to maintain a constant modernization program to upgrade its response capability.

Given Mexico's large area of water (3,149,920 km2 (1,216,190 sq mi)) and extensive coastline (11,122 km (6,911 mi)), the Navy's duties are of great importance. Perhaps its most important on-going missions are the war on drugs and protecting PEMEX's oil wells in Campeche in the Gulf of Mexico. Another important task of the Mexican Navy is to help people in hurricane relief operations and other natural disasters.

History

Depiction of Mexican Navy Lieutenant José Azueta firing a French Hotchkiss machine gun in the defense of Veracruz during the Second U.S. intervention of the Mexican Revolution, painting at the Naval Historical Museum in Mexico City
Depiction of Mexican Navy Lieutenant José Azueta firing a French Hotchkiss machine gun in the defense of Veracruz during the Second U.S. intervention of the Mexican Revolution, painting at the Naval Historical Museum in Mexico City
Mexico's naval jack from 1994 to 2000
Mexico's naval jack from 1994 to 2000

The Mexican Navy has its origins in the creation of the Ministry of War in 1821. From that year until 1939 it existed jointly with the Mexican Army in the organic ministry. Since its declaration of independence from Spain in September 1810, through the mid decades of the 19th century, Mexico found itself in a constant state of war, mostly against Spain which had not recognized its independence. Therefore, its priority was to purchase its first fleet from the U.S. to displace the last remaining Spanish forces from its coasts.[6]

The Mexican Navy has participated in many naval battles to protect and defend Mexico's interests. Some of the most important battles were:

Attempts by Spain to reconquer Mexico

The first French intervention in Mexico (The 'Pastry War') (November 1838 – March 1839)

  • An entire Armada was captured at Veracruz
Texan Independence (1836–1845)
Yucatán Independence (1841–1848)
The Mexican–American War (1846–1848)
The Second French Intervention (1862–1867)
The Mexican Revolution (1910–1919)

Second invasion by the United States (April 9, 1914 – November 23, 1914)

Historical ships

Organization

The President of Mexico is commander in chief of all military forces. Day-to-day control of the Navy lies with the Navy Secretary, José Rafael Ojeda Durán.[7] In Mexico there is no joint force command structure with the army, so the Secretary reports directly to the President. The Navy has a General Headquarters and three naval forces. There are furthermore eight regions (four on the Pacific coast, three on the Mexican Gulf coast and the Región Naval Central, grouping the naval forces, based in and around the capital Mexico City, such as the 7th Naval Infantry Brigade, the Central Special Operations Group and the Air Transport Squadron), thirteen zones, and fourteen naval sectors.

The Navy is divided into three main services designated as "forces":

Other notable services include:

Officers are trained at the Mexican Naval Academy, called the "Heroica Escuela Naval Militar" ("Heroic Military Naval School"), located in Antón Lizardo, Veracruz.

Mexican Naval Infantry Marines insignia
Mexican marines displaying three different camouflage patterns used by the Mexican marine corps.
Mexican marines displaying three different camouflage patterns used by the Mexican marine corps.

Naval Infantry

The Mexican Naval Infantry Corps was reorganized in 2007–2009 into 30 Naval Infantry Battalions (Batallones de Infantería de Marina – BIM), a paratroop battalion, a battalion attached to the Presidential Guard Brigade, two Fast Reaction Forces with six battalions each, and three Special Forces groups.[8] The Naval Infantry are responsible for port security, protection of the ten-kilometer coastal fringe, and patrolling major waterways.

The Naval Infantry also is responsible for 23 National Service Training Units under the responsibility of the Navy Secretary, enforcing the National Service obligation for Mexicans of teenage and young adult age.

Naval Aviation

Search and rescue units

In 2008, the Mexican Navy created its new search and rescue system, allocated in strategic ports at Pacific and Gulf of Mexico ports, to provide assistance to any ships which are in jeopardy or at risk due to mechanical failure, weather conditions or life risk to the crew. To provide such support, the Navy has ordered Coast Guard Defender class ships (two per station, and one 47-Foot Motor Lifeboat coast guard vessel). Other stations will be provided only with Defender-class boats.[9]

Maritime role

On April 1, 2014, SEMAR officially announced the creation of Port Protection Naval Units (Unidades Navales de Protección Portuaria: UNAPROP) which will include a marine section.[10][11] The main task of UNAPROPs is to ensure maritime surveillance and inspection.[12]

Training and education

A Mexican marine fast-ropes onto the flight deck of the German support ship Frankfurt Am Main during a simulated multi-national maritime interdiction operation
A Mexican marine fast-ropes onto the flight deck of the German support ship Frankfurt Am Main during a simulated multi-national maritime interdiction operation
Roundel of Mexico Naval Aviation insignia
Roundel of Mexico Naval Aviation insignia

The Navy offers several options for graduate studies in their educational institutions:

Heroica Escuela Naval Militar

It is the school where future officers are trained for the General Corps of the Navy. Candidates can enter upon completing high school. Upon completion of studies, graduates obtain the degree of Sub-Lieutenant and the title of Naval Science Engineer.

Naval Medical School

This school Located in Mexico City, offers a career in medicine. Officers are trained with skills for the prevention and health care of naval personnel. By adopting a professional examination, graduates are commissioned Sub-Lieutenants.

Naval Engineering School

In the Naval Engineering School, officers are responsible for the preventive and corrective maintenance of systems and electronic equipment installed on ships and installations of the Mexican Navy. This school offers career of Electronic Engineering and Naval Communications. It is located between the town of Mata Grape and Anton Lizardo, 32 km (20 mi) from the port of Veracruz.

Naval Nursing School

Here the time to achieve a nursing degree lasts eight semesters. Officers are trained with the knowledge and skills necessary to enable them to assist medical personnel in caring for patients in hospitals, sanatoriums, clinics, health sections on land, aboard ships and at The Naval Medical Center.

Naval Aviation School

The Naval Aviation School trains pilots for the Mexican Naval Aviation as well as staff from the Federal Preventive Police and Naval personnel from various countries of Central America. This school is located on La Paz, Baja California Sur.[13]

Search, Rescue and Diving School

Located in Acapulco, members of The Navy are trained for marine search, rescue and diving. It also trains state police officers and firefighters.

Rank insignia

Modernization and budget

The annual Navy's budget is in a one to three proportion of the national budget relative to the Mexican Army and Mexican Air Force. The Navy has a reputation for being well-run and well-organized. This reputation allows for a close relationship with the United States Navy (USN), as evidenced by the procurement of numerous former USN ships.

Ships

The Secretary of the Navy, Admiral Mariano Francisco Saynez Mendoza, announced on October 1, 2007, detailed plans to upgrade and modernize the country's naval capabilities. On the following day, La Jornada newspaper from Mexico City, disclosed the Mexican Navy plans, which are among others, to build six offshore patrol vessels (OPVs) with a length of 86 metres (282 ft), 1,680 tons and each housing a Eurocopter Panther helicopter as well as small high-speed interception boats. The budget for this project is above US$200 million.

Another project is to build 12 CB 90 HMN high speed (50 knots (93 km/h; 58 mph)) interception boats under license from a Swedish boat company Dockstavarvet to the Mexican Navy. Also, a number of fully equipped planes for surveillance and maritime patrol are being considered. Combinations of options and development are being defined.

Shipbuilding

The Mexican Navy depends upon their naval shipyards for construction and repairs of their ships. There are five shipyards located in the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific Ocean:

Missiles

The Mexican Navy initiated studies to develop and construct its first missile, according to a May 2005 interview with the undersecretary of the Navy, Armando Sanchez, the missile was to have an average range of 12 to 15 kilometres (7.5 to 9.3 mi) and be able to target enemy ships and aircraft. The undersecretary added that they already had the solid propellant, and the basic design of the missile. All aspects relative to their fuselage were solved as well as the launch platforms. The Mexican Navy was developing the software to direct the missile to its target. In July 2008, the project was reported to be 80% complete. Despite this effort, the missile development was canceled in 2009 due to "problems with the propulsion system".[14]

Radar modernization

In 2009, the Mexican Navy began operating a batch of new MPQ-64 Sentinel radars in the oil-rich Gulf of Mexico. The radar network was installed in 2007 for a trial phase while military personnel were trained to get familiar with the system. The new installations will work together with combat surface vessels that patrol the area.[15][16]

Mexican Navy Maritime search and rescue unit flag
Mexican Navy Maritime search and rescue unit flag
A Mexican Navy Maritime search and rescue team departs on a Royal Australian Air Force C-130H Hercules transport plane in Indonesia en route to Thailand to help survivors of the tsunami disaster in 2005
A Mexican Navy Maritime search and rescue team departs on a Royal Australian Air Force C-130H Hercules transport plane in Indonesia en route to Thailand to help survivors of the tsunami disaster in 2005
Mexican Navy sailor in 2009
Mexican Navy sailor in 2009
CB 90 HMN – Polaris-class patrol interceptor
CB 90 HMN – Polaris-class patrol interceptor

Present fleet

Class Image Type Ships Origin
Frigates (5)
 Allende class
ARM Mina Frigate 214.JPG
Multipurpose Anti-submarine frigate F211 Ignacio Allende
F212 Mariano Abasolo
F213 Guadalupe Victoria
F214 Francisco Javier Mina
United States – ex-US Navy  Knox-class frigate
Reformador class[17] Multipurpose Frigate F101 Benito Juárez[18] Netherlands/Mexico – Ships being built in The Netherlands and Mexico. At least 8 ships planned for fleet modernisation plan.
Missile boats (2)
Huracán class
Israel mexico navy ceremony.jpg
Missile boat A301 Huracán
A302 Tormenta
Israel – ex-Israeli Navy Sa'ar 4.5-class missile boat
Patrol vessel and other Warships (35)
 Oaxaca class
A.R.M. Oaxaca (P161).JPG
Ocean patrol vessels P161 Oaxaca
P162 Baja California
P163 Independencia
P164 Revolución
P165 Chiapas[19]
P166 Hidalgo[19]
P167 Jalisco[20]
P168 Tabasco
Mexico
 Durango class
ARM Durango.jpg
Compact Frigate / Patrol vessel P151 Durango
P152 Sonora
P153 Guanajuato
P154 Veracruz
Mexico
 Sierra class
Marina Michoacán.jpg
Corvette P141 Sierra
P143 Prieto
P144 Romero
Mexico
 Holzinger class Ocean/Offshore patrol vessels P131 Holzinger
P132 Godínez
P133 De la Vega
P134 Berriozabal
Mexico
 Uribe class Ocean patrol vessels
P122 Azueta
P123 Baranda
P124 Bretón
P125 Blanco
P126 Monasterio
Spain
 Valle class
Quezon (PS 70).jpg
Converted Minesweeper / Ocean patrol vessels P102 Juan de la Barrera
P103 Mariano Escobedo
P104 Manuel Doblado
P106 Santos Degollado
P108 Juan N. Álvarez
P109 Manuel Gutiérrez Zamora
P110 Valentín Gómez Farías
P112 Francisco Zarco
P113 Ignacio L. Vallarta
P114 Jesús González Ortega
P117 Mariano Matamoros
United States – ex- Auk-class minesweeper
Coastal patrol ships (44)
 Tenochtitlan class[21][22]
Patrulla Costera ARM Teotihuacan.jpg
Coastal patrol PC331 <i>Tenochtitlan</i>
PC332 <i>Teotihuacan</i>
PC333 ARM Palenque
PC334 ARM Mitla
PC335 ARM Uxmal
PC336 ARM Tajin[23]
PC337 ARM Tulum[24]
PC338 ARM Monte Albán[25]
PC339 ARM Bonampak[26]
PC340 Chichen Iztzá
Netherlands/Mexico Based on Damen Stan Patrol 4207
Azteca class
Patrulla Costera Clase Azteca ARM Tamaulipas.jpg
Coastal patrol PC202 Cordova
PC206 Rayón
PC207 Rejón
PC208 De la Fuente
PC209 Guzmán
PC210 Ramírez
PC211 Mariscal
PC212 Jara
PC214 Colima
PC215 Lizardi
PC216 Mugica
PC218 Velazco
PC220 Macías
PC223 Tamaulipas
PC224 Yucatán
PC225 Tabasco
PC226 Cochimie
PC228 Puebla
PC230 Vicario
PC231 Ortíz
United Kingdom
Mexico
<i> Demócrata</i> class Coastal patrol PC241 Demócrata
PC242 Francisco I. Madero
Mexico
Cabo class Coastal patrol PC271 Corriente
PC272 Corso
PC273 Catoche
Mexico
Punta class Coastal patrol PC-281 Morro
PC-282 Mastún
Mexico
Interceptors
Polaris class
ARM Armelnath 3.jpg
Small Patrol vessel 44 In service Sweden
Polaris II class
ARM Armelnath 3.jpg
Small Patrol vessel 6 In service + 17 under construction Mexico
Acuario A/B class Patrol In service Mexico
Isla class Patrol In service Mexico
Amphibious ships (3)
Papaloapan class
US Navy 050909-N-8154G-180 The Mexican Navy amphibious ship Papaloapan (P-411) sits off the coast of Mississippi preparing to assist with Hurricane Katrina relief efforts along the Gulf Coast.jpg
Tank landing ship A411 Papaloapan
A412 Usumacinta
United States – ex-USN  Newport-class tank landing ship
Panuco class
LST-942 underway in late 1944.jpg
Tank landing ship A402 Manzanillo United States – ex-US Navy USS Clearwater County, transferred in 1972
Logistic support vessel (2)
<i> Montes Azules</i> class
ARM Montes Azules leaving Port of Guaymas, 04.12.2019.jpg
Landing ship BAL01 Montes Azules
BAL02 Libertador (construction completed, inaugurated on September 10, 2012)[27]
Mexico
TBD class Supply ship BAL11 Isla Madre Launched July 11, 2016.[25] Netherlands Based on Damen Stan 5009 Fast Crew Supplier
Mine counter-measure (6)
<i> Banderas</i> class Minesweeper Banderas
Magdalena
Kino
Yavaros
Chamela
Tepoca
United States
Auxiliary vessels
Huasteco class Multipurpose logistics vessel AMP01 Huasteco
AMP02 Zapoteco
Mexico
Maya class Multipurpose ATR01 Maya
ATR02 Tarasco
Mexico
Cuauhtemoc class
Barquecuauhtemoc.jpg
Three-masted barque sail training ship BE01 Cuauhtémoc Spain

The Mexican Navy includes 60 smaller patrol boats and 32 auxiliary ships. It acquired 40 fast military assault crafts, designated CB 90 HMN, between 1999 and 2001 and obtained a production license in 2002, enabling further units to be manufactured in Mexico.

Modern equipment

Mexican Naval Infantry Inventory
Vehicle/System Type Versions
Armoured Vehicles
BTR-60/BTR-70 Amphibious armored Personnel Carrier APC-70
Carat Security Group Armored Car (Military) Wolverine (Escorpion)
Renault Sherpa Light[28] Light Armored Vehicle MACK Sherpa Scout
Land Rover Armored Car (Military) Defender 4x4
Infantry Transport Vehicles
AM General HMMWV[29][30] Light Utility Vehicle M1026, M1038, M1151
Ford-150[31] Light Utility Vehicle 4x4 F-150 series pick up
Ford-250[31] Light Utility Vehicle 4x4 F-250 series pick up
Dodge Ram[32] Light Utility Vehicle 4x4 Pick up
Mercedes-Benz G-Wagen[33][34] Light Utility Vehicle 4x4 G-class
Trucks
Mercedes-Benz Zetros Utility vehicle 6x6 truck
Ural-4320[35] Utility Vehicle Off-road 6x6 truck
Unimog U-4000[36][37] Utility Vehicle 4x4 truck
Gama Goat[citation needed] Amphibious 6-wheeled vehicle 6x6 truck
Freightliner M2[38] Utility Vehicle 4x2 truck

Individual weapons and equipment

Mexican Naval Inventory
Name Versions Type
M16A2 rifle 5.56×45mm NATO Assault rifle
M4 Carbine 5.56×45mm NATO Assault rifle
IMI Galil 5.56×45mm NATO Assault rifle
Heckler & Koch MP5 9×19mm Submachine gun
Heckler & Koch UMP .45 ACP Submachine gun
FN P90 5.7×28mm Submachine gun
Colt M1911 .45 ACP Pistol
Beretta 9x19mm Parabellum Pistol
Glock 17 9x19mm Parabellum Pistol
Five-seveN 5.7x28mm Pistol
Heckler & Koch MSG90 7.62×51mm NATO Sniper rifle
Barrett M82 .50 BMG Sniper rifle
Remington 700 7.62×51mm NATO Sniper rifle
FN Minimi 5.56×45mm NATO Machine gun
CETME Ameli[39] 5.56×45mm NATO Machine gun
GAU-19 12.7×99mm NATO Heavy machine gun
M2 Browning machine gun 12.7×99mm NATO Heavy machine gun
M134 7.62×51mm NATO Gatling-type machine gun
STK 40 AGL 40mm Grenade machine gun
Milkor MGL 40mm Grenade launcher
M203 grenade launcher 40mm Grenade launcher
Remington 1100 12 Shotgun

Artillery

Mexican Naval Inventory
Name Versions Type
Self-propelled artillery
Bofors L70 40mm Anti-aircraft artillery
Oerlikon 20mm Anti-aircraft artillery
Shipboard anti-aircraft artillery
Phalanx CIWS 20mm Close in Weapon System
Multiple rocket launchers
FIROS 122mm Multiple Launch Rocket System
Towed artillery
OTO Melara Mod 56 105mm Towed howitzer
K6 120mm Heavy mortar
M29 81mm Medium mortar
Brandt LR 60mm Light mortar
Bofors L70 40mm Towed anti-aircraft artillery
Bofors L60 40mm Towed anti-aircraft artillery
Oerlikon 20mm Towed anti-aircraft artillery
Anti-shipping missiles
Gabriel Mk. II Anti-shipping missile
RGM-84L Harpoon Block II Anti-shipping missile
Anti-aircraft missiles
SA-18 72.2mm Anti-aircraft missile
RIM-116[40] RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) Anti-aircraft missile
RIM-162[41] RIM-162 Evolved SeaSparrow Missile (ESSM) Anti-aircraft missile
Light anti-tank weapons
RPG-75 Anti-tank weapon 68mm
B300 Anti-tank weapon 82mm

Aircraft inventory

[42][43]

Aircraft Type Versions In service Image
Combat aircraft
Valmet L-90 Combat/Counter Insurgency L-90TP 8
Trainers
Zlin Z-242 Training Z-242L 8[44]
Maule M-7 Training MX-7-180A 8
Beechcraft T-6 Texan II Training T-6C+ 2[45][46]
Transport
CASA C-295[47][48][49] Tactical transport C295M 6
Bombardier Dash 8 Tactical transport DH-8 1
Turbo Commander Transport 980 Turbo 4
Learjet VIP transport LJ25 1
Learjet VIP transport LJ31 2
Learjet VIP transport LJ60 1
Gulfstream IV VIP transport G450 1
G450-AMT-205-0310.jpg
Reconnaissance and intelligence
CASA C-212 Surveillance C-212-400 3[50]
CASA CN-235 Surveillance CN-235MP 300 6
Lancair Reconnaissance IV-P
Super ES
Legacy 2000
3
3
2
King Air 350 Surveillance King Air 350ER 4[46][51][52]
Helicopters
Eurocopter Fennec Search & rescue AS555AF 2
Eurocopter Panther Combat AS656MB / MBe 14
Eurocopter EC 725 Transport EC725 3
Bölkow Bo 105 Surveillance EC-Super Five 11
MD Helicopters MD 500 Training MD-500 4
Mil Mi-2 Transport Mi-2 Hopite 1
Mil Mi-17 Transport Mi-17IV/V5 22
MD Helicopters MD Explorer Combat MD-902 6
Sikorsky UH-60 Blackhawk Transport and combat UH-60M 10[53][54]
UAV
UAV SEMAR Reconnaissance/Intelligence T1 / T2 / T3 3
Future acquisitions
EADS CASA surveillance CASA CN-235 2[53][55][56][57]
Sikorsky SH-60 Seahawk Utility maritime helicopter MH-60R 10[58]

Future

For the year 2008 budget, the Mexican Congress approved a US$15 million fund to build only 17 out of the 60 combat boats requested. These ships, designated CB 90 HMN, are to increase the Mexican Navy's fast boat fleet. Additional budgets will be awarded each passing year.[59] In total, the Mexican Navy has over 189 operational ships.[4]

In January 2013, the 112th Session of US Congress authorized the transfer of the  Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates USS Curts and USS McClusky to the Mexican Navy,[60] but due to the cost of overhauling the vessels and the removal of all the weapons systems and most of the electronics and radar gear by the USN prior to transfer, this is still undecided by Mexico. The offer expired on January 1, 2016.[60]

2014

On March 25, 2014 Beechcraft Corporation received an order of 2 T-6C+ military trainers from the Mexican Navy.[61]

On June 24, 2014, the Mexican Government requested the purchase of 5 UH-60Ms in USG configuration from the U.S.; its estimated cost is $225 million.[62] Also on June 24, BAE Systems announced it was awarded a contract by the Mexican Government to supply the navy with 4 Mk 3 57mm naval guns, for the ships of the Reformador class.[63]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Día de la Marina". sct.gob.mx. Archived from the original on May 31, 2015. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
  2. ^ "Mission and objectives" Archived July 7, 2007, at the Wayback Machine (in Spanish)
  3. ^ "Secretaria de Marina – Armada de México". Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
  4. ^ a b [1] Archived September 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine Rendición de cuentas SEMAR 2006 página 40
  5. ^ "Material Aereo" Archived February 5, 2007, at the Wayback Machine(outdated page) (in Spanish)
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  12. ^ "Unidades de Marina vigilarán 19 puertos del país a partir del martes". Excélsior. March 31, 2014. Archived from the original on December 24, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
  13. ^ SIAL Sistema Informativo Aeronáutico Latinoamericano Archived July 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Mexican Naval missile Archived July 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine (in Spanish)
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  17. ^ "En la presente Administración se impulsa el desarrollo de la Flota Naval con el Diseño, Construcción y Reparación de Buques de la SEMAR". Archived from the original on October 8, 2018. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
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  22. ^ "Mexican Navy contracts Damen for fifth Tenochtitlan-class Patrol Vessel (Stan Patrol 4207)". December 12, 2013. Archived from the original on December 18, 2013. Retrieved December 18, 2013.
  23. ^ "Mexican Navy orders sixth Tenochtitlan-class Patrol Vessel (Stan Patrol 4207) from DAMEN". April 1, 2014. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
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