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Mendoza, Argentina

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mendoza

Huentota
City of Mendoza
Ciudad de Mendoza  (Spanish)
Mendoza skyline
Mendoza skyline
Official seal of Mendoza
Seal
Mendoza is located in Argentina
Mendoza
Mendoza
Location in Argentina
Coordinates: 32°53′S 68°49′W / 32.883°S 68.817°W / -32.883; -68.817
Country Argentina
Province Mendoza
DepartmentCapital
Settled1561; 459 years ago (1561)
Founded byPedro del Castillo
Named forGarcía Hurtado de Mendoza, 5th Marquis of Cañete
Government
 • MayorRodolfo Alejandro Suarez (UCR)
Area
 • City54 km2 (21 sq mi)
Elevation
746.5 m (2,449.1 ft)
Population
 (2010 census)
 • Density2,055.4/km2 (5,323/sq mi)
 • Urban
115,021
 • Metro
1,400,000
 • Demonym
Mendocenean (Mendocino/-a Spanish)
Time zoneUTC-3 (ART)
CPA Base
M 5500
Area code(s)+54 261
ClimateBWk
Websitewww.ciudaddemendoza.gov.ar

Mendoza (/mɛnˈdzə/, American Spanish: [menˈdosa]), officially the City of Mendoza (Spanish: Ciudad de Mendoza) is one of most important cities of Argentina and the most important in the West of the country. It is located east of the Andes. As of the 2010 census [INDEC], Mendoza had a population of 115,021 with a metropolitan population of 1,180,679, and an updated population in 2020 of near 1.400.000, making the Metropolitan Area of Mendoza the fourth largest metropolitan area in the country.

Mendoza has one of the best cultural, gastronomic, and tourist offerings in Argentina and it is one of the main poles of trade in the region. Its rich history and the waves of european immigrants that arrived to the city during the twentieth century make Mendoza a vibrant and cosmopolitan city. Two of the main industries around the Mendoza Metropolitan Area are olive oil production and wine. The region is the largest wine-producing area in South America. As such, Mendoza is one of the nine Great Wine Capitals,[1] and the city is an emerging enotourism destination.

Also, it is a frequent stopover for climbers on their way to Aconcagua (the highest mountain in the Western and Southern Hemispheres) and for adventure travelers interested in mountaineering, hiking, horse riding, rafting, and other sports. In the winter, skiers come to the city for easy access to the Andes.

History

Print of the second foundation of Mendoza, 1562
Print of the second foundation of Mendoza, 1562

On March 2, 1561, Pedro del Castillo founded the city and named it Ciudad de Mendoza del Nuevo Valle de La Rioja after the governor of Chile, Don García Hurtado de Mendoza.[2] Before the 1560s the area was populated by tribes known as the Huarpes and Puelches. The Huarpes devised a system of irrigation that was later developed by the Spanish. This allowed for an increase in population that might not have otherwise occurred. The system is still evident today in the wide trenches (acequias), which run along all city streets, watering the approximately 100,000 trees that line every street in Mendoza.

It is estimated that fewer than 80 Spanish settlers lived in the area before 1600, but later prosperity increased due to the use of indigenous and slave labor, and the Jesuit presence in the region. When nearby rivers were tapped as a source of irrigation in 1788 agricultural production increased. The extra revenues generated from this, and the ensuing additional trade with Buenos Aires, no doubt led to the creation of the state of Cuyo in 1813 with José de San Martín as governor. It was from Mendoza that San Martín and other Argentinian and Chilean patriots organized the army with which they won the independence of Chile and Peru.[3] Mendoza suffered a severe earthquake in 1861 that killed at least 5,000 people. The city was rebuilt, incorporating innovative urban designs that would better tolerate such seismic activity. Mendoza was rebuilt with large squares and wider streets and sidewalks than any other city in Argentina. Avenue Bartolomé Mitre and additional small squares are examples of that design.

Tourism, wine production, and more recently the exploitation of commodities such as oil[4] and uranium[5] ensure Mendoza's status as a key regional centre. Important suburbs such as Godoy Cruz, Guaymallén, Las Heras and Luján de Cuyo have in recent decades far outpaced the city proper in population. Comprising half the metro population of 212,000 in 1947, these suburbs grew to nearly ⅞ of the total metro area of over 1,000,000 by 2015, making Mendoza the most dispersed metro area in Argentina.[6]

Culture

Mendoza has several museums, including the Museo Cornelio Moyano, a natural history museum, and the Museo del Área Fundacional (Historical Regional Foundation Museum) on Pedro del Castillo Square. The Museo Nacional del Vino (National Wine Museum), focusing on the history of winemaking in the area, is 17 kilometres (11 miles) southeast of Mendoza in Maipú. The Casa de Fader, a historic house museum, is an 1890 mansion once home to artist Fernando Fader in nearby Mayor Drummond, 14 kilometres (9 miles) south of Mendoza. The mansion is home to many of the artist's paintings.

The Fiesta Nacional de la Vendimia (The National Grape Harvest Festival) occurs in early March each year. Part of the festivities include a beauty pageant, where 17 beauty queens from each department of Mendoza Province compete, and one winner is selected by a panel of about 50 judges. The queen of Mendoza city's department does not compete and acts as host for the other queens.

In 2008, National Geographic listed Mendoza as one of the top 10 historic destinations in the world.[7]

Urban structure

The city is centred around Plaza Independencia (Independence Plaza) with Avenida Sarmiento running through its centre east–west, with the east side pedestrianized (peatonal). Other major streets, running perpendicular to Sarmiento, include Bartolomé Mitre, San Martín, and 9 de Julio (July 9th), those running parallel include Colón, and Las Heras. Four smaller plazas, San Martín, Chile, Italia, and España, are located 2 blocks off each corner of Independence Plaza. Unique to Mendoza are the exposed stone ditches, essentially small canals, which run alongside many of the roads supplying water to the thousands of trees.

Parque General San Martín (General San Martín Park) was designed by Carlos Thays. Its grounds include the Mendoza Zoological Park and a football stadium, and it is also the home of the Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. A view of the city is available from the top of Cerro de la Gloria (Mt. Glory).[8]

One common point of interest is the Teatro Independencia ("Independence Theatre"), the premier performing arts venue in Mendoza. Supervised by the nation's Ministry of Public Works, the project was commissioned to architect Alfredo Israel, and its plans were approved in October 1923. The theatre was, as were many public works of this type in Argentina at the time, designed in a French Academy style. Its façade included a Neoclassical frontis featuring four Corinthian columns on a green marble base, a rococo frieze, the provincial escutcheon in bas-relief, and a balustrade above. The design for the interiors was based on those prevailing in Italian opera houses, and the formal vestibule is overlooked by grand marble steps leading to the concert hall. The auditorium itself includes four tiers of balconies, and its seating capacity is 730. The theatre serves as the home of the Provincial Philharmonic Orchestra. In addition, the theatre has received international personalities such as John Malkovich.

Education

Mendoza has a number of universities, including the major Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, as well as University of Mendoza, a branch of Universidad Congreso, Aconcagua University, UTN (Universidad Tecnologica Nacional) and Champagnat University.

Mendoza is a popular place to learn Spanish, and there are a number of Spanish language schools, including Intercultural, Green Fields and SIMA.[9]

Transportation

Mendoza is 1,037 km (644 mi) from Buenos Aires (14 hours by bus) and 380 km (236 mi) from Santiago, Chile (6–7 hours by bus). Gov. Francisco Gabrielli International Airport serves Mendoza, with flights to/from Buenos Aires taking less than 2 hours and less than 1 hour to/from Santiago.

The public transport system includes buses, the Mendoza trolleybus system, and taxis. The trolleybuses are more comfortable than the diesel buses, but are slower, not as numerous nor is the system as extensive. In 2008, TransLink of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, sold most of its old trolleybus fleet to Mendoza.[10]

A heritage railway, El Tren del Vino (The Wine Train), is being planned which will also provide local transportation; it will run through wine-producing districts of Mendoza.[11]

Metrotranvía

A new 12.6-kilometre (7.8 mi) light rail line, the Metrotranvía Mendoza, opened for regular service in October 2012.[12] and serves five areas of the Greater Mendoza conurbation. The line runs from Estación Central (at the site of the former intercity passenger train station, near the city centre) south to Maipú. The bright red railcars, Siemens-Duewag U2s, were purchased from the San Diego Metropolitan Transit System (MTS) of San Diego, California, USA in 2010. They were built in 1980.

Transandine Railway

Mendoza's development was helped partly due to its position at the start of the Transandine Railway linking it to Santa Rosa de Los Andes in Chile. The only railway operable between Argentina and Chile, after many years of inactivity, it remains currently abandoned.[13][14][15][16]

The railway is a 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge line, with sections of Abt rack, whilst the railways it links with are both 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge. A journey from Buenos Aires to Chile involved two breaks-of-gauge, and therefore two changes of train, one at Mendoza, and the other at Santa Rosa de Los Andes.

Wine industry

Vineyards in Uco Valley
Vineyards in Uco Valley

Argentina's Malbec wines originate from Mendoza's high-altitude wine regions of Lujan de Cuyo and the Uco Valley. These districts are located in the foothills of the Andes mountains between 2,800 and 5,000 feet elevation.[17][18][19][20] Vintner Nicolas Catena Zapata is considered the pioneer of high-altitude growing and was the first, in 1994, to plant a malbec vineyard at 5,000 feet above sea level in the Mendoza region. His family is also credited with making world-class wines and giving status to the wines of Argentina.[21]

The subject of elevation is of much interest to the wine world because with increased altitude, the intensity of the sunlight increases. The role of this increased light intensity is currently being investigated by Catena Zapata's research and development department headed up by Laura Catena, Alejandro Vigil and Fernando Buscema.

In film

Seven Years in Tibet, directed by French director Jean-Jacques Annaud and starring Brad Pitt, was shot in and around Mendoza. Several dozens of sets were built, ranging from a 220-yard (200 m) long recreation of the Tibetan capital city of Lhasa (built in the foothills of the Andes), to a 9,000-square-foot (840 m2) recreation of the Hall of Good Deeds in the Potala, the ancient palace of the Dalai Lama (built in an abandoned garlic warehouse outside the city).

Climate

Mendoza's climate is characterised as an arid (Köppen climate classification BWh or BWk depending on the isotherm used);[22] with continental characteristics.[23] Most precipitation in Mendoza falls in the summer months (November–March).[23] Summers are hot and humid where mean temperatures exceed 25 °C (77 °F).[23] Average temperatures for January (summer) are 32 °C (90 °F) during daytime, and 18.4 °C (65.1 °F) at night.[24] Winters are cold and dry with mean temperatures below 8 °C (46.4 °F).[23] Night time temperatures can occasionally fall below freezing during the winter.[23] Because winters are dry with little precipitation, snowfall is uncommon, occurring once per year.[23] July (winter) the average temperatures are 14.7 °C (58.5 °F) and 2.4 °C (36 °F), day and night respectively.[24] Mendoza's annual rainfall is only 223.2 mm (8.8 in), so extensive farming is made possible by irrigation from major rivers. The highest temperature recorded was 44.4 °C (111.9 °F) on January 30, 2003 while the lowest temperature recorded was −7.8 °C (18.0 °F) on July 10, 1976.[25]

Climate data for Mendoza Airport, Argentina (1981–2010, extremes 1949–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 44.4
(111.9)
40.6
(105.1)
37.8
(100.0)
34.0
(93.2)
33.0
(91.4)
30.4
(86.7)
33.0
(91.4)
34.4
(93.9)
36.0
(96.8)
40.1
(104.2)
40.8
(105.4)
43.5
(110.3)
44.4
(111.9)
Average high °C (°F) 32.3
(90.1)
30.9
(87.6)
27.9
(82.2)
23.2
(73.8)
18.7
(65.7)
15.7
(60.3)
15.0
(59.0)
18.3
(64.9)
21.1
(70.0)
25.9
(78.6)
29.2
(84.6)
31.8
(89.2)
24.2
(75.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.5
(77.9)
24.0
(75.2)
21.3
(70.3)
16.2
(61.2)
11.8
(53.2)
8.4
(47.1)
7.9
(46.2)
10.6
(51.1)
13.9
(57.0)
18.8
(65.8)
22.2
(72.0)
24.9
(76.8)
17.1
(62.8)
Average low °C (°F) 18.7
(65.7)
17.4
(63.3)
15.5
(59.9)
10.4
(50.7)
6.2
(43.2)
2.9
(37.2)
2.1
(35.8)
4.2
(39.6)
7.2
(45.0)
11.7
(53.1)
15.1
(59.2)
17.9
(64.2)
10.8
(51.4)
Record low °C (°F) 7.5
(45.5)
4.8
(40.6)
0.6
(33.1)
−2.3
(27.9)
−4.3
(24.3)
−7.2
(19.0)
−7.8
(18.0)
−5.9
(21.4)
−4.6
(23.7)
0.1
(32.2)
2.7
(36.9)
5.3
(41.5)
−7.8
(18.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 50.5
(1.99)
33.7
(1.33)
34.9
(1.37)
16.5
(0.65)
10.5
(0.41)
6.3
(0.25)
8.0
(0.31)
8.0
(0.31)
15.1
(0.59)
10.4
(0.41)
16.4
(0.65)
24.3
(0.96)
234.6
(9.24)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 6.1 5.1 4.9 3.5 3.2 2.1 2.7 2.4 3.8 3.0 4.0 4.3 45.1
Average relative humidity (%) 49.8 53.6 61.8 65.6 68.3 69.4 64.4 55.1 51.3 45.7 44.5 45.8 56.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 297.6 257.6 235.6 219.0 195.3 168.0 182.9 229.4 225.0 282.1 294.0 285.2 2,871.7
Percent possible sunshine 67 69 61 64 60 56 58 68 63 70 70 64 64
Source 1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional[26]
Source 2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990),[24] Meteo climat (record highs and lows),[27] Oficina de Riesgo Agropecuario (November and December record high and May record low only)[25]

Sports

See Category:Sport in Mendoza, Argentina

In 1978 Mendoza hosted six matches of the 1978 FIFA World Cup. The six were played at the Malvinas Argentinas Stadium.

The city boasts at least two significant football clubs—Independiente Rivadavia and Gimnasia y Esgrima de Mendoza, although neither currently plays in the Primera División. A club from the nearby city of Godoy Cruz, Godoy Cruz Antonio Tomba, is currently in the 1st division.

International rugby test matches featuring the Argentina national rugby team have also been held in Mendoza.

The famous footballer Pepe 'Miguel' Marra is from Mendoza. He enjoyed a successful first season playing for Stockholm Craft Ballclub in 2020 and will return to the club in 2021 for their first season in Division 7.

People

See Category:People from Mendoza, Argentina

International relations

Mendoza is twinned with:

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Great Wine Capitals". Archived from the original on 2019-08-07. Retrieved 2019-09-30.
  2. ^ "welcomeargentina.com: Land of the good wine". Archived from the original on 2007-10-18. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
  3. ^ "Morris Charles – The Hannibal of the Andes and the Freedom of Chile". Archived from the original on 2011-06-10. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
  4. ^ "Baldwin Harry L. – Tupungato oil field". Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
  5. ^ "New uranium mining projects". Archived from the original on 2007-10-30. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
  6. ^ "Encuesta Permanente de Hogares" (PDF). Indec. 23 August 2015. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  7. ^ "National Geographic – 2008 Ranking of Historic Places". Archived from the original on 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2008-11-04.
  8. ^ "Barrio la gloria by Estudio Rodante". El Viento. 3:02 minutes in. Radio Comunitaria. Archived from the original on 2007-03-06. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  9. ^ "SIMA: Spanish in Mendoza Argentina". Spanishinmendozaargentina.greenash.net.au. Archived from the original on 2013-04-09. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  10. ^ Aged trolleys sold to Argentine city Archived 2012-11-05 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ "Mendoza Wine Train". Archived from the original on 2009-06-25. Retrieved 2008-06-08.
  12. ^ "Mendoza light rail service begins" (December 2012). Tramways & Urban Transit, p. 451. LRTA Publishing. ISSN 1460-8324.
  13. ^ www.diariodecuyo.com.ar El tren trasandino Archived 2011-05-31 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 22 June 2009
  14. ^ Volvió el ferrocarril a Mendoza Archived 2011-06-11 at the Wayback Machine (in Spanish)
  15. ^ En julio se licitará tren Los Andes - Mendoza Archived 2007-03-10 at the Wayback Machine (in Spanish)
  16. ^ Revisiting the Transandine Railway - accessed 22 June 2009
  17. ^ Catena, Laura (2010). Vino Argentino, An Insiders Guide to the Wines and Wine Country of Argentina. Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-0811873307.
  18. ^ Rolland, Michel (2006). Wines of Argentina. Mirroll. ISBN 978-9872092634.
  19. ^ Wine Tours: Argentina – Mendoza Archived 2011-01-12 at the Wayback Machine, "Fly Fishing Patagonia"
  20. ^ Wine Tip: Malbec Madness Archived 2015-08-02 at the Wayback Machine, "Wine Spectator", April 12, 2010
  21. ^ Malbec wines have rich history and flavor, "Argus leader"
  22. ^ M. Kottek; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol. Z. 15: 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Archived from the original on November 2, 2011. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
  23. ^ a b c d e f "Clima" (in Spanish). Municipalidad de la Ciudad de Mendoza. Archived from the original on October 5, 2015. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
  24. ^ a b c "Mendoza AERO Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
  25. ^ a b "Mendoza (Aero), Mendoza". Estadísticas meteorológicas decadiales (in Spanish). Oficina de Riesgo Agropecuario. Archived from the original on June 30, 2015. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  26. ^ a b "Estadísticas Climatológicas Normales - período 1981-2010" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Archived from the original on January 19, 2018. Retrieved January 21, 2018.
  27. ^ "STATION Mendoza" (in French). Météoclimat. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  28. ^ "Clima en la Argentina: Guia Climática por localidades". Caracterización: Estadísticas de largo plazo (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Archived from the original on 7 February 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  29. ^ "Pesquisa de Legislação Municipal – No 14471" [Research Municipal Legislation – No 14471]. Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo [Municipality of the City of São Paulo] (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2011-10-18. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
  30. ^ Lei Municipal de São Paulo 14471 de 2007 Archived 2013-09-28 at the Wayback Machine WikiSource (in Portuguese)
  31. ^ "Sister Cities of Nashville". SCNashville.org. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved August 3, 2011.

Sources

  • V. Letelier (1907). Apuntes sobre el terremoto de Mendoza. Santiago
  • V. Blasco Ibánez (1910). Argentina y sus Grandezas. Madrid

External links

This page was last edited on 25 November 2020, at 06:16
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