To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Marksville culture

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A map showing the geographical extent of the Marksville cultural period.
A map showing the geographical extent of the Marksville cultural period.

The Marksville culture was an archaeological culture in the lower Lower Mississippi valley, Yazoo valley, and Tensas valley areas of present-day Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Arkansas,[1] and extended eastward along the Gulf Coast to the Mobile Bay area,[2] from 100 BCE to 400 CE. This culture takes its name from the Marksville Prehistoric Indian Site in Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana. Marksville Culture was contemporaneous with the Hopewell cultures within present-day Ohio and Illinois. It evolved from the earlier Tchefuncte culture and into the Baytown and Troyville cultures,[3] and later the Coles Creek and Plum Bayou cultures. It is considered ancestral to the historic Natchez and Taensa peoples.[4]

Description

Hopewell platform stone pipe from Ohio
Hopewell platform stone pipe from Ohio

The Hopewell tradition was a widely dispersed set of related populations, which were connected by a common network of trade routes,[5] known as the Hopewell Exchange System. The Marksville culture was a southern manifestation of this network. Settlements were large and usually located on terraces of major streams. Evidence from excavations of burial mounds from this period suggest they were constructed for persons of high social status, and contained refined grave goods of imported exotic materials, such as copper panpipes, earspools, bracelets and beads, rare minerals, stone platform pipes, mica figurines, marine shells, freshwater pearls, and greenstone celts.[6] The pipes had flat bases with a hole for a stem, and a bowl in the center. Animal figurines on the platform are not unusual, with the bowl being located in the animal's back.[2]

The high-status leaders organized community life, and officiated at burial ceremonies, an important part of the Marksville Culture. The mounds were constructed in stages over many years, with the first stage being a flat, low platform. The ceremonies may have been held years apart, and those who died between ceremonies were temporarily stored in other locations. Their remains were later gathered up and buried together.[1]

Pottery

Although made from local clay, Marksville pottery was similar in design and decoration to pottery found in Illinois and Ohio. A typical vessel was three to five inches tall and three to seven inches in diameter, and often decorated with geometric and effigy designs, usually stylized birds. This decorated pottery was made primarily for ceremonial uses, with other, plainer utilitarian ware for daily use. Marksville pottery influenced Santa Rosa pottery, a defining characteristic of the contemporary Santa Rosa-Swift Creek culture, located to the east of the Marksville culture area along the Gulf coast.[2][7]

Chronology

The Marksville culture was preceded by the Tchefuncte culture, and was eventually succeeded by the Troyville culture in southeastern and eastern Louisiana and western Mississippi, and the Baytown culture in northeastern Louisiana, northwestern Mississippi, and southeastern Arkansas.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Louisiana Prehistory-Marksville, Troyville-Coles Creek, and Caddo". Archived from the original on 2008-12-15. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  2. ^ a b c "Kisatchie National Forest". Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  3. ^ "Southeastern Prehistory : Late Woodland Period". NPS.GOV. Retrieved 2011-10-23. 
  4. ^ Robert W. Neuman, Nancy W. Hawkins (1993). "The Plaquemine Culture, A.D 1000". Louisiana Prehistory (second ed.). Louisiana Archeological Survey and Antiquities Commission. Retrieved 2008-09-08. 
  5. ^ Douglas T. Price, and Gary M. Feinman (2008). Images of the Past, 5th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 274–277. ISBN 978-0-07-340520-9. 
  6. ^ "Southeastern Prehistory-Middle Woodland Period". Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  7. ^ Milanich, Jerald T. (1994). Archaeology of Precolumbian Florida. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. p. 151. ISBN 0-8130-1273-2. 

External links


This page was last edited on 23 September 2018, at 18:23
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.