To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Mende language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mende
Mɛnde yia
Mɛnde yia
Native toSierra Leone, Liberia
RegionSouth central Sierra Leone
Native speakers
1.5 million (2006)[1]
Niger–Congo?
Latin
Mende Kikakui script
Language codes
ISO 639-2men
ISO 639-3men
Glottologmend1266[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Mende /ˈmɛndi/[3] (Mɛnde yia) is a major language of Sierra Leone, with some speakers in neighboring Liberia. It is spoken by the Mende people and by other ethnic groups as a regional lingua franca in southern Sierra Leone.

Mende is a tonal language belonging to the Mande branch of the Niger–Congo language family. Early systematic descriptions of Mende were by F. W. Migeod[4] and Kenneth Crosby.[5]

Written forms

In 1921, Kisimi Kamara invented a syllabary for Mende he called Kikakui (

Kikaku). The script achieved widespread use for a time, but has largely been replaced with an alphabet based on the Latin script, and the Mende script is considered a "failed script".[6] The Bible was translated into Mende and published in 1959, in Latin script.

The Latin-based alphabet is: a, b, d, e, ɛ, f, g, gb, h, i, j, k, kp, l, m, n, ny, o, ɔ, p, s, t, u, v, w, y. [7][8]

Mende has seven vowels: a, e, ɛ, i, o, ɔ, u. [9][10]

Phonology

Consonants

Bilabial Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive plain p t k
voiced b d ɡ
prenasalized m͡b n͡d ŋ͡ɡ
Fricative plain f s h
voiced v
Affricate plain k͡p
voiced d͡ʒ ɡ͡b
prenasalized ɲd͡ʒ ŋɡ͡b
Lateral l
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Approximant w j

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-mid e o
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a

[11]

Mende language in films

Mende was used extensively in the films Amistad and Blood Diamond, and was the subject of the documentary film The Language You Cry In.

References

  1. ^ Mende at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Mende (Sierra Leone)". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
  4. ^ Migeod, F. W. 1908. The Mende language. London
  5. ^ Crosby, Kenneth. 1944. An Introduction to the Study of Mende. Cambridge University Press.
  6. ^ Unseth, Peter. 2011. Invention of Scripts in West Africa for Ethnic Revitalization. In The Success-Failure Continuum in Language and Ethnic Identity Efforts, ed. by Joshua A. Fishman and Ofelia García, pp. 23-32. New York: Oxford University Press.
  7. ^ Coble, Scott. n.d. "Mende." AboutWorldLanguages.com (accessed 8 October 2014)
  8. ^ "Langue : mende". Systèmes alphabétiques des langues africaines. Retrieved 2019-02-14.
  9. ^ A Mende Orthography Workshop: Ministry of Education, Freetown, January 21-25, 1980
  10. ^ Pemagbi, Joe. 1991. "A guide to Mende orthography." SLADEA.
  11. ^ Dwyer, David James (1969). Consonant Mutation in Mende. Michigan State University.

External links


This page was last edited on 18 October 2019, at 10:40
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.