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Mayoral elections in Chicago

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Chicago has held regularly-scheduled popular elections to select the city's mayor ever since it was incorporated as a city in 1837.

Chicago currently holds regularly-scheduled mayoral elections once every four years, in years prior to a presidential election.

Beginning with its 1999 mayoral election, Chicago has used a nonpartisan two-round system. Under this system, if no candidate secures an outright majority of the first-round vote a runoff will be held between the top-two finishers. No runoff is held if a candidate has secured an outright majority in the first round. Thus far, only two elections (2015 and 2019) have necessitated a runoff.

Up through its 1995 mayoral election, Chicago had formerly utilized a partisan first-past-the-post voting system.

History

Chicago was incorporated as a town in 1833. At that point it was governed by a Board of Trustees who were elected annually at large and elected a President from among themselves. Chicago's incorporation as a city in 1837 eliminated such a model in favor of a Common Council elected from wards and a separate office of Mayor who was elected at large.[1]

From 1838 through 1860, mayoral elections were held on the first Tuesday of March.[2] From 1861 through 1867 they were held on the first Monday in April.[2] From 1869 through 1875 they were held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November.[3] After 1976, they were held on the first Tuesday of April.[4]

An act passed on March 4, 1837 had required that voters in municipal elections would need to be residents of the wards in which they voted and must be freeholders. An act passed on March 1, 1841 removed the requirement that voters be freeholders.[3] Under the law of 1849-50 requirements were added, mandating (at the time) that voters reside in the town where they voted and must have lived in the state of Illinois for at least a year.[3]

In 1875, the election guidelines outlined in the original city charter were abandoned in favor of those outlined in the Cities and Villages Act of 1872, which changed the date of mayoral elections (mandating that they be scheduled for the last Tuesday in April of odd-numbered years).[4] Ambiguity concerning the effect this would have on the scheduling of the next election led to the April 1876 election that was later considered by the courts to be null and void.[4][3] In addition, the mayoral term length (which up to this point had been one year) was extended by the 1872 Act to two years. Term length was subsequently further extended to four years in 1907.[5]

In time for the 1911 election the Illinois legislature passed a law which scheduled Chicago mayoral party primaries for the last Tuesday of February.[6]

On June 26, 1913 Illinois became the first state east of the Mississippi River to grant women's suffrage.[7] 1915 was the first Chicago mayoral election to be held following this change.[8]

Since 1935, elections to the Chicago City Council (which were extended to four years) have coincided with all regularly-scheduled mayoral elections.[1]

The 1995 election was the final mayoral election to be partisan. Beginning in 1999 elections have taken place on a non-partisan basis, with a system requiring that a candidate obtain a majority of the vote (if no candidate achieves this in the initial vote, a runoff is held between the top-two finishers).[6] Under this new system, the initial round of voting is held on the last Tuesday of February (when party primaries were formerly scheduled),[6] with any runoff taking place in April.[6]

Additionally, the change in election laws that took effect for the 1999 election raised the number of signatures required for candidates to be included on the ballot from 3,000 to 25,000.[9] This requirement, however, was halved to 12,500 before the 2007 election.[9]

Term length

There is not currently, nor has there ever been, a term limit on the mayoralty of Chicago. Terms were originally one year in length before being extended to two years in 1875 by the Cities and Villages Act of 1872.[4][3] Term length was subsequently further extended to four years in 1907.[5]

Years
Term length
1837−1875 1 year
1875−1907 2 years
1907−present 4 years

Current election laws

There are no term limits for Chicago's mayoral office.

Chicago's mayoral elections are currently nonpartisan. A candidate receiving a majority of votes cast will be declared elected. If no candidate receives a majority of the vote, a runoff election will be held between the two candidates who received the highest and second highest number of votes in the first round.[10] The initial round of voting takes place on the last Tuesday of February, and any runoff takes place in April.[6]

Mayoral candidates must be a registered voter who has resided in the City of Chicago for at least one year before the date of the election.[10]

Individuals will be barred from taking office if, at the time required for them to take the oath of office, they are in arrears in the payment of tax or other indebtedness due to the City of Chicago.[10] They will also be unable to take office if they have been convicted in any United States court of any infamous crime, bribery, perjury, or other felony.[10]

A term of office lasts four years, from the third Monday in May until a successor is elected and qualified to assume office.[10]

In order to be included on the ballot candidates must submit 12,500 valid signatures.[10] Signatures cannot be collected more than four months in advance of the submission of a candidate's petition.[10] Individuals are not permitted to sign multiple candidates' petitions, they may sign only a single mayoral candidate's petition.[10][11]

Any candidate may have their petition challenged.[10] Those candidates with properly-filed challenges against their petitions will have their candidature subjected to hearings and procedures which will to assess the validity of their petitions.[10]

If any candidate fails to file a statement of economic interests within five days of having their petition certified, then their certification will be revoked.[10]

Write-in candidates must file a notarized declaration of intent to be a write-in candidate by a deadline.[10][12] An extended deadline to do this is allotted to candidates whose petitions were rejected after this deadline due to the outcome of a challenge.[10]

The order in which the candidates are listed on ballots is determined by the order in which their petitions were received (with those received earlier listed first and those received later being listed last).[10] Lotteries are held to resolve instances in which petitions which were received simultaneously.[10] The ballots of all candidates who were waiting in line to submit their petitions at 9:00 a.m. on the first day for petition filing will be deemed as having simultaneously filed at 9:00 a.m. They will be the first candidates listed, with a lottery being held to determine their order.[10] Similarly, all candidates that filed within the last hour of the filing deadline will be deemed to have filed simultaneously. They will be the last candidates listed, and a lottery will be held to determine their order.[10]

Candidates

Demographics

All but two of the individuals that have been elected mayor of Chicago have been Caucasian (the exceptions being African-American mayors Harold Washington and Lori Lightfoot). Additionally, all but two of the individuals that have been elected mayor of Chicago have male (the exceptions being Jane Byrne and Lori Lightfoot).

African American candidates

Harold Washington and Lori Lightfoot are the only African Americans to be elected mayor, and are two of only three to have served as mayor (joined by Eugene Sawyer, who was appointed mayor following Washington's death in office)

African Americans who had unsuccessfully sought election as mayor prior to Washington's first successful campaign in 1983 include Washington himself in 1977; Dick Gregory in 1967;[13] Richard H. Newhouse Jr. and Willie Mae Reid in 1975; and Sheila A. Jones in 1983[14]

The 2019 election made history not just by electing Chicago's first Black Woman as Mayor, but by having two African American women candidates, Lori Lightfoot and Toni Preckwinkle, be the ones to advance to the runoff. Additionally, a record eleven African American candidates filed to run in the 2019 election (Conrien Hykes Clark, Dorothy A. Cook Brown, Amara Enyia, La Shawn Ford, Ja'Mal Green, Neal Sales-Griffin, Lori Lightfoot, Sandra Mallory, Toni Preckwinkle, Roger L. Washington, Willie Wilson)[15] William "Dock" Walls and Troy LaRaviere had also been candidates in that election, but dropped out without officially filing petitions.

African Americans who had unsuccessfully sought election as mayor after Washington died in office and before the 2019 election include Timothy C. Evans, Sheila A. Jones[14] Eugene Sawyer, and James C. Taylor[16][17] in 1989; James Warren in 1991: Danny K. Davis in both 1991 and 2011; Joseph E. Garner and Lawrence C. Redmond in 1995; Roland Burris in both 1995 and 2011; Bobby Rush in 1999; Paul Jakes,[18][19] Joseph McAfee[18][20] and Patricia McAllister[18][21] in 2003; Dorothy A. Brown in 2007; William "Dock" Walls III in 2007, 2015, and 2019; Carol Mosely Braun, Patricia Van Pelt Watkins, and James Meeks in 2011; Amara Enyia and Willie Wilson in 2015.

Asian Pacific American candidates

No Asian Pacific American has either been elected or otherwise served as mayor of Chicago[22] One Asian Pacific American candidate ran in the 2019 mayoral election, (Neal Sales-Griffin[23])

Catholic candidates

John Patrick Hopkins was the first Catholic to be elected mayor.[24] Subsequent Catholics to be elected mayor include Edward Fitzsimmons Dunne, William Emmett Dever,[25] Edward Joseph Kelly, Martin H. Kennelly, Richard J. Daley, Michael Anthony Bilandic, Jane Byrne, Richard M. Daley. Additionally, Frank J. Corr served as mayor after being elected by City Council.

Hispanic candidates

No Hispanic individual has either been elected or otherwise served as mayor of Chicago[22][26] Several Hispanic candidates have unsuccessfully sought election as mayor in the past including William E. Rodriguez in 1911; Gery Chico and Miguel del Valle in 2011; Jesús "Chuy" García in 2015; Gery Chico, Neal Sales-Griffin,[23][27] and Susana Mendoza in 2019.

Irish American candidates

Twelve of Chicago's mayors have been Irish Americans.[28][29][30] These include John Patrick Hopkins (the first to serve as mayor)[24][29] Edward Fitzsimmons Dunne, William Emmett Dever,[25] Edward Joseph Kelly,[24] Martin H. Kennelly,[31] Richard J. Daley, and Richard M. Daley. It also includes Frank J. Corr, who was appointed acting mayor by City Council.

Jewish candidates

Rahm Emanuel is the only Jew to have been elected mayor. No Jews have otherwise served as mayor[32] Jewish individuals who had unsuccessfully sought election as mayor prior to Emanuel's first successful campaign in 2011 include William Singer in 1975 and Bernard Epton[33] in 1983

LGBT candidates

No openly LGBT individual had previously been elected or otherwise served as mayor of Chicago before 2019. In 2019, Lori Lightfoot became the first openly lesbian mayor in Chicago history[34] If elected, Lightfoot will become Chicago's first openly LGBT mayor.

Women candidates

Jane Byrne and Lori Lightfoot are the only women to have been elected mayor of Chicago. No woman has otherwise served as Mayor of Chicago

Women who had unsuccessfully sought election as mayor prior to Byrne's successful campaign in 1979 include Grace Gray in 1935 (the first woman ever to file to run for mayor of Chicago)[35] and Willie Mae Reid in 1975

Women who have unsuccessfully sought election as mayor since Byrne won election include Byrne herself (she unsuccessfully ran in 1983, 1987, and 1991); Sheila A. Jones in 1983 and 1989; Patricia McAllister in 2003;[18][21] Dorothy A. Brown in 2007; Carol Moseley Braun and Patricia Van Pelt Watkins in 2011; and Amara Enyia in 2015

Seven women had filed to be candidates in the upcoming 2019 election (Dorothy A. Brown Cook, Catherine Brown D'Tycoon, Amara Enyia, Lori Lightfoot, Sandra L. Mallory, Susana Mendoza, and Toni Preckwinkle.

Familial relations

Over the years there have been a number of familial relations between elected mayors, as well as between mayoral candidates.

The Daley family has had a strong presence in Chicago mayoral politics. Richard J. Daley and his son Richard M. Daley both served as mayor. Richard J. Daley's son (and Richard M. Daley's brother) William Daley unsuccessfully ran in the 2019 mayoral election, finishing third in the first round of voting.

Another father-son duo who had both occupied the mayor's office was Carter Harrison Sr. and Carter Harrison Jr.

1955 Republican nominee Robert E. Merriam was the son of 1911 Republican nominee (and unsuccessful 1919 Republican primary candidate) Charles E. Merriam.[36] Both Merriams lost their elections.

1919 candidate Macklay Hoyne was the son of Thomas Hoyne, victor of the voided 1876 election.[37]

The 1891 Chicago mayoral election saw two relatives run against each other. Reform candidate Hempstead Washburne and Citizens candidate Elmer Washburn (former Director of the United States Secret Service and former Chicago Police Chief) were both members of the Washburn family. Elmer Washburn was cousins with Hempstead Washburne's father Elihu B. Washburne.[38] Hempstead Washburne ultimately won the election, with Elmer Washburn coming in fourth-place.

Write-in candidates

While write-in candidates have been permitted, none have achieved much success in general elections. The only arguable exception to this is Thomas Hoyne, who ran a write in campaign in the disputed April 1876 election that courts ruled invalid.

Under Chicago's previous partisan election system, write-in candidates were allowed in party primaries as well as the general election. Ed Vrdolyak won the 1989 Republican primary as a write-in candidate.

Number of candidates on ballot

The following graph and table provide information regarding the number of candidates who participated in each election. The graph and table only consider candidates that were listed on the ballot/ticket (thus, write-in candidates are not counted). It also excludes any candidates for which all votes were counted as "invalid".

For elections held under Chicago's current (nonpartisan) system, the following graph and table represents the number of candidates in the initial round (February election), rather than any runoff election (April election). Runoff elections are effectively predetermined to feature two candidates.

The 2019 election saw a record 14 candidates on the ballot.

Number of candidates by election

The following graph shows the number of candidates in each election, with elections being listed chronologically.

The graph does not account for the difference in the amount of time between elections. All elections are equally spaced from the preceding and the succeeding elections regardless of the length of time that elapsed between them.

Elections by number of candidates

The following table lists the elections in which specific numbers of candidates ran.

# of
Candidates
Elections
14 2019
8 1897
7 1901
6 1899, 1903, 1919, 2011
5 1891, 2015
4 1849, 1851, 1852, 1881, 1889, 1893 (Apr), 1905, 1907, 1915, 1977, 1991
3 1842, 1843, 1844 (Mar), 1844 (Apr), 1845, 1846, 1847, 1850, 1876 (Jul), 1879, 1885, 1887, 1911, 1923, 1927, 1935, 1939, 1975, 1979, 1983, 1987, 1989, 2007
2 1837, 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1848, 1853, 1854, 1855, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1859, 1860, 1861 1862, 1863, 1865, 1867, 1869, 1871, 1873, 1883, 1893 (Dec), 1931, 1943, 1947, 1951, 1955, 1959, 1963, 1967, 1999
0 1876 (Apr)E

Results

Nonpartisan elections (1999–present)

Starting with the 1999 election, all Chicago mayoral elections are nonpartisan. Additionally, a second-round (runoff) is held when no candidate reaches a majority in the initial vote.

Election   First round   Second round   Sources
Winner/top finisher Votes Runner(s)-upA Votes Winner Votes Runner-up Votes
# % # % # % # %
2019 Lori Lightfoot 97,330 17.54 Toni Preckwinkle 88,998 16.04 Lori Lightfoot 386,039 73.70 Toni Preckwinkle 137,765 26.30 [39][40][41][42]
William Daley 82,019 14.78
Willie Wilson 58,831 10.60
Susana Mendoza 50,199 9.05
Amara Enyia 44,372 8.00
Jerry Joyce 40,014 7.21
Gery Chico 34,420 6.20
Paul Vallas 30,154 5.44
2015 Rahm Emanuel
(incumbent)
218,217 45.63 Jesús "Chuy" García 160,414 33.55 Rahm Emanuel (incumbent) 319,543 55.7 Jesús "Chuy" García 253,981 44.3 [43][44]
Willie Wilson 50,960 10.66
Robert Fioretti 35,363 7.39
2011 Rahm Emanuel 326,331 55.19 Gery Chico 141,228 23.97 N/A [45]
Miguel del Valle 54,342 9.28
Carol Moseley Braun 52,483 8.96
2007 Richard M. Daley
(incumbent)
324,519 71.05 Dorothy A. Brown 91,878 20.12 N/A [46]
William Walls 40,368 8.84
2003 Richard M. Daley
(incumbent)
363,553 78.05 Paul Jakes 64,941 14.02 N/A [47]
Patricia McAllister 27,343 5.90
1999 Richard M. Daley
(incumbent)
428,872 71.9 Bobby Rush 167,709 28.1 N/A [48]

Partisan elections (1837–1995)

Prior to the 1999 election, Chicago's mayoral elections were partisan (candidates ran on party-lines).

Parties

  Democratic   Whig   Liberty   Independent Democrat   Independent   Temperance Party   Republican   Know Nothing/American   People's   Socialist Labor/Socialist Party USA   Union   Citizens   Reform   Independent Republican   Municipal Ownership   Cook County Labor Party   People's Ownership Smash Crime Rings   Solidarity   Harold Washington

Election Winner Votes Runner(s)-upA Votes Sources
# % # %
1995   Richard M. Daley
(incumbent)
360,372 60.12   Roland Burris 217,315 36.25 [49]
1991   Richard M. Daley
(incumbent)
450,581 70.64   R. Eugene Pincham 160,302 25.13 [50]
1989
(special)
  Richard M. Daley 557,141 55.43   Timothy C. Evans 428,105 41.11 [51]
1987   Harold Washington
(incumbent)
600,290 53.77   Edward Vrdolyak 468,493 41.96 [52]
1983   Harold Washington 668,176 51.72   Bernard Epton 610,926 47.99 [53]
1979   Jane Byrne 700,874 82.05   Wallace D. Johnson 137,663 16.12 [54]
1977
(special)
  Michael Bilandic
(incumbent)
490,688 77.39   Dennis H. Block 135,282 21.34 [55]
1975   Richard J. Daley
(incumbent)
542,817 77.67   John J. Hoellen Jr. 139,335 19.94 [56]
1971   Richard J. Daley
(incumbent)
740,137 70.08   Richard Friedman 315,969 29.92 [57]
1967   Richard J. Daley
(incumbent)
792,238 73.04   John L. Waner 272,542 25.13 [58]
1963   Richard J. Daley
(incumbent)
679,497 55.69   Ben Adamowski 540,705 44.31 [59]
1959   Richard J. Daley
(incumbent)
778,612 71.40   Timothy P. Sheehan 311,940 28.60 [60]
1955   Richard J. Daley 708,660 54.93   Robert E. Merriam 581,461 45.07 [61]
1951   Martin H. Kennelly
(incumbent)
697,871 56.14   Robert L. Hunter 545,326 43.86 [62]
1947   Martin H. Kennelly 919,593 58.73   Russell Root 646,239 41.27 [62]
1943   Edward J. Kelly
(incumbent)
685,567 54.54   George McKibbin 571,547 45.47 [63]
1939   Edward J. Kelly
(incumbent)
822,469 56.12   Dwight H. Green 638,068 43.54 [62]
1935   Edward J. Kelly
(incumbent)
798,150 75.84   Emil C. Wetten 166,571 15.83 [63]
  Newton Jenkins 87,726 8.34
1931   Anton Cermak 671,189 58.46   William Hale Thompson
(incumbent)
476,922 41.54 [64][65]
1927   William Hale Thompson 515,716 51.58   William Emmett Dever
(incumbent)
432,678 43.28 [66][67]
  J.D. Robertson 51,347 5.14
1923   William E. Dever 390,413 56.61   Arthur C. Lueder 258,094 37.42 [68]
  William A. Cunnea 41,186 5.97
1919   William Hale Thompson
(incumbent)
259,828 37.61   Robert M. Sweitzer 238,206 34.48 [69]
  Maclay Hoyne 110,851 16.05
  John Fitzpatrick 55,990 8.11
1915   William Hale Thompson 398,538 58.78   Robert M. Sweitzer 251,061 37.03 [70]
1911   Carter Harrison Jr. 77,997 48.53   Charles Edward Merriam 160,672 43.80 [71]
  William E. Rodriguez 24,825 6.77
1907   Fred A. Busse 164,702 49.03   Edward Fitzsimmons Dunne
(incumbent)
151,779 45.18 [72][73]
1905   Edward Fitzsimmons Dunne 163,189 49.74   John Manyard Harlan 138,548 42.23 [72][74]
  John Collins 23,034 7.02
1903   Carter Harrison Jr.
(incumbent)
146,208 47.22   Graeme Stewart 138,648 44.78 [72]
1901   Carter Harrison Jr.
(incumbent)
156,766 52.69   Elbridge Hanecy 128,413 43.16 [72]
1899   Carter Harrison Jr.
(incumbent)
148,498 48.58   Zina R. Carter 107,437 35.15 [72]
  John Peter Altgeld 47,169 15.43
1897   Carter Harrison Jr. 148,880 50.23   John Maynard Harlan 69,730 23.53 [72]
  Nathaniel C. Sears 59,542 20.08
  Washington Hesing 15,427 5.21
1895   George Bell Swift 143,884 55.36   Frank Wenter 103,125 39.68 [72][75]
1893
(special)
  John Patrick Hopkins 112,959 49.71   George Bell Swift (incumbent) 111,660 49.14 [72][76]
1893   Carter Harrison Sr. 114,237 54.03   Samuel W. Allerton 93,148 44.06 [72][77]
1891   Hempstead Washburne 46,957 28.83   DeWitt Clinton Cregier
(incumbent)
46,558 28.59 [72][78]
  Carter Harrison Sr. 42,931 26.36
  Elmer Washburn 24,027 14.75
1889   DeWitt Clinton Cregier 57,340 54.93   John A. Roche
(incumbent)
46,328 44.38 [72]
1887   John A. Roche 51,249 68.23   Robert S. Nelson 23,490 31.27 [72][79]
1885   Carter Harrison Sr.
(incumbent)
43,352 50.09   Sidney Smith 42,977 49.66 [72][80]
1883   Carter Harrison Sr.
(incumbent)
41,226 57.11   Eugene Cary 30,963 42.89 [72][81]
1881   Carter Harrison Sr.
(incumbent)
35,668 55.22   John Clark 27,925 43.23 [72][82]
1879   Carter Harrison Sr. 25,685 44.28   Abner Wright 20,496 35.33 [72][83][84]
  Ernest Schmidt 11,829 20.39
1877   Monroe Heath
(incumbent)
30,881 61.36   Perry H. Smith 19,449 38.64 [72][85]
1876
(special)
  Monroe Heath 19,248 97.59   Mark Kimball 7,509 24.93 [72][86]
  J. J. McGrath 3,363 11.17
1876
(invalid)
B
  Thomas Hoyne 33,064 82.5 [87][88][87]
1873   Harvey Doolittle Colvin 28,791 60.83   Lester L. Bond
(incumbent)
18,540 39.17 [72][89]
1871   Joseph Medill 16,125 72.92   Charles C. P. Holden 5,988 27.08 [72][90]
1869   Roswell B. Mason 19,826 63.47   George W. Gage 11,410 36.53 [91]
1867   John Blake Rice
(incumbent)
11,904 59.89   Francis Cornwall Sherman 7,971 40.11 [92]
1865   John Blake Rice 11,078 66.42   Francis Cornwall Sherman
(incumbent)
5,600 33.58 [93]
1863   Francis Cornwall Sherman 10,252 50.39%   Thomas B. Bryan 10,095 49.62% [94]
1862   Francis Cornwall Sherman 7,437 54.32   Charles C. P. Holden 6,254 45.68 [95]
1861   Julian S. Rumsey 8,274 55.62   Thomas B. Bryan 6,601 44.38 [96][3]
1860   John Wentworth 9,998 53.36   Walter S. Gurnee 8,739 46.64 [97]
1859   John Charles Haines
(incumbent)
8,587 52.63   Marcus D. Gilman 7,728 47.37 [98]
1858   John Charles Haines 8,642 53.60   Daniel Brainard 7,481 46.40 [99]
1857   John Wentworth 5,933 55.06   Benjamin F. Carver 4,842 44.94 [100]
1856   Thomas Dyer 4,712 53.24   Francis Cornwall Sherman 4,138 46.76 [3]
1855   Levi Boone 3,185 52.87   Isaac Lawrence Milliken
(incumbent)
22,839 47.13 [3]
1854   Isaac Lawrence Milliken 3,800 50.79   Amos G. Throop 2,556 40.21 [101]
1853   Charles McNeill Gray 3,270 77.10   Josiah L. James 971 22.90 [102]
1852   Walter S. Gurnee
(incumbent)
1,741 39.04   James Curtiss 1,295 29.05 [3]
  Amos G. Throop 1,153 25.85
  Peter Page 271 6.0
1851   Walter S. Gurnee 3,032 56.66   Eli B. Williams 1,092 20.41 [3]
  James Curtiss
(incumbent)
1,001 18.71
1850   James Curtiss 1,697 45.51   Levi Boone 1,227 32.90 [103]
  Lewis C. Kerchival 805 21.59
1849   James H. Woodworth
(incumbent)
2,668 80.02   Timothy Wait 399 11.97 [3][104]
  Lewis C. Kerchival 245 7.35
1848   James H. Woodworth 1,971 59.15   James Curtiss
(incumbent)
1,361 40.85 [105]
1847   James Curtiss 1,281 46.77   Philo Carpenter 1,220 44.54 [106]
  John H. Kinzie 238 8.69
1846   John Putnam Chapin 1,104 55.20   Charles Follansbee 667 33.35 [107]
  Philo Carpenter 229 11.45
1845   Augustus Garrett 1,072 50.66   John H. Kinzie 913 43.15 [108]
  Henry Smith 131 6.19
April 1844   Alson Sherman 837 50.51   Augustus Garrett
(incumbent)
694 41.88 [109]
  Henry Smith 126 7.60
March 1844
(voided)
C
  Augustus Garrett (incumbent) 805 44.82   George Dole 798 44.43 [3]
  Henry Smith 193 10.75
1843   Augustus Garrett 671 61.17   Thomas Church 432 44.31 [110]
1842   Benjamin Wright Raymond 490 50.26   Augustus Garrett 432 44.31 [111][3]
  Henry Smith 53 5.44
1841   Francis Cornwall Sherman 460 52.33   Isaac R. Gavin 419 47.67 [112]
1840   Alexander Loyd 582 57.91   Benjamin Wright Raymond
(incumbent)
423 42.09 [113]
1839   Benjamin Wright Raymond 353 62.48   James Curtiss 212 37.52 [114][115]
1838   Buckner Stith Morris 377 54.25   William Jones 318 45.76 [116]
1837   William B. Ogden 489 69.26   John H. Kinzie 217 30.74% [117]

Party nominee vote share by election

The follow table displays the results which parties achieved for elections in which they put forth a singular nominee

Election Dem Rep/
Whig
Liberty/
Free
Soil
Know
Noth.
SWP SPUSA SLP HWP Prohib./
Temper.
SDP Winning party Sources
1995 60.12% 2.77% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.86% N/A N/A   Democratic [49]
1991 67.98% 3.53% N/A N/A 0.54% N/A N/A 24.18% N/A N/A [50]
1989 55.42% 3.56% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 41.13% N/A N/A [51]
1987 53.76% 4.29% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [52]
1983 51.70% 48.01% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [53]
1979 82.05% 16.12% N/A N/A 1.83% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [54]
1977 77.39% 21.34% N/A N/A 0.87% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [55]
1975 77.69% 19.93% N/A N/A 2.37% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [56]
1971 70.08% 29.92% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [57]
1967 73.04% 25.13% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [58]
1963 55.69% 44.31% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [60]
1959 71.40% 28.60% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [60]
1955 54.93% 45.07% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [61]
1951 56.14% 43.87% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [62]
1947 58.73% 41.27% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [62]
1943 54.54% 45.47% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [62]
1939 56.12% 43.54% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [62]
1935 75.84% 15.83% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [63]
1931 58.44% 41.53% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [64]
1927 43.28% 51.58% N/A N/A N/A 0.00% N/A N/A N/A N/A   Republican [66][67]
1923 56.61% 37.42% N/A N/A N/A 5.97% N/A N/A N/A N/A   Democratic [68]
1919 34.48% 37.61% N/A N/A N/A 3.49% 0.27% N/A N/A N/A   Republican [69]
1915 37.03% 58.78% N/A N/A N/A 3.61% N/A N/A 0.59% N/A [70]
1911 48.53% 43.81% N/A N/A N/A 6.77% N/A N/A N/A N/A   Democratic [71]
1907 45.18% 49.03% N/A N/A N/A 4.00% N/A N/A 1.79% N/A   Republican [72][73]
1905 49.74% 42.23% N/A N/A N/A 7.02% N/A N/A 1.00% N/A   Democratic [72][74]
1903 47.22% 44.78% N/A N/A N/A 3.59% 0.33% N/A 0.86% N/A [72]
1901 52.69% 43.16% N/A N/A N/A 1.78% 0.23% N/A 1.12% 0.69% [72]
1899 48.58% 35.15% N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.38% N/A 0.34% 0.12% [72]
1897 50.23% 20.08% N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.42% N/A 0.31% N/A [72]
1895 39.68% 55.36% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Republican [72][75]
1893
(Dec)
49.71% 49.14% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Democratic [72][76]
1893
(Apr)
54.03% 44.06% N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.47% N/A N/A N/A [72][77]
1891 28.59% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1.46% N/A N/A N/A   Reform [72][78]
1889 54.93% 44.38% N/A N/A N/A 0.29% N/A N/A 0.39% N/A   Democratic [72]
1887 N/A 68.23% N/A N/A N/A N/A 31.27% N/A 0.40% N/A   Republican [72][79]
1885 50.09% 49.66% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.26% N/A   Democratic [72][80]
1883 57.11% 42.89% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [72][81]
1881 55.22% 43.23% N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.37% N/A N/A N/A [72][82]
1879 44.28% 35.33% N/A N/A N/A N/A 20.39% N/A N/A N/A [72][83][84]
1877 38.64% 61.36% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Republican [72][85]
1876
(Jul)
24.93% 63.90% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [72][86]
1876
(Apr)
B
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Independent Democrat [87]
1873 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   People's Party [72][89]
1871 27.08% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Citizen's Union [72]
1869 N/A 36.53% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Citizens [91]
1867 40.11% 59.89% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Republican [92]
1865 33.58% 66.42% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [93]
1863 50.39% 49.62% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Democratic [94]
1862 54.32% 45.68% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [95]
1861 44.38% 55.62% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Republican [96]
1860 46.64% 53.36% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [97]
1859 47.37% 52.63% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [98]
1858 46.40% 53.60% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [99]
1857 44.94% 55.06% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [100]
1856 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Pro-Nebraska Democrat [3]
1855 47.13% N/A N/A 52.87% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Know Nothing [3]
1854 59.79% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 40.21% N/A   Democratic [101]
1853 77.10% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [102]
1852 39.04% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 25.85% N/A [3]
1851 56.66%D N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [3]
1850 45.51% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Democratic [103]
1849 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Independent Democrat [3][104]
1848 40.85% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [105]
1847 46.77% 8.69% 44.54% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Democratic [106]
1846 33.35% 55.20% 11.45% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Whig [107]
1845 50.66% 43.15% 6.19% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Democratic [108]
1844
(Apr)
41.88% N/A 7.60% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Independent Democrat [109]
1844
(Mar)
C
44.82% 44.43% 10.75% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Democratic [3]
1843 61.17% 34.73% 4.10% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Democratic [110]
1842 44.31% 50.26% 5.43% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Whig [111]
1841 52.33% 47.67% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Democratic [112]
1840 57.91% 42.09% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [113]
1839 37.52% 62.48% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Whig [114]
1838 45.76% 54.25% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [116]
1837 69.26% 30.74% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A   Democratic [117]

City Council-appointed mayors

A number of individuals have been elected by a vote aldermen to fill mayoral vacancies, either as acting or interim mayor.

Lester L. Bond (1873)

On August 18, 1873 Lester L. Bond was appointed as the first "acting mayor" in the city's history.[118][25]

Incumbent mayor Joseph Medill, per city charter, informed the council that he planned to be absent from the city for an unspecified length of time "requiring the City Council to appoint an 'Acting Mayor' to serve during my absence"[25]

The same day, the City Council held a narrow vote to appoint Bond, alderman from the Tenth Ward, to this post.[25]

Bond was sworn-in as Acting Mayor on August 22.[118]

Medill ultimately did not return until after the remainder of his term had passed, leaving Bond to serve out the rest of his term.[25]

George Bell Swift (1893)

On November 6, 1893 (less than two weeks after the assassination of Carter Harrison Sr.) George Bell Swift was voted by the City Council to serve as Mayor pro tempore (acting mayor) up until after a special election held the following month.[119]

Frank Corr (1933)

On March 14, 1933 Frank J. Corr was elected mayor pro tempore by the City Council following the assassination of Anton Cermak.[120][121][122] Corr had been chosen by Chicago Democratic boss Patrick Nash, who believed Corr to be neither charismatic nor ambitious, and thus an ideal individual to reliably serve as a placeholder.[121]

Corr was sworn-in on March 16.[120] He resigned on April 13 after serving for 29 days.[120]

Edward J. Kelly (1933)

Edward J. Kelly was elected to replace Corr.[123]

Michael Bilandic (1976)

Following the death in office of Richard J. Daley the city council voted on December 28, 1976 to appoint Michael Bilandic to serve as mayor up until a special election in 1977.

The election came after a brief power dispute. City Council President Pro-Tempure Wilson Frost had declared himself to be acting mayor following Daley's death (which would have made him the first African American to serve as the city's mayor).[124] However, City Corporation Counsel William R. Quinlan disputed this, ruling that, since the city did not have a statute specifically outlining succession, the city council would need to elect the interim mayor.[124]

The result of the City Council vote, effectively a yay or nay vote on appointing Bilandic, was as follows:[125]

In support of Bilandic: 45 (93.75%)
Rejecting Bilandic: 2 (4.17%)
Abstaining: 1 (2.08%)

Eugene Sawyer (1987)

On December 2, 1987, following the death in office of mayor Harold Washington, the Chicago City Council voted to appoint Eugene Sawyer to serve as mayor up until a special election in 1989. The vote was as follows:[126]

Eugene Sawyer: 29 (59.18%)
Timothy C. Evans: 19 (38.78%)
No Preference: 1 (2.04%)

Notes

A.^ Only listing candidates who received a vote share of at least 5%
B.^ April 1876 election was annulled by courts
C.^ March 1844 election was voided by the City Council
D.^ 1859 election featured two Democratic candidates. The listed vote share is that of the top-finisher of the two (Walter S. Gurnee)
E.^ Since the disputed April 1876 mayoral election itself was not included on the ballot/tickets, no candidates were on the ballot.[127]

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  125. ^ RaceID=388001
  126. ^ RaceID=385719
  127. ^ Pierce, Bessie Louise (2007). A History of Chicago, Volume III: The Rise of a Modern City, 1871-1893. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 345–346. ISBN 9780226668420.
This page was last edited on 22 September 2019, at 18:50
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