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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Methaqualone
Methaqualone2.svg
Methaqualone ball-and-stick model.png
Clinical data
Pronunciation /mɛθəˈkwln/
Trade names Bon-Sonnil, Dormogen, Dormutil, Mequin, Mozambin, Pro Dorm, Somnotropon, Torinal, Tuazolona. Methaqualone hydrochloride: Cateudyl, Dormir, Hyptor, Melsed, Melsedin, Mequelon, Methasedil, Nobadorm, Normorest, Noxybel, Optimil, Optinoxan, Parest, Parmilene, Pexaqualone, Revonal, Riporest, Sedalone, Somberol, Somnafac, Somnium, Sovelin, Soverin, Sovinal, Toraflon, Tualone, Tuazol.
Pregnancy
category
  • US: D (Evidence of risk)
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 70-80%
Elimination half-life Biphasic (10-40; 20-60 hours)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.710 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C16H14N2O
Molar mass 250.30 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
Melting point 113 °C (235 °F)
  (verify)

Methaqualone, sold under the brand name Quaalude (pronounced KWAY-lood) and sometimes stylized "Quāālude"[1] in the United States and Mandrax in the United Kingdom and South Africa, is a sedative and hypnotic medication. It is a member of the quinazolinone class.

The sedative–hypnotic activity of methaqualone was first noted by researchers in the 1950s. In 1962, methaqualone was patented in the US by Wallace and Tiernan.[2] Its use peaked in the early 1970s as a hypnotic, for the treatment of insomnia, and as a sedative and muscle relaxant.

Methaqualone became increasingly popular as a recreational drug and club drug in the late 1960s and 1970s, known variously as "ludes" or "sopers" (also "soaps") in the U.S. and "mandrakes" and "mandies" in the UK, Australia and New Zealand. The substance is sold both as a free base and as an ammonium salt (hydrochloride).

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Transcription

Methaqualone is a sedative that falls outside the benzodiazepine and barbiturate classes. It was one a popular pharmaceutical and a widely used recreational drug. Due to a crackdown in the 1970s and 80s, it largely disappeared from the market. You can still find recreational use in some areas, most notably in Africa. Because it was minimally controlled initially, it was easy to access and became a popular alternative to barbiturates. A lot of lore exists around the effects. In reality, methaqualone isn't a massively unique drug, but it can be more recreational than benzodiazepines. Among the positive effects are sedation, anxiolysis, euphoria, pleasant tingling sensations, pro-sexual effects, and disinhibition. The negatives can include headache, dizziness, restlessness, dry mouth, slurred speech, motor control impairment, nausea, vomiting, sweating, reduced heart rate and blood pressure, and unconsciousness. If the depiction of methaqualone in The Wolf of Wall Street is what comes to mind, you may have some misconceptions about the drug. While it is a recreational depressant, it's not in an entirely different league than barbiturates, ethanol, carisoprodol, and meprobamate. The core effects involve a mixture of sedation and euphoria. You can achieve notable levels of euphoria with a lower level of sedation than would typically exist with barbiturates. Some people need to fight off an urge to sleep, but others easily remain awake at common doses. The strong sedation it provides also doesn't last especially long, so it's easier to integrate into someone's day without falling asleep. It's fairly common to report a form of mental energy or stimulation at common doses, while the body remains relaxed and sedated. Methaqualone can reduce your inhibitions, raising the likelihood of inappropriate and unsafe behavior. Some of the effects are akin to ethanol, in the sense of staggering due to impaired motor control and experiencing an improved, disinhibited mood. Your body can feel loose, relaxed, and it's common to experience paresthesia in the form of tingling. Warmth is sometimes present. It can become more difficult to talk, especially with strong doses, due to slurring. In the places where it's still used, such as South Africa, inhalation is common. This may produce a greater "rush" of sedation, relaxation, and euphoria. But it can also rapidly impair motor function, which can be dangerous. While there are perceptible differences, methaqualone can be compared to ethanol, barbiturates, carisoprodol, and meprobamate. It's more euphoric and recreational than benzodiazepines. Throughout its history it's been combined with ethanol and other depressants in order to boost the effects. But this isn't a good idea. There are some popular myths about methaqualone that have existed since the 1960s. And some have been supported by portrayals in the media and in content like the The Wolf of Wall Street. One of the longest-running beliefs is that it's a strong aphrodisiac. In the 1960s and 70s, it was referred to as a "love drug" and also called "heroin for lovers," with users saying it could greatly increase sexual desire. Those aren't titles weren't really given to secobarbital or diazepam. But it's not clear that it's a direct aphrodisiac to the extent people claimed. A lot of the pro-sexual effects could be coming from disinhibition. And the presentation of disinhibition as aphrodisia is likely to depend on the environment. Taking a common dose for sleep is going to be different than taking the same dose with a sexual partner, for example. It's therefore hypothesized that the pro-sexual effects aren't inherently drastic, but they can present in certain environments, partly due to expectancy. When it was still being prescribed, the drug was given for insomnia, anxiety, and sometimes for other forms of sedation. Some papers found it didn't lead to a hangover feeling in insomnia, unlike barbiturates. When that quality was combined with its alleged lack of recreational and addiction potential, a lot of physicians and patients quickly adopted the drug. Beginning in the 1950s, research found it had hypnotic effects similar to barbiturates. It was reliably shown to be a fine drug for sleep. Some impact on sleep architecture was seen, such as decline in Stage 4 sleep. REM also sometimes dropped, albeit to a limited degree. And these architecture changes seemed to dissipate with chronic use. Other, less common uses included providing sedation before operations. The drug lasts for 6 to 8 hours when used medically and the core recreational effects are present for about 4 to 6 hours, with the full effects persisting a little longer. The onset is around 30 minutes. Methaqualone is a quinazolinone derivative, placing it outside the typical depressant categories. Though early studies suggested the drug operated at the benzodiazepine receptor site, this doesn't appear accurate. To understand how it may be operating, we have to consider the fact that multiple modulatory sites exist at GABAA. The benzodiazepine site is a popular one, but there are others for barbiturates, neurosteroids, and other kinds of substances. Further, GABAA is made of multiple subunits. Different subunit compositions result in a multitude of receptor complexes that respond differently to drugs. Methaqualone primarily functions as a positive allosteric modulator, meaning it alters activity by enhancing the effects of GABA. It has some minor agonist properties, but those are less significant. When coapplied with GABA, it can significantly increase the generated chloride currents, which are responsible for inhibiting neurotransmission. Once it was determined to be a positive allosteric modulator, the primary question became: "Where does it bind?" Experiments looking at the benzodiazepine, barbiturate, and neurosteroid sites showed methaqualone wasn't utilizing those regions. But, some positive results came at the transmembrane beta-alpha subunit interface. This interface has multiple binding sites and hasn't been heavily studied. Though we do know etomidate, which is used for anesthesia, operates in this region. A specific region on the beta subunit has been identified as vital for methaqualone's properties. And methaqualone shares a lot of pharmacological qualities with etomidate, so it seems we can say they are somewhat similar GABAA modulators. The Tmax is around 2 to 3 hours. While the half-life is often said to be over 10 to 20 hours, some research indicates it's closer to 4 hours. The medical dose is 150 to 400 mg for sleep, but it can also be used during the day for sedation and anxiolysis. One of the daytime dosing schedules is 75 mg three to four times. Recreationally, a light dose is 150 to 300 mg, the common dose is 300 to 600 mg, and a strong dose is over 600 mg. Methaqualone was synthesized in India in 1951. It was created as part of a program looking for antimalarial drugs. Though it wasn't useful for that purpose, it was found to be a hypnotic by 1955. In rats, it was more potent than phenobarbital and had a longer duration. Clinical investigations were underway by the early 1960s in the US, France, and the UK. Those trials showed it was useful for sleep. And some other research showed it could have additional applications, such as anesthesia and muscle relaxation in tetanus. Before the drug's recreational history in the US began, it was popular in other countries. Based on its history in the UK, Germany, and Japan, US regulators should have known about its nonmedical potential. Researchers, prescribers, and users in those countries initially believed the drug was safer and less recreational than barbiturates. It turned out they were largely wrong. It'd eventually achieve notoriety everywhere from France and Sweden to Argentina and Iceland because of its nonmedical use. The drug launched as Revonal in West Germany in 1960 and as Dormutil in East Germany two years later. In both cases it was available over-the-counter, unlike barbiturates. Extensive advertising and the perceived safety of the drug led to widespread use. It was a major source of overdoses at medical centers around Hamburg and other locations by the mid-1960s. And it even became popular among US military personnel in Germany in the early 1970s. They were sometimes getting it from drug stores using fake prescriptions. Eisai Company launched Hyminal in Japan in 1960, also with no prescription requirement. By 1964, the World Health Organization had a report on the, "epidemic-like outbreak of abuse of hypnotic drugs in a particular region. Methaqualone...is now reported to constitute four-fifths of the total amount of hypnotic drugs abused in the group studied." Although Japan wasn't named, it's thought to have been the country being discussed. From 1961 to 1962, 2,000 young people were arrested and identified as "abusers" of methaqualone. Most were arrested in groups and they'd often take Hyminal together at coffee shops. Many were just 15-years-old and were hypothetically taking the drug to reduce anxiety and stress associated with entering competitive high schools. Boots Pure Drug Company brought Melsedin to the UK in 1959. Promotion wasn't significant, so there were very few reports of Melsedin "abuse" until the mid-1960s. With demand for a safe non-barbiturate sleep aid growing, especially in the wake of thalidomide's failure, Roussel Laboratories came out with Mandrax. It was perfect timing for a drug like methaqualone to appear. Mandrax combined the substance with a typical dose of diphenhydramine. Unlike Melsedin, Mandrax was promoted through a "vigorous" marketing campaign. Prescriptions from family doctors in England and Wales went from 45,000 in 1965 to 2 million in 1971. While barbiturates saw millions of fewer prescriptions. All though that time, more Mandrax-related overdoses were being reported. The drug gained a reputation among recreational users as being a nice, euphoric substance. Because it also caused coordination impairment, Mandrax tablets were sometimes called "wall bangers." It got another boost in popularity when injectable methamphetamine and heroin became more restricted. Regulators and physicians in the US were either unaware of this history or they didn't care, at least until the early 1970s. The global media and scientific literature had already discussed methaqualone's nonmedical and dependence potential, but that didn't change much. Methaqualone by itself was approved in 1965 by the FDA under the name Quaalude, from William H. Rorer. It was followed by Sopor from Arnar-Stone and Parest from Parke-Davis. When it entered the market, doctors simply had to prescribe it in an "ethical way." Other restrictions were basically absent, unlike with barbiturates. Since it also had a better reputation, widespread use was bound to occur. And that's exactly what happened. It would take until the 1970s for restrictions to really appear. This was despite pieces in the British Medical Journal and other journals already questioning "whether the alleged value of methaqualone outweighs its addictive potential." Many cases of nonmedical use and even physical dependence began to appear. Rorer defended the drug against those early claims. In 1966, it chastised a paper that had "indicted without justification a relatively safe and effective sedative-hypnotic." By 1970, sales were reportedly $3.4 million per year in the US. And 91 million units were prescribed in 1971, rising to 116 million in 1972. Several large thefts were reported around this time. One manufacturer reported the theft of 600,000 capsules. Authorities started to recognize the potential for issues with methaqualone. In 1970, the FDA mandated stricter language on ads and patient labeling. However, the manufacturer now just claimed "psychological dependence occasionally occurs," and "physical dependence [has] rarely [been] reported." A dramatic rise in nonmedical use was seen around 1972. Many articles discussed how popular the drug had become. A doctor from the National Institute of Health was quoted in the Washington Post as saying, "There's no doubt that [methaqualone has] suddenly become a rage." The Washington Post argued it became popular because federal agencies endorsed its image as a "good drug." Time said methaqualone was "so fashionable among some drug cultures that bowls of it have replaced peanuts as a cocktail-style staple." It was labeled the "hottest drug on the streets" by the San Francisco Chronicle. Similar reports appeared in the medical literature. An editorial in Clinical Toxicology, for example, said it had become "the most desired drug for non-medical use on the street and college markets." Come 1972, the only requirement for obtaining methaqualone was a prescription, but the authorities began to strongly oppose that system. Some groups started to request the drug be placed in Schedule 2. Senator Birch Bayh echoed that demand. Bayh held hearings on the matter, in which the FDA chief defended its activities up to that point by saying there was "nothing in the FDA files or the medical literature to alert us to problems." Yet the chief also admitted there was "widespread nonmedical consumption." Many other people testified at those hearings in a way that could support Schedule 2 status. Rorer tried to prevent this, arguing it should be in Schedule 3, a less restrictive category. That argument failed, and the drug became Schedule 2 in 1973. Schedule 2 status quickly had an impact on prescriptions and the drug's popularity was affected. However, supply and demand did not disappear. Drug diversion remained popular and "stress clinics" were using "scrip doctors" to continue supplying the market. While there may have been a dip in usage during the mid-1970s, the drug experienced a resurgence around 1978. That same year, Rorer sold its rights to Quaalude to Lemmon Pharmaceuticals. In a letter to stockholders, the company's chairman explained their decision to sell the brand name. "Quaalude accounted for less than 2 percent of our sales but created 98 percent of our headaches...Continued publicity about the abuse of this product was hurting the reputation of the company." In the early 1980s, the DEA said methaqualone was the leading drug of abuse next to cannabis. Many people were being exposed due to diversion and illegitimate prescribing, and there was also a thriving black market. Black market methaqualone contained anywhere from 25 to 500 mg of the drug, making it more dangerous. And sometimes the products contained entirely different drugs. While only 4 tons of legal methaqualone was distributed in 1980, up to 100 tons was made internationally and smuggled into the US. An apparent route involved bulk powder coming from Europe and being shipped to Colombia, where it'd be placed in tablets. From there, groups in Colombia would export it to the US, which received an estimated 80% of the world's methaqualone. The DEA worked with authorities in other countries to deal with the smuggling issue. Some countries implemented new controls and even eliminated production because of those negotiations. Much of the methaqualone entering the country came in through Florida and Texas, which also saw quite significant use of the drug. At this time, Lemmon was furious about the way its drug had been portrayed. It continued to say, "it's a fine drug when used as indicated." All of the negative media coverage was leading to a decline in sales, something Lemmon wanted to avoid. It tried to convince doctors the product was actually safe and should still be prescribed. In medical journals, Lemmon took out ads encouraging physicians "not to permit the abuses of illegal users to deprive a legitimate patient of the drug." It tried to counter the stigma against Quaalude by selling the drug under the name Mequin, which hit the market in 1978. Yet the medical community was taking a progressively harsher stance towards the drug. The American Medical Association stated methaqualone "appears to have no advantage over other hypnotics." And some states had started to implement stricter controls against it. Lemmon, the only remaining US manufacturer, stopped producing the drug in 1983. It was placed in Schedule 1 in 1984, preventing any more medical use. The illicit market continued for a time, but by the 1990s, methaqualone was no longer a top drug. And many of the tablets, typically designed like Quaaludes, actually contained drugs like diazepam. US and international authorities cracked down on the remaining illicit supply with initiatives like Operation Hammerhead. Following a two-year investigation, 57 members of a large smuggling ring were indicted. They brought an alleged 54 tons of methaqualone to the US between 1979 and 1983. Seizures were made in Miami, Canada, the Bahamas, Panama, and Spain. US Attorney Leon Kellner said: "What the results of these indictments have done to the market is that you simply will not see illicit, counterfeit Quaalude tablets on the street any longer...We have pretty well dried up this market, not only in the United States but worldwide." One of the large and surprising producers of methaqualone around the late 1980s and early 90s was a group associated with the South African government. During apartheid, the government approved Project Coast, a secret chemical and biological weapons program. For a time, that project involved non-lethal riot control chemicals, including methaqualone. It was led by Dr. Wouter Basson, who established multiple private front companies to increase the program's secrecy. At some point he was allegedly involved in trying to distribute methaqualone on the illicit market. According to a UN report, 1 ton was produced, including 3.5 million Mandrax capsules. When the program was shuttered, a stockpile of tablets and powder was left behind. Some of that could have entered the illicit market, fueling the South African methaqualone trade. Because of this, some have blamed Basson and the apartheid regime for the widespread use of methaqualone in the country. Outside of that program, the methaqualone market was fueled by an international drug trade. The drug was produced in India and other parts of Africa, with it primarily ending up in South Africa. A significant rise in Mandrax trafficking and use appeared to occur in the 1990s. Factories in Kenya, among other places, helped to supply the market. Though in the 2000s, a lot of the production became concentrated in South Africa and India. Other sources were reportedly the Middle East and possibly China. This trade between India and Africa remains significant. For example, in 2016, 23.5 tonnes of Mandrax tablets were seized India. They were reportedly intended for export to South Africa and Mozambique. Like with MDMA, tablets can have a variety of designs and colors that people falsely associate with specific strengths. While the drug was historically used orally, an inhalation practice called "white pipe" is popular in Africa. It involves inhaling crushed tablets, frequently alongside cannabis or tobacco. Methaqualone is very popular in South Africa, often coming in second only to cannabis. There's very little use of methaqualone in the US nowadays. A few seizures still take place, according to the DEA, but most of what's on the market is fake. Ever since the 1970s, fake Quaalude tablets have been popular and the most popular kind ended up being counterfeit Lemmon 714 tablets. The DEA at one point said it was the most common illicitly replicated pharmaceutical product. Clandestine manufacturers settled on diazepam for their Lemmon 714 tablets when the real drug went away. Sometimes those tablets contain excessive benzodiazepine doses, leading to overdoses and even fatalities. A couple factors contributed to the more recent interest in methaqualone, specifically Quaaludes. First, the Wolf of Wall Street in 2013 prominently featured the drug. And second, it was revealed comedian Bill Cosby had used methaqualone to facilitate sexual assault. The drug is Schedule 1 in the US. It's also controlled in Australia, Canada, Germany, and the UK, among many other countries. The safety profile of methaqualone is a bit atypical. At moderate overdoses, it comes with concerns with unconsciousness, vomit aspiration, falls, and coma. Death could occur, especially when combined with other drugs like ethanol. However, it normally doesn't have the same strong respiratory depressant effects as some other depressants. With very large overdoses, such as over 2 grams, some of the primary concerns become increased muscle tone, seizures, and coma. Hemorrhages, including of the retina, have been reported with large overdoses. Recreational doses pretty reliably cause non-problematic tingling and paresthesia. But for some people, the drug also leads to peripheral neuropathy, characterized by more persistent numbness, weakness, sensory impairment, and other issues. This seems to be a rare idiosyncratic response that can appear even at medical doses. Another rare but serious concern are allergic reactions like fixed drug eruption and erythema multiforme. These are also idiosyncratic responses that have shown up in a very small number of users. Tolerance and withdrawal do exist with the substance. With heavy chronic use, the withdrawal could potentially be dangerous and at least highly unpleasant. It can include anxiety, headache, muscle twitching, tremor, nausea, sweating, vomiting, and possibly delirium and seizures. Some of the risky combinations include other depressants like ethanol, opioids, and benzodiazepines. It's also best to avoid dissociatives. If you have any questions, feel free to put them in the comments. You can also email me with questions. The Drug Classroom is exclusively funded by donations. Listeners like you make TDC possible. If you want to support, please do so on Patreon.

Contents

Uses

Medical

Methaqualone is a sedative that increases the activity of the GABA receptors in the brain and nervous system. When GABA activity is increased, blood pressure drops and the breathing and pulse rates slow, leading to a state of deep relaxation. These properties explain why methaqualone was originally mainly prescribed for insomnia.[3] Methaqualone peaks in the bloodstream within several hours, with a half-life of 20–60 hours. Regular users build up a physical tolerance, requiring larger doses for the same effect. Overdose can lead to nervous system shutdown, coma and death.[4]

Methaqualone is not recommended for use while pregnant and is in pregnancy category D.[5]

Overdose

An overdose can cause delirium, convulsions, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, vomiting, kidney failure, coma, and death through cardiac or respiratory arrest. It resembles barbiturate poisoning, but with increased motor difficulties and a lower incidence of cardiac or respiratory depression. The standard one tablet adult dose of Quaalude was 300 mg when made by Lemmon. A dose of 8000 mg is lethal and a dose as little as 2000 mg could induce a coma if taken with an alcoholic beverage.[6]

History

Methaqualone was first synthesized in India in 1951 by Indra Kishore Kacker and Syed Husain Zaheer, for use as an antimalarial drug.[6][7][8] By 1965, it was the most commonly prescribed sedative in Britain, where it has been sold legally under the names Malsed, Malsedin, and Renoval. In 1965, a methaqualone/antihistamine combination was sold as the sedative drug Mandrax, by Roussel Laboratories (now part of Sanofi S.A.). In 1972, it was the sixth-bestselling sedative in the US,[9] where it was legal under the brand name Quaalude. Quaalude in the United States was originally manufactured in 1965 by the Fort Washington, Pennsylvania, based pharmaceutical firm William H. Rorer Inc. The drug name "Quaalude" combined the words "quiet interlude" and shared a stylistic reference to another drug marketed by the firm, Maalox.[10]

In 1978, Rorer sold the rights to manufacture Quaalude to the Lemmon Company of Sellersville, Pennsylvania. At that time, Rorer chairman John Eckman commented on Quaalude's bad reputation stemming from illegal manufacture and use of methaqualone, and illegal sale and use of legally prescribed Quaalude: "Quaalude accounted for less than 2% of our sales but created 98% of our headaches."[6] Both companies still regarded Quaalude as an excellent sleeping drug. Lemmon, well aware of Quaalude's public image problems, used advertisements in medical journals to urge physicians "not to permit the abuses of illegal users to deprive a legitimate patient of the drug". Lemmon also marketed a small quantity under another name, Mequin, so doctors could prescribe the drug without the negative connotations.[6] The rights to Quaalude were held by the JB Roerig & Company division of Pfizer, before the drug was discontinued in the United States in 1985, mainly due to its psychological addictiveness and recreational use.[11]

Society and culture

Regulation

Methaqualone was initially placed in Schedule I as defined by the UN Convention of Psychotropic Substances, but was moved to Schedule II in 1979. [12]

In Canada, methaqualone is listed in Schedule III of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act and requires a prescription but is Schedule I according to NAPRA.[13] Methaqualone is banned in India.[14]

Recreational

A variety of Quaalude pills and capsules.
A variety of Quaalude pills and capsules.

Methaqualone became increasingly popular as a recreational drug in the late 1960s and 1970s, known variously as "ludes" or "sopers" (also "soaps") in the U.S. and "mandrakes" and "mandies" in the UK, Australia and New Zealand.

The drug was more tightly regulated in Britain under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 and in the U.S. from 1973. It was withdrawn from many developed markets in the early 1980s. In the United States it was withdrawn in 1982 and made a Schedule I drug in 1984. It has a DEA ACSCN of 2565 and in 2013 the aggregate annual manufacturing quota for the US was 10 grams. Mention of its possible use in some types of cancer and AIDS has periodically appeared in the literature since the late 1980s; research does not appear to have reached an advanced stage. The DEA has also added the methaqualone analogue mecloqualone (also a result of some incomplete clandestine syntheses) to Schedule I as ACSCN 2572, with zero manufacturing quota.

Gene Haislip, the former head of the Chemical Control Division of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), told the PBS documentary program Frontline: "We beat 'em." By working with governments and manufacturers around the world, the DEA was able to halt production and, Haislip said, "eliminated the problem".[15][16][17] Methaqualone was manufactured in the United States under the name Quaalude by the pharmaceutical firms Rorer and Lemmon with the numbers 714 stamped on the tablet, so people often referred to Quaalude as 714's, "Lemmons", or "Lemmon 7's". Methaqualone was also manufactured in the US under the trade names Sopor and Parest. After the legal manufacture of the drug ended in the United States in 1982, underground laboratories in Mexico continued the illegal manufacture of methaqualone throughout the 1980s, continuing the use of the "714" stamp, until their popularity waned in the early 1990s. Drugs purported to be methaqualone are in a significant majority of cases found to be inert, or contain diphenhydramine or benzodiazepines.

Methaqualone is one of the most commonly used recreational drugs in South Africa.[18][19] It is also popular elsewhere in Africa and in India.[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ Rile, Karen (1983). Winter Music (First ed.). Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Company. pp. 41, 59. ISBN 0-316-74657-6. 
  2. ^ U.S. Patent 3,135,659 – Hydroxy and Alkoxy Aryl Quinazolones
  3. ^ "methaqualone reference". Enotes. Archived from the original on February 23, 2012. 
  4. ^ "recreational drugs tranquilizers". drug library eu. Archived from the original on 2013-03-02. 
  5. ^ Drug Safety. "Methaqualone in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding". Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c d Linder, Lee (28 May 1981). "Quaalude manufacturer: Image hurt by street use". Lawrence Journal-World. Associated Press. p. 6. Retrieved 16 August 2013. Eckman/Fisher 
  7. ^ van Zyl, Etienne F. (2001). "A survey of reported synthesis of methaqualone and some positional and structural isomers". Forensic Science International. 122 (2–3): 142–149. doi:10.1016/S0379-0738(01)00484-4. 
  8. ^ Potential Analgesics. Part I. Synthesis of substituted 4-quinazolones, I. K. Kacker and S. H. Zaheer, J. Ind. Chem. Soc. 28 (1951), pp. 344–346.
  9. ^ GC/MS Assays for Abused Drugs in Body fluids, p. 39
  10. ^ "Dividends: Dropping the Last 'Lude". Time. 28 November 1983. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 
  11. ^ Silverstein, Shel. "Quaaludes Again". Captain Wayne's Mad Music.com. 
  12. ^ lilian.sandouk. "green-lists". www.incb.org. Archived from the original on 2017-09-18. Retrieved 2017-09-06. 
  13. ^ "Search National Drug Schedule". Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2014-01-07. 
  14. ^ "Drugs banned in India". Central Drugs Standard Control Organization, Dte.GHS, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Archived from the original on 2015-02-21. Retrieved 2013-09-17. 
  15. ^ "The Meth Epidemic – Haislip discusses parallels to current Methamphetamine epidemic". 
  16. ^ Ferns, Sean, "Lecture: Gene Haislip : The Chemical Connection: A Historical Perspective on Chemical Control" Archived 2014-03-31 at the Wayback Machine., Drug Enforcement Administration Museum Lecture Series, Arlington, Virginia, October 25, 2007
  17. ^ Piccini, Sara, "DRUG WARRIOR: THE DEA’S GENE HAISLIP ’60, B.C.L. ’63 BATTLED WORLDWIDE AGAINST THE ILLEGAL DRUG TRADE – AND SCORED A RARE VICTORY"[permanent dead link], William & Mary Alumni Magazine, The College of William & Mary, Spring 2010
  18. ^ "Mandrax". DrugAware. Reality Media. 2003. Retrieved 2009-08-13. 
  19. ^ a b McCarthy, G; Myers, B; Siegfried, N (2005). "Treatment for methaqualone dependence in adults". Reviews (2): CD004146. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004146.pub2. PMID 15846700. 

External links

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