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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Maurice White
Maurice White 1982.jpg
White performing with Earth, Wind, and Fire at the Ahoy Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1982.
Background information
Also known as Reece, Moe
Born (1941-12-19)December 19, 1941
Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.
Origin Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Died (2016-02-04)February 4, 2016 (aged 74)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Genres
Occupation(s)
  • Musician
  • singer-songwriter
  • record producer
  • arranger
Instruments
Years active 1961–2016
Labels
Associated acts
Website mauricewhite.com

Maurice White (December 19, 1941 – February 4, 2016) was an American singer-songwriter, musician, record producer, arranger, and bandleader. He was the founder of the band Earth, Wind & Fire. He was also the older brother of current Earth, Wind & Fire member Verdine White, and former member Fred White. He served as the band's main songwriter and record producer, and was co-lead singer along with Philip Bailey.[1]

White has been described as a "musical renaissance man" by Allmusic.[2] He has also won seven Grammys and been nominated for a total of twenty two Grammys in all.[3] White was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the Vocal Group Hall of Fame as a member of Earth, Wind & Fire,[4] and was also inducted individually into the Songwriters Hall of Fame.[5]

Also known by his nickname "Reece", he worked with several famous recording artists, including Deniece Williams, the Emotions, Barbra Streisand, and Neil Diamond. White was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease in the late 1980s, which led him eventually to stop touring with Earth, Wind & Fire in 1994. He retained executive control of the band, and remained active in the music business until his death.

Biography

Early career

White was born in Memphis, Tennessee, on December 19, 1941.[6] He grew up in South Memphis, where he lived with his grandmother in the Foote Homes Projects and was a childhood friend of Booker T Jones, with whom he formed a "cookin' little band" while attending Booker T. Washington High School.[7] He made frequent trips to Chicago to visit his mother, Edna, and stepfather, Verdine Adams, who was a doctor and occasional saxophonist.[6][7][8] In his teenage years, he moved to Chicago and studied at the Chicago Conservatory of Music, and played drums in local nightclubs.[7] By the mid-1960s he found work as a session drummer for Chess Records. While at Chess, he played on the records of artists such as Etta James, Ramsey Lewis, Sonny Stitt, Muddy Waters, the Impressions, the Dells, Betty Everett, Sugar Pie DeSanto and Buddy Guy.[1] White also played the drums on Fontella Bass's "Rescue Me", Billy Stewart's "Summertime" and Jackie Wilson's (Your Love Keeps Lifting Me) Higher and Higher.[9][10] In 1962, along with other studio musicians at Chess, he was a member of the Jazzmen, who later became the Pharaohs.[11]

By 1966, he joined the Ramsey Lewis Trio, replacing Isaac "Red" Holt as the drummer.[7] Holt and bassist Eldee Young left to form Young-Holt Unlimited with pianist Hysear Don Walker.[12] Young was replaced by Cleveland Eaton.[13] As a member of the Trio, Maurice played on several of the their albums. One of these was 1966's Wade in the Water. The album track "Hold It Right There" went on to win a Grammy Award for Best Rhythm & Blues Group Performance, Vocal or .[14] With the Trio White also played upon 1966's The Movie Album, Goin' Latin of a year later, 1968's Dancing in the Street and Up Pops Ramsey Lewis as well as 1969's The Piano Player. While in the group he was introduced in a Chicago drum store to the African thumb piano or kalimba and on the Trio's 1969 album Another Voyage's track "Uhuru" was featured the first recording of White playing the kalimba.[15][16]

In 1969, White left the Trio and joined his two friends, Wade Flemons and Don Whitehead, to form a songwriting team who wrote songs for commercials in the Chicago area. The three friends got a recording contract with Capitol Records and called themselves the Salty Peppers. They had a moderate hit in the Midwest area with their single "La La Time",[17] but their second single, "Uh Huh Yeah", was not as successful. White then moved from Chicago to Los Angeles, and altered the name of the band to Earth, Wind & Fire, the band's new name reflecting the elements in his astrological chart.[17]

Earth, Wind & Fire

With Maurice as the bandleader and producer of most of the band's albums, EWF earned legendary status winning six Grammy Awards out of a staggering 14 nominations,[18] a star on the Hollywood Boulevard Walk of Fame, and four American Music Awards.[5] The group's albums have sold over 90 million copies worldwide.[1][5] Other honors bestowed upon Maurice as a member of the band included inductions into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, the Vocal Group Hall of Fame, The Songwriters Hall of Fame and The NAACP Image Awards Hall of Fame.[19][20]

 Maurice White in Munich, Germany in 1975
Maurice White in Munich, Germany in 1975

White brought the kalimba into mainstream use by incorporating its sound into the music of Earth, Wind & Fire.[16] He was also responsible for expanding the group to include a full horn section – the Earth, Wind & Fire Horns, later known as the Phenix Horns.[21] White began showing signs of the Parkinson’s disease in 1987, and was finally forced to retire from Earth Wind & Fire in 1994.[7] He retained executive control of the band and was still very active in the music business, producing and recording with the band and other artists. Messages of encouragement from celebrities including: Steven Tyler of Aerosmith, Boyz II Men, Smokey Robinson, Isaac Hayes, Michael Jackson, Eric Clapton and Tom Morello of Rage Against the Machine were published for White.[22]

From time to time, after his retirement, he appeared on stage with Earth, Wind & Fire at events such as the 2004 Grammy Awards Tribute to Funk, and alongside Alicia Keys at Clive Davis's 2004 pre-Grammy awards party where they performed the band's 1978 hit "September".[23][24]

Deniece Williams

In 1976, White, with Charles Stepney co-produced Deniece Williams' – a former backup vocalist for Stevie Wonder – debut album, This Is Niecy, which was released on Columbia Records. The album was the first project for the newly formed production company Kalimba Productions which was formed by Maurice White and Charles Stepney in the same year.[25] This Is Niecy rose to number 3 on the R&B charts and contained the single Free which reached number 25 on the pop charts, number 5 on the R&B charts and number 1 on the UK singles charts. This is Niecy has been certified gold in the United States by the RIAA. With the death of Stepney a few months after the release of This Is Niecy, White solely produced Williams' second album Song Bird, released in 1977. The single "Baby, Baby My Love's All For You" reached number 13 and number 32 on the black and UK singles chart respectively.[26][27] Williams later issued upon Columbia Records for Kalimba Productions albums being 1978's That's What Friends Are For and 1979's When Love Comes Calling. White also lent his vocals upon When Love Comes Calling. As well Williams issued 1981's My Melody and 1982's Niecy upon Columbia and Kalimba respectively.[28][29] In a 2007 interview Deniece says: "I loved working with Maurice White ... he taught me the business of music, and planning and executing a plan and executing a show."[25]

The Emotions

After Stax Records became embroiled in financial problems, the girl group the Emotions looked for a new contract and found one with Columbia Records which released their album Flowers in 1976. With Charles Stepney co-producing their album with White, Flowers was their first charting album since 1969. It rose to number 5 on the R&B and number 45 on the Pop charts, and has been certified gold in the US.[30] The singles "Flowers" and "I Don't Wanna Lose Your Love" from this album reached, respectively, number 16 and number 13 on the R&B charts (number 87 and number 51 on the Pop charts).[30][31]

Following Charles Stepney's death in 1976,[25] White took over producing the Emotions, and the album Rejoice was released in 1977. Rejoice peaked at number 7 and number 1 on the Pop and R&B charts respectively, and spawned the singles "Best of My Love" and "Don't Ask My Neighbors", which reached number 1 on the Pop and R&B charts and top ten on the R&B charts respectively.[32] "Best of My Love" won a Grammy for Best R&B Performance By a Duo or Group with Vocals, and an American Music Award for Favorite Soul/R&B Single. "Best Of My Love" was also the third biggest pop single of 1977, and has been certified platinum. Rejoice was the third biggest R&B album of 1977 and has been certified platinum.[citation needed]

In 1978, The Emotions released their third Columbia album, Sunbeam. It reached number 12 on the top R&B album charts and spawned the number 6 R&B single "Smile". Sunbeam has been certified gold by the RIAA. In 1979 Earth, Wind & Fire collaborated with the Emotions on the single "Boogie Wonderland" which reached number 6 and number 2 on the Pop and R&B charts and has been certified gold for sales of over a million copies.[33][34] The Emotions also received an American Music Award nomination for Favorite Soul/R&B Band, Duo or Group in 1979.[35] White as well produced the albums Come into Our World and New Affair for the Emotions upon his own Columbia-distributed label, ARC Records.[30][36]

Work with other artists

White also worked with several other famous recording artists. As such he guested on Minnie Riperton's debut 1970 album, Come to My Garden, and contributed vocals on Weather Report's 1978 album Mr. Gone.[37][38] White went on to produce Ramsey Lewis' albums Sun Goddess, Salongo, and Sky Islands.[39][40][41] He also produced Jennifer Holliday on her 1983 release Feel My Soul, Barbra Streisand on her 1984 Platinum album Emotion, Atlantic Starr on their 1986 Platinum LP All in the Name of Love and Neil Diamond on his 1986 Gold album Headed for the Future.[42][43][44][45][46][47][48] As a composer White worked with English band ABC upon their debut 1983 album The Lexicon of Love which went Gold and platinum in the UK and US respectively.[49][50][51] He also served as a composer and guest artist upon Lee Ritenour's Grammy nominated 1986 album Earth Run.[52][53] White as well collaborated with gospel artist Walter Hawkins's upon a song entitled Eternal Life which appeared on his 1980 album The Hawkins Family.[54][55] Additionally he co-wrote the song "Only In Chicago" with Barry Manilow from his 1980 platinum album Barry.[56][57][58] He also guested upon the Tubes album Outside Inside and Cher's 1987 self-titled platinum LP.[59][60][61] He as well featured upon singer Eleanor's 1988 single "Adventure" which rose to number one upon the Billboard Hot Dance Music/Club Play chart.[62][63]

White produced two albums by the jazz group the Urban Knights, released in 1995 and 1997. Urban Knights I featured Ramsey Lewis, Brazilian percussionist Paulinho Da Costa, and American jazz saxophonist Grover Washington, Jr. and it went to number 3 on the Top Contemporary Jazz Albums charts. The group's second album Urban Knights II featured appearances by Ramsey Lewis, Paulinho Da Costa, EW&F's bassist Verdine White, singer-songwriter and guitarist Jonathan Butler and jazz saxophonist Najee. It reached number 5 on the Top Contemporary Jazz Albums charts.[citation needed] White also produced on James Ingram's 1993 Thom Bell inspired album Always You, notably the track "Too Much For This Heart". White also arranged for the British girl group Cleopatra on their 1998 album Comin' Atcha!. Comin' Atcha peaked at number 20 on the UK albums chart and was certified Silver in the UK by the BPI.[64][65]

White also executively produced the group Xpression's 2000 album Power. This LP was the first to be released upon his own record label, Kalimba Records.[66][67] He also featured as a guest artist upon Jazz saxophonist Kirk Whalum's 2003 album Into My Soul.[68] On March 27, 2006 White was featured on the French jazz band Nojazz's 2006 album Have Fun on the tracks "Nobody Else" and "Kool". "Kool" marked the first time White collaborated with his friend Stevie Wonder.[69]

White served as the executive producer of an Earth, Wind & Fire tribute album entitled Interpretations: Celebrating The Music Of Earth, Wind & Fire which was released in March 2007. Featured on the album were renowned artists including; Chaka Khan, Kirk Franklin and Angie Stone. From that album Dwele's remake of "That's The Way Of The World" and Meshell Ndegeocello's cover of "Fantasy" were both nominated for Best Urban/Alternative Performance Grammy award.[70]

White was executive producer for jazz musician Brian Culbertson's album Bringing Back The Funk which was released in 2008. The album features, among others, White, former EW&F member Larry Dunn, Bootsy Collins, Larry Graham, Ledisi, Musiq Soulchild, Maceo Parker and Gerald Albright. Bringing Back The Funk went to No. 1 on the Top Contemporary Jazz Charts and stayed there for two weeks. Culbertson revealed in an interview that he is "...still in disbelief. I have learned so much from (Maurice) and he actually said that he learned a lot from me. It was incredible to work with him."[71]

Solo work

In 1985, White released a solo album entitled Maurice White. The album rose to number 12 upon the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart. Appearing upon the LP was a cover of Ben E. King's "Stand by Me". With a guest appearance by jazz saxophonist Gerald Albright White's version of "Stand by Me" got to numbers 6 and 11 on the Bilboard Hot R&B Singles and Adult Contemporary Songs charts respectively.[72][73][74]

Another album cut "I Need You" rose to nos. 20 & 30 upon the Adult Contemporary Songs and Hot R&B Singles charts respectively.[75][76]

Screen and stage

White wrote songs for the movies Coming to America, A Low Down Dirty Shame and Undercover Brother. He also composed music for the television series Life Is Wild.[77] During 2006 he worked with Gregory Hines' brother, Maurice upon the Broadway play Hot Feet. White and Allee Willis also wrote several new songs for the play.[78]

In the movie BAADASSSSS!, the actor Khalil Kain portrayed a young Maurice White leading the early incarnation of Earth, Wind & Fire.[79] Released at the Sundance Film Festival,[80] the film was based on Melvin Van Peebles' struggles to film and distribute the movie Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song. His son, Mario Van Peebles both directed the film and portrayed his father in the lead role.[81] The TV sitcom Hearts Afire used "That's The Way Of The World" as one of its theme songs and White won an ASCAP Award as one of the song's writers.[82][83]

Personal life

Maurice's younger brother, Verdine, an original member of Earth, Wind & Fire, still tours with the band as its bassist and a backing vocalist.[84] Additionally, their brother Fred joined the band in 1974, when the band recorded "Devotion". Maurice was a married father of three and owned two homes in California; one in Carmel Valley, and the other, a four-level condominium in Los Angeles.[85][86] As recorded in his obituary, his parents, Dr. and Mrs. Verdine Adams, Sr., MD, had a total of ten children, and Maurice White was the oldest. He was affectionately called Reese by many of his brothers and sisters, according to his obituary which was distributed at his Memorial Service held at Agape International Spiritual Center March 22, 2016 in California.

Death

White died in his sleep from the effects of Parkinson's disease at his home in Los Angeles, California, on the morning of February 4, 2016, at the age of 74.[87][88][89] He was survived by his wife, Marilyn White, sons Kahbran and Eden, daughter Hamia (nicknamed MiMi on his obituary) and brothers Verdine, Fred, Monte and Ron and sister Jeri. As written in his obituary, he was the eldest of nine siblings.[90] His brother Verdine posted the following on Facebook:

My brother, hero and best friend Maurice White passed away peacefully last night in his sleep. While the world has lost another great musician and legend, our family asks that our privacy is respected as we start what will be a very difficult and life-changing transition in our lives. Thank you for your prayers and well-wishes.
Yours Truly,
Verdine White[91]

See also

Awards and honors

Grammy Awards

The Grammy Awards are awarded annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences of the United States. In all, White received seven awards from 20 nominations as well he won once and was nominated four times as an individual performer.[3][4]

Year Nominee/work Award Result
1976 "Earth, Wind & Fire" Best Instrumental Composition Nominated
1978 "Got to Get You into My Life" Best Instrumental Arrangement Accompanying Vocalist(s) Won
"Fantasy" Best R&B Song Nominated
1979 "Maurice White" Producer of the Year Nominated

Other awards

Autobiography

On September 13, 2016 The Autobiography; Maurice White: My Life With Earth, Wind And Fire' by Authors Maurice White and Herb Powell was released, with foreword by Steve Harvey and afterword by David Foster.

References

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External links

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