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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mazovia

Mazowsze
Historical region
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Coat of arms
Three historical Mazovian voivodeships in comparison with contemporary Polish voivodeships
Three historical Mazovian voivodeships in comparison with contemporary Polish voivodeships
Country Poland
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)

Mazovia or Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a historical region in mid-north-eastern Poland. It spans the North European Plain, roughly between Łódź and Białystok, with Warsaw being the unofficial capital and largest city. Throughout the centuries, Mazovia developed a separate sub-culture featuring diverse folk songs, architecture, dress and traditions different from those of other Poles.

Historical Mazovia existed from the Middle Ages until the partitions of Poland and consisted of three voivodeships with the capitals in Warsaw, Płock and Rawa. The main city of the region was Płock,[1] which was even capital of Poland from 1079 to 1138; however, in Early Modern Times Płock lost its importance to Warsaw, which became the capital of Poland. From 1138, Mazovia was governed by a separate branch of the Piast dynasty and when the last ruler of the independent Duchy of Mazovia died, it was fully incorporated to the Polish Crown in 1526. During the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth over 20% of Mazovian population was categorized as petty nobility. Between 1816 and 1844, the Mazovian Governorate was established, which encompassed the south of the region along with Łęczyca Land and south-eastern Kuyavia. The former inhabitants of Mazovia are the Masurians, who since the Late Middle Ages settled in neighboring southern Prussia, a region later called Masuria, where they converted to Protestantism in the Reformation era, thus leaving Catholicism, to which their relatives from Mazovia still adhered.

The borders of contemporary Mazovian Voivodeship (province), which was created in 1999, do not exactly reflect the original size of Mazovia, as they do not include the historically Mazovian cities of Łomża and Łowicz, but include the historically Lesser Polish cities of Radom and Siedlce.

Geography

Historical lands of Mazovia
Historical lands of Mazovia

Mazovia has a landscape without hills (in contrast to Lesser Poland) and without lakes (in contrast to Greater Poland). It is spread over the Mazovian Lowland, on both sides of the Vistula river and its confluence with Narew and Bug. Forests (mainly coniferous) cover one-fifth of the region, with the large Kampinos Forest, Puszcza Biała and Puszcza Zielona.

In the north Mazovia borders on the Masurian subregion of former Prussia, in the east on Podlachia, in the south on Lesser Poland and in the west on Greater Poland (subregions of Łęczyca Land, Kujawy and Dobrzyń Land). The area of Mazovia is 33,500 km2. It has population of 5 million (3 million of them inhabit the metropolis of Warsaw).

History

When the Slavs came to this region from the surrounding area of Polesie, they mingled with the descendants of Vistula Veneti[2][3] and with other people who had settled here such as the Wielbark people.[4] This created a Lechitic tribe: Mazovians.

The historical region of Mazovia (Mazowsze) in the beginning encompassed only the territories on the right bank of Vistula near Płock and had strong connections with Greater Poland (through Włocławek and Kruszwica). In the period of the rule of the first Polish monarchs of the Piast dynasty, Płock was one of their seats, and on the Cathedral Hill (Wzgórze Tumskie) they raised palatium. In the period 1037–1047 it was the capital of the independent, Mazovian state of Masław. Between 1079 and 1138 this city was de facto the capital of Poland. Since 1075 it has been the seat of the Diocese of Płock encompassing northern Mazovia; the south formed the archdeaconate of Czersk belonging to Poznań, and the Duchy of Łowicz was part of the Archdiocese of Gniezno (this division remained as long as until the Partitions of Poland).

Tombstone of Janusz III and his brother Stanisław in St. John's Archcathedral, Warsaw
Tombstone of Janusz III and his brother Stanisław in St. John's Archcathedral, Warsaw

During the 9th century Mazovia was perhaps inhabited by the tribe of Mazovians, and it was incorporated into the Polish state in the second half of 10th century under the Piast ruler Mieszko I. As a result of the fragmentation of Poland after the death of Polish monarch Bolesław III Wrymouth, in 1138 the Duchy of Mazovia was established, and during the 12th and 13th centuries it joined temporarily various adjacent lands and endured invasions of Prussians, Yotvingians, and Ruthenians. To protect its northern section Conrad I of Mazovia called in the Teutonic Knights in 1226 and granted them the Chełmno Land.

After the reunification of the Polish state by Władysław I in the early 14th century, Mazovia became its fief in 1351. In the second half of 15th century western Mazovia and in 1526/1529 the main part (with its capital in Warsaw) was incorporated into the Polish state. In the 15th century the eastern part of the region (Łomża) was settled, mainly by the yeomanry (drobna szlachta). Mazovia was considered underdeveloped in comparison with Greater Poland and Lesser Poland, with the lowest urban population.

In the Early Modern Times Mazovia was known for exporting grain, timber, and fur. It was also distinct because there was no reformation here. Mazovia was divided into three voivodeships, each of them divided into lands (Polish: ziemie, Latin: terrae), each of them divided into counties (Polish: powiaty, Latin: districtus) and all three voivodeships formed part of the larger Greater Poland Province of the Polish Crown. The Polish-Lithuanian Union of Lublin (1569) established Mazovia as the central region of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with Warsaw rising to prominence as the seat of the state legislature (sejm). In 1596 King Sigismund III Vasa moved the Polish capital from Kraków to Warsaw. During the 17th and 18th centuries Swedish, Transylvanian, Saxon, and Russian invasions wreaked havoc on the region.

In 1793 western Mazovia, and two years later the rest of the region were annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in the Second and Third Partitions of Poland, while the south-eastern portion was annexed by Austria. In 1807 it became part of the Duchy of Warsaw. In 1815 the region was incorporated into the Congress Kingdom of Poland, which was dependent on Russia. In the 19th century Mazovia was the site of large Polish uprisings (November Uprising and January Uprising) against Russian rule. In that era pre-partition Mazovia was divided among Warsaw, Płock and Augustów (the last one replaced later by Łomża).

Polish hostages being blindfolded by Germans before their execution in Palmiry
Polish hostages being blindfolded by Germans before their execution in Palmiry

Since 1918 Mazovia has been a part of the resurrected Poland, being roughly equivalent to the Warsaw Voivodeship. Under the German occupation during World War II, the population was subjected to mass arrests, executions, expulsions and deportations to forced labour, Nazi concentration camps and Nazi ghettos. Numerous sites were looted. The large Palmiry massacres were carried out in the village of Palmiry near Warsaw. It is one of the most infamous sites of Nazi German crimes against Poles. The population of Warsaw decreased sharply as a result of executions, the extermination of the city's Jews, the deaths of some 200,000 inhabitants during the Warsaw Uprising of 1944, and the deportation of the city's left-bank population following the uprising. Shortly after the uprising, Adolf Hitler ordered German troops to destroy the city. The rebuilding of the Polish capital was the main task of the postwar period.[5] Those times Warsaw Voivodeship was still roughly similar to historical Mazovia and used to be informally called so, but in 1975 it was divided into several little voivodeships. However, in 1999 Mazovian Voivodeship was created as one of 16 administrative regions of Poland.

Culture

Folk costumes from Łowicz sub-region
Folk costumes from Łowicz sub-region

Mazovian dialect

The Mazovian language probably existed as a separate dialect until the 20th century.[6][7][8][9][10] The ethnonym Mazur has given the name for a phonetic phenomenon known as mazurzenie (although it is common in the Lesser Polish dialect as well).

Local cuisine

There is no specific regional cuisine of Mazovia. Formerly, dairy foods dominated the peasant cuisine. Nobles used poultry, geese, chickens and ducks. The most separate Mazovian culinary region's is Kurpie and Łowicz, where traditional dishes survive to the present day. In Kurpie, traditional dishes are prepared with ingredients collected in the forest: berries, honey and mushrooms. There are several traditional Polish dishes like flaki, kluski, which are prepared in different way than in other parts of Poland.[11][12]

Economy

Mazovian Voivodeship is ranked decidedly first in Poland according to the Gross Domestic Product.[13] This is thanks to Warsaw, which is a financial centre of East-Central Europe.[14][15] The majority of state enterprises are headquartered in this metropolis. It is a hub for both rail and vehicular traffic, with access throughout Poland and across Europe. Warsaw Chopin Airport is the nation's busiest. There are many branches of industry and services well developed in this city. The other eonomical center is Płock, where large petrochemical plants PKN Orlen operate. The rest of Mazovia belongs to the poorest parts of Poland. In the agriculture the most typical Mazovian crops are potatoes and rye, but the most popular (as in whole Poland) is wheat. Others are barley, sugar beets, fruits (with their biggest Polish basin in the south of the region), and vegetables. Pigs are commonly bred, often also cows and chickens.

Tourism

Kampinos National Park is one of Poland's largest national parks and is popular with tourists making day trips from Warsaw to hike among the park's primeval forests, sand dunes, and marshland. The main cultural centre of the region, and, alongside Kraków, in all of Poland, is Warsaw, which is home to dozens of theatres, the National Philharmonic, the National Opera House, the National Library, the National Museum, Centrum Nauki Kopernik, Muzeum Powstania Warszawskiego, Temple of Divine Providence, and the Sanctuary of Blessed Jerzy Popiełuszko. Warsaw has many magnificent historic buildings and monuments, including those in the Old Town and the New Town, both of which were almost completely demolished during World War II but were meticulously restored and were designated UNESCO World Heritage sites in 1980. Several important edifices has been built at the adjacent street Krakowskie Przedmieście. There are also royal palaces and gardens of Łazienki and Wilanów. The most interesting building from post-war period is Pałac Kultury i Nauki.

Historical monuments elsewhere include the manor house in Żelazowa Wola where composer Frédéric Chopin was born and his museum is located nowadays. Płock, once the seat of the Mazovian princes, and Łowicz, the residence of the archbishops of Gniezno, are noted for their cathedrals. There are also palaces and parks in Nieborów and Arkadia, the Modlin Fortress, castles in Czersk, Pułtusk, Ciechanów, Opinogóra, Rawa Mazowiecka, Sochaczew and Liw, as well as churches in Niepokalanów, Góra Kalwaria, Warka, Skierniewice, Czerwińsk, Wyszogród, Zakroczym, Szreńsk, Przasnysz, Ostrołęka, Łomża, Szczuczyn, Wizna, Brok, Zuzela, Rostkowo, and Boguszyce. Interesting folklore is found in the subregion of Kurpie; another skansen has been established in Sierpc.[16]

Main cities and towns

Warsaw Old Town
Warsaw Old Town
Płock Castle
Płock Castle
Łomża Cathedral
Łomża Cathedral
Sokół Palace in Pruszków
Sokół Palace in Pruszków
Regional museum in Ostrołęka
Regional museum in Ostrołęka
Market Square in Pułtusk
Market Square in Pułtusk

The following table lists the cities in Mazovia with a population greater than 20,000 (2015):

City Population (2015)[17] Voivodeship in 1750 Voivodeship in 2016 Additional information
1.
POL Warszawa COA.svg
Warsaw
1 724 404
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Capital of Poland, former royal city of Poland.
2.
POL Płock COA.svg
Płock
122 815
POL województwo płockie COA.svg
Płock Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Historical capital of Masovia, former capital of Poland, former royal city of Poland.
3.
POL Łomża COA.svg
Łomża
62 711
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
POL województwo podlaskie COA.svg
Podlaskie Voivodeship
Former royal city of Poland.
4.
POL Pruszków COA.svg
Pruszków
59 570
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
5.
POL Legionowo COA.svg
Legionowo
54 231
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
6.
POL Ostrołęka COA.svg
Ostrołęka
52 917
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Former royal city of Poland.
7.
POL Skierniewice COA.svg
Skierniewice
48 634
POL województwo rawskie IRP COA.svg
Rawa Voivodeship
POL województwo łódzkie COA.svg
Łódź Voivodeship
Former private bishop town of Poland.
8.
POL Otwock COA.svg
Otwock
45 044
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
9.
POL Piaseczno COA.svg
Piaseczno
44 869
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Former royal city of Poland, part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
10.
POL Ciechanów COA.svg
Ciechanów
44 797
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Former royal city of Poland.
11.
POL Żyrardów COA.svg
Żyrardów
41 096
POL województwo rawskie IRP COA.svg
Rawa Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
12.
POL Mińsk Mazowiecki COA.svg
Mińsk Mazowiecki
39 880
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
13.
POL Wołomin COA 1.svg
Wołomin
37 505
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
14.
POL Sochaczew COA.svg
Sochaczew
37 480
POL województwo rawskie IRP COA.svg
Rawa Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Former royal city of Poland.
15.
POL Ząbki COA.svg
Ząbki
31 884
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
16.
POL Mława COA.svg
Mława
30 880
POL województwo płockie COA.svg
Płock Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Former royal city of Poland.
17.
POL Grodzisk Mazowiecki COA.svg
Grodzisk Mazowiecki
29 907
POL województwo rawskie IRP COA.svg
Rawa Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Former private town of the Mokronoski family, part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
18.
POL Łowicz COA.svg
Łowicz
29 420
POL województwo rawskie IRP COA.svg
Rawa Voivodeship
POL województwo łódzkie COA.svg
Łódź Voivodeship
Temporary de facto capital of Poland in years 1572–1573, former private bishop town.
19.
POL Marki COA.svg
Marki
29 032
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
20.
POL Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki COA.svg
Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki
28 287
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Former private town, part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
21.
POL Wyszków COA.svg
Wyszków
27 222
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Former private bishop town of Poland.
22.
POL Piastów COA 1.svg
Piastów
22 826
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
23.
POL Ostrów Mazowiecka COA.svg
Ostrów Mazowiecka
22 796
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Former royal city of Poland.
24.
POL Płońsk COA.svg
Płońsk
22 494
POL województwo płockie COA.svg
Płock Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Former royal city of Poland.
25.
POL Zambrów COA.svg
Zambrów
22 451
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
POL województwo podlaskie COA.svg
Podlaskie Voivodeship
Former royal city of Poland.
26.
POL Grajewo COA.svg
Grajewo
22 246
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
POL województwo podlaskie COA.svg
Podlaskie Voivodeship
Northernmost and easternmost town of Mazovia. It borders the regions of Podlachia and Masuria.
27.
POL Kobyłka COA.svg
Kobyłka
20 855
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg
Masovian Voivodeship
Part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.

Gallery

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ Mazowsze: Obraz Etnograficzny, Volume 1, by Wojciech Gerson and Oskar Kolberg, BiblioBazaar, 2009 - 372 pages
  2. ^ Roland Steinacher: Vandalen. Rezeptions- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte. In: Hubert Cancik (Hrsg.): Der Neue Pauly, Band 15/3. Metzler, Stuttgart 2003, S. 942–946, ISBN 3-476-01489-4
  3. ^ Roland Steinacher: Wenden, Slawen, Vandalen. Eine frühmittelalterliche pseudologische Gleichsetzung und ihre Nachwirkungen bis ins 18. Jahrhundert. In: Walter Pohl (Hrsg.): Die Suche nach den Ursprüngen. Von der Bedeutung des frühen Mittelalters (Forschungen zur Geschichte des Mittelalters; Bd. 8). Verlag der ÖAW, Wien 2004, S. 329–353, ISBN 3-7001-3296-4.
  4. ^ J. Piontek et al. "Odontological analysis of central european populations from the Roman period and the Early Middle Ages". Humanbiologia Budapestinensis. 30. 2007. pp. 77-86. [1]
  5. ^ "Mazowieckie | province, Poland | Encyclopædia Britannica". britannica.com. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  6. ^ "Full text of "Historya Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego: Srednie wieki i odrodzenie. Z wstepem o Uniwersytecie ..."". archive.org. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  7. ^ Felicyan Antoni Kozłowski (1858). Dzieje Mazowsża za panowania książat. Warszawa: Nakł. i druk S. Orgelbranda. p. 504. jezyk mazowiecki.
  8. ^ Kopernikijana czyli materyaly do pism i zycia Mikolaja Kopernika. 1873.
  9. ^ Maciejowski, W.A. (1852). Piśmiennictwo polskie, od czasów najdawniejszych aż do roku 1830: z rękopisów i druków zebrawszy, w obrazie literatury polskiej historycznie skreślonym. 2. Nakładem i drukiem S. Orgelbranda. p. 327. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  10. ^ "Mitteilungen : Literarische Gesellschaft Masovia : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". archive.org. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  11. ^ Kuchnia Mazowsza i Kurpiów – Kuchnia Polska
  12. ^ Potrawy mazowieckie – Kuron.com.pl
  13. ^ "Mazowsze jest i będzie najbogatsze w Polsce - Analizy rynku - Forsal.pl - Giełda, Waluty, Finanse – forex, notowania NBP, surowce". forsal.pl. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  14. ^ Warsaw: Central Europe's Bourse to Beat - BusinessWeek
  15. ^ Warsaw makes bid to become Central Europe’s financial hub – Taipei Times
  16. ^ "Mazowieckie | province, Poland | Encyclopædia Britannica". britannica.com. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  17. ^ http://www.polskawliczbach.pl/Miasta
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