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Methane emissions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Global methane emissions are major part of the global greenhouse gas emissions. Methane in the atmosphere has a 100-year global warming potential of 34.[1] Atmospheric methane concentrations have reached almost two-and-a-half times pre-industrial levels or 3.2 billion tons. Though methane traps far more heat than the same mass of carbon dioxide, it remains in the atmosphere only about a decade, while carbon dioxide warms for a much longer time period.[2] On a 20-year timescale, a mass of methane is about 85 times more powerful than carbon dioxide at warming the Earth, but on a 100-year timescale, it is only about 28-34 times more powerful, because the carbon dioxide continues to warm the earth after the methane is gone.[1]

Cattle cause about 40 percent of annual methane emissions[3]; wetlands, about 30 percent[4]; and the energy sector (including oil, natural gas and coal) contributes about 25 percent[3]. Natural sources other than wetlands account for about 10 percent. This includes emissions near oil and gas deposits unrelated to human activity, volcanic activity, and emissions by termites.[3] (These percentages add to more than 100% due to rounding and different sources for data.)

60 percent of atmospheric methane is anthropogenic (associated with human activities.) Emissions from the agricultural sector (including cattle and rice production,) the energy sector and landfill are the major anthropogenic sources.

Sources of atmospheric methane

Diagram showing the main sources of methane (produced for the first global report on global methane emissions)
Diagram showing the main sources of methane (produced for the first global report on global methane emissions)

Biogenic (b) methane is produced by microorganisms in a process called methanogenesis. Abiogenic (a) methane stored in rocks and soil stems from ancient biomass and the generation mechanisms are not the same as for other fossil fuels.

Anthropogenic

Anthropogenic sources:[5][6][7]

Natural sources

Natural sources that have always been a part of the methane cycle include:[10]

With the ongoing draining for agricultural and building areas, wetlands and the associated methane production are on the decline.

National reduction policies

China implemented regulations requiring coal plants to either capture methane emissions or convert methane into CO2 in 2010. According to a Nature Communications paper published in January 2019, methane emissions instead increased 50 percent between 2000 and 2015.[11][12]

By country

Methane emissions (kt of CO2 equivalent)[13]
Country 1970 2012
 Afghanistan 10,202 13,763
 Albania 1,764 2,644
 Algeria 12,857 48,527
 American Samoa 7 13
 Andorra n.a. n.a.
 Angola 23,377 18,974
 Antigua and Barbuda 24 43
 Argentina 84,918 88,476
 Armenia 1,318 3,426
 Aruba 10 23
 Australia 94,291 125,588
 Austria 9,022 8,007
 Azerbaijan 6,398 19,955
 Bahamas 94 227
 Bahrain 791 3,379
 Bangladesh 91,305 105,142
 Barbados 100 109
 Belarus 12,125 16,620
 Belgium 14,123 9,243
 Belize 96 228
 Benin 3,461 6,983
 Bermuda 20 31
 Bhutan 698 1,770
 Bolivia 16,509 23,231
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 3,174 3,140
 Botswana 5,232 4,448
 Brazil 207,737 477,077
 British Virgin Islands 13 19
 Brunei Darussalam 1,615 4,539
 Bulgaria 9,940 11,794
 Burkina Faso 4,613 14,957
 Burundi 1,469 2,719
 Cabo Verde 46 151
 Cambodia 20,087 35,915
 Cameroon 8,286 18,516
 Canada 67,296 106,847
 Cayman Islands 12 29
 Central African Republic 28,890 85,677
 Chad 8,043 18,364
Channel Islands n.a. n.a.
 Chile 10,913 18,381
 China 781,088 1,752,290
 Colombia 36,921 67,979
 Comoros 142 284
 Congo, Dem. Rep. 119,583 75,336
 Congo, Rep. 6,677 7,156
 Costa Rica 2,599 2,315
 Cote d'Ivoire 7,803 16,266
 Croatia 2,986 4,708
 Cuba 13,600 8,560
 Curacao n.a. n.a.
 Cyprus 341 642
 Czech Republic 17,963 11,902
 Denmark 7,692 7,603
 Djibouti 149 634
 Dominica 16 41
 Dominican Republic 3,787 6,861
 Ecuador 6,621 15,786
 Egypt 20,778 51,977
 El Salvador 2,239 3,032
 Equatorial Guinea 76 2,959
 Eritrea 1,797 2,894
 Estonia 2,208 2,235
 Ethiopia 32,687 64,481
 Faroe Islands 30 39
 Fiji 416 715
 Finland 9,972 8,552
 France 82,882 81,179
 French Polynesia 41 99
 Gabon 876 3,894
 Gambia, The 495 1,039
 Georgia 3,493 5,019
 Germany 126,692 55,721
 Ghana 5,230 21,078
 Gibraltar 3 7
 Greece 5,872 8,255
 Greenland 18 29
 Grenada 25 37
 Guam 30 71
 Guatemala 3,217 6,877
 Guinea 7,148 28,654
 Guinea-Bissau 542 1,421
 Guyana 2,066 2,124
 Haiti 2,956 4,587
 Honduras 2,552 5,844
 Hong Kong SAR 704 3,147
 Hungary 10,395 7,135
 Iceland 308 359
 India 398,212 636,396
 Indonesia 126,665 223,316
 Iran, Islamic Rep. 52,013 121,298
 Iraq 19,682 24,351
 Ireland 10,170 14,330
 Isle of Man n.a. n.a.
 Israel 1,301 3,416
 Italy 40,488 35,238
 Jamaica 821 1,316
 Japan 101,804 38,957
 Jordan 362 2,115
 Kazakhstan 68,238 71,350
 Kenya 12,009 28,027
 Kiribati 5 16
 North Korea 15,007 18,983
 Korea, Rep. 25,949 32,625
 Kosovo n.a. n.a.
 Kuwait 21,910 12,691
 Kyrgyz Republic 4,561 4,291
 Laos 6,976 15,011
 Latvia 3,323 3,181
 Lebanon 545 1,150
 Lesotho 1,130 1,287
 Liberia 493 1,586
 Libya 29,695 18,495
 Liechtenstein n.a. n.a.
 Lithuania 4,584 4,806
 Luxembourg 714 1,169
 Macau 49 151
 Macedonia 2,033 1,396
 Madagascar 15,194 20,070
 Malawi 3,189 4,629
 Malaysia 14,317 34,271
 Maldives 13 52
 Mali 8,281 18,042
 Malta 98 141
 Marshall Islands 2 8
 Mauritania 3,157 6,082
 Mauritius 169 311
 Mexico 60,999 116,705
 Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 17 30
 Moldova 2,068 3,456
 Monaco n.a. n.a.
 Mongolia 6,735 6,257
 Montenegro n.a. n.a.
 Morocco 8,486 12,012
 Mozambique 12,793 9,968
 Myanmar 75,254 80,637
 Namibia 4,004 5,097
 Nauru 1 3
   Nepal 17,364 23,982
 Netherlands 20,204 19,026
 New Caledonia 180 215
 New Zealand 25,054 28,658
 Nicaragua 4,007 6,492
 Niger 5,185 6,858
 Nigeria 35,196 89,782
 Northern Mariana Islands 2 12
 Norway 6,866 16,409
 Oman 4,571 16,858
 Pakistan 56,503 158,337
 Palau 1 1
 Panama 2,324 3,378
 Papua New Guinea 948 2,143
 Paraguay 10,145 16,246
 Peru 13,704 19,321
 Philippines 43,211 57,170
 Poland 97,174 65,071
 Portugal 6,731 12,976
 Puerto Rico 1,277 2,406
 Qatar 4,776 41,124
 Romania 32,425 25,708
 Russian Federation 338,496 545,819
 Rwanda 1,302 2,942
 Samoa 63 133
 San Marino n.a. n.a.
 Sao Tome and Principe 17 46
 Saudi Arabia 31,740 62,903
 Senegal 4,605 9,928
 Serbia n.a. n.a.
 Seychelles 9 24
 Sierra Leone 2,554 3,352
 Singapore 658 2,386
 Sint Maarten (Dutch part) n.a. n.a.
 Slovak Republic 4,574 4,075
 Slovenia 2,099 2,822
 Solomon Islands 1,631 1,449
 Somalia 9,542 16,206
 South Africa 32,270 63,156
 South Sudan n.a. n.a.
 Spain 26,509 37,208
 Sri Lanka 11,338 11,864
 St. Kitts and Nevis 26 30
 St. Lucia 28 44
 Saint Martin (French part) n.a. n.a.
 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 23 40
 Sudan 31,752 96,531
 Suriname 941 709
 Swaziland 921 1,377
 Sweden 10,082 10,304
  Switzerland 4,878 4,900
 Syrian Arab Republic 2,425 12,783
 Tajikistan 2,814 5,408
 Tanzania 25,218 27,994
 Thailand 71,444 106,499
 Timor-Leste 412 732
 Togo 2,056 5,343
 Tonga 32 61
 Trinidad and Tobago 1,596 14,789
 Tunisia 2,531 7,647
 Turkey 32,789 78,853
 Turkmenistan 10,821 22,009
 Turks and Caicos Islands 1 6
 Tuvalu 2 3
 Uganda 8,565 21,161
 Ukraine 74,352 68,061
 United Arab Emirates 12,873 26,120
 United Kingdom 120,054 58,980
 United States 594,255 499,809
 Uruguay 14,524 19,549
 Uzbekistan 16,831 47,333
 Vanuatu 128 254
 Venezuela 35,151 58,199
 Vietnam 54,145 113,564
Virgin Islands (U.S.) 16 47
 West Bank and Gaza n.a. n.a.
 Yemen 2,205 8,940
 Zambia 33,881 6,551
 Zimbabwe 8,497 8,589
World 5,305,820 8,014,067

Removal technology

In 2019, researchers proposed a technique for removing methane from the atmosphere using zeolite. Each molecule of methane would be converted into CO
2
, which has a far smaller impact on climate (99% less). Replacing all atmospheric methane with CO
2
would reduce total greenhouse gas warming by approximately one-sixth.[14]

Zeolite is a crystalline material with a porous molecular structure.[14] Powerful fans could push air through reactors of zeolite and catalysts to absorb the methane. The reactor could then be heated to form and release CO
2
. At a carbon price of $500/ton, removing one ton of methane would earn $12,000.[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Myhre, G., D. Shindell, F.-M. Bréon, W. Collins, J. Fuglestvedt, J. Huang, D. Koch, J.-F. Lamarque, D. Lee, B. Mendoza, T. Nakajima, A. Robock, G. Stephens, T. Takemura and H. Zhang (2013) "Anthropogenic and Natural Radiative Forcing". Table 8.7 on page 714. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Anthropogenic and Natural Radiative Forcing
  2. ^ "Understanding Global Warming Potentials". Retrieved 2019-09-09.
  3. ^ a b c "Methane, explained". National Geographic. nationalgeographic.com. 2019-01-23. Retrieved 2019-07-25.
  4. ^ "Global Carbon Project (GCP)". www.globalcarbonproject.org. Retrieved 2019-07-25.
  5. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Global Methane Initiative. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  6. ^ US EPA, OA (23 December 2015). "Overview of Greenhouse Gases". US EPA.
  7. ^ Global Methane Emissions and Mitigation Initiatives, Global Methane Initiative
  8. ^ "Agriculture's greenhouse gas emissions on the rise". FAO. Retrieved 2017-04-19.
  9. ^ "Fossil fuel industry's methane emissions far higher than thought". The Guardian. 2016. Emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas from coal, oil and gas are up to 60% greater than previously estimated, meaning current climate prediction models should be revised, research shows
  10. ^ Harvey Augenbraun, Elaine Matthews, and David Sarma. "EDUCATION: GLOBAL METHANE INVENTORY - The Global Methane Cycle". National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Institute for Space Studies.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Brooks Hays (29 January 2019). "Regulations haven't slowed China's growing methane emissions". UPI. Retrieved 31 January 2019. China's methane emissions increased 50 percent between 2000 and 2015
  12. ^ https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-07891-7
  13. ^ Methane emissions (kt of CO2 equivalent), The World Bank, 2018
  14. ^ a b c Alexandru Micu (2019-05-21). "One research team proposes swapping atmospheric methane for CO2, and it might be a good idea". ZME Science. Retrieved 2019-07-17.

External links

This page was last edited on 14 October 2019, at 03:01
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