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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Car manufacturing in China
Car manufacturing in China

Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labor and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances, furniture, sports equipment or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users and consumers.

Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product. The manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are then modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part.

Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead.

The manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Boeing, Pfizer, and Precision Castparts. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group, Siemens, FCA and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Yamaha, Panasonic, LG, Samsung and Tata Motors.

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ROHACELL® High performance foam cores for aircraft The aircraft industry is facing new challenges related to production and maintenance costs. Solutions are smart sandwich design and efficient manufacturing methods. Evonik's high performance lightweight foam core ROHACELL® enables to reach your target. For example, the radome, many wing parts, pressure bulkhead and the vertical and horizontal tails can be made significantly lighter by using ROHACELL® foam cores. The rigid structure allows great freedom of design for integral construction and efficient processing. Since 2004, the Airbus subsidiary CTC has been in collaboration with Evonik regarding ROHACELL® and applications. Their current task is to develop a new vertical tail structure incorporating ROHACELL®. The design goal is to make the new tail structure 5% lighter and 25% cheaper than the previous design. In ROHACELL® from Evonik you buy more than just a material. We also offer our expertise and support all the way along from the development till the production chain. We want you to concentrate on your business competencies while we take care of everything else. All you need to do is provide us with your CAD-drawing file. Then, together we'll determine the optimum ROHACELL® core with the right material specification, ultimately offering you a ready-to-use core solution. Our cell cores are well-known at Airbus for many years already. But this time, we have the target to develop a real step-changing technology in terms of reduction of weight and significantly reduction of costs and I'm very sure that we will succeed due to the intensive collaboration with the Evonik experts. This is how we can support you in your workflow. According to your design data, we produce your prototypes. Our job is to deliver a net shape part: Our cell core just-in-time and in the expected quality. Built in QA standard EN 9100 is paramount to this operation where prototypes qualify serial production. Our accuracy and reproduceability are the keys that all customers demand. The 3D measurement system validates the NC part shapes is according to the CAD data. The result is the documentation of the material and the geometrical requirements in a certificate. When the prototype core gets to your processing facility, you'll see for yourself just how good ROHACELL® really is. Positioning in the mold, whether manually or automatically, is simple and economical. ROHACELL® offers extreme pressure and temperature stability. This ensures reliable processing and end component quality. Our core enables one-shot curing, eliminates potting and trimming, and avoids secondary bonding. This is where the savings' pay off lies and are the main reasons ROHACELL® is used in the aircraft industry. In addition to delivering the prototypes fast, we are a reliable partner for serial production. For the A340 pressure bulkheads for instance, we have already supplied 8000 ROHACELL® ready-to-use profiles. Our global composites engineering experts and the production team from Evonik contribute in all aspects for processing, for material qualification as evidenced by nearly 200 specifications worldwide, for design and prototype production, and ready-for-use delivery. ROHACELL® - we make the world lighter! You can find more information and your local contact person at Evonik. Power to create.


History and development

Finished regenerative thermal oxidizer at manufacturing plant
Finished regenerative thermal oxidizer at manufacturing plant
Assembly of Section 41 of a Boeing 787 Dreamliner
Assembly of Section 41 of a Boeing 787 Dreamliner
An industrial worker amidst heavy steel semi-products (KINEX BEARINGS, Bytča, Slovakia, c. 1995–2000)
An industrial worker amidst heavy steel semi-products (KINEX BEARINGS, Bytča, Slovakia, c. 1995–2000)
  • In its earliest form, manufacturing was usually carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. Training was by apprenticeship. In much of the pre-industrial world, the guild system protected the privileges and trade secrets of urban artisans.
  • Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, where household-based manufacturing served as a supplemental subsistence strategy to agriculture (and continues to do so in places). Entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system.
  • Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm.

Manufacturing systems: changes in methods of manufacturing

Industrial policy

Economics of manufacturing

Emerging technologies have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt in the United States. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense.

On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs. The clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. These costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, and eliminating harmful chemicals.

The negative costs of manufacturing can also be addressed legally. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with labor laws and environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the environmental costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a historic role in the negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing. These are significant dynamics in the ongoing process, occurring over the last few decades, of manufacture-based industries relocating operations to "developing-world" economies where the costs of production are significantly lower than in "developed-world" economies.

Manufacturing and investment

Capacity utilization in manufacturing in the FRG and in the USA
Capacity utilization in manufacturing in the FRG and in the USA

Surveys and analyses of trends and issues in manufacturing and investment around the world focus on such things as:

  • The nature and sources of the considerable variations that occur cross-nationally in levels of manufacturing and wider industrial-economic growth;
  • Competitiveness; and
  • Attractiveness to foreign direct investors.

In addition to general overviews, researchers have examined the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of manufacturing development. They have compared production and investment in a range of Western and non-Western countries and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors.[1][2]

On June 26, 2009, Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the United States to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.S. has outsourced too much in some areas and can no longer rely on the financial sector and consumer spending to drive demand.[3] Further, while U.S. manufacturing performs well compared to the rest of the U.S. economy, research shows that it performs poorly compared to manufacturing in other high-wage countries.[4] A total of 3.2 million – one in six U.S. manufacturing jobs – have disappeared between 2000 and 2007.[5] In the UK, EEF the manufacturers organization has led calls for the UK economy to be rebalanced to rely less on financial services and has actively promoted the manufacturing agenda.

Countries by manufacturing output using the most recent known data

List of top 20 manufacturing countries by total value of manufacturing in US dollars for its noted year according to Worldbank.[6][7]

Rank Country/Region Millions of $US Year
 World 12,578,627 2014
1  China 3,713,300 2014
9999999  European Union 2,566,070 2014
2  United States 2,068,080 2014
Logo European Central Bank.svg
1,946,857 2014
3  Japan 850,902 2014
4  Germany 787,503 2014
5  South Korea 389,582 2014
6  India 321,721 2014
7  Italy 296,611 2014
8  France 283,664 2014
9  United Kingdom 282,675 2014
10  Russia 248,481 2014
11  Brazil 218,799 2014
12  Mexico 216,773 2014
13  Indonesia 186,744 2014
14  Spain 166,594 2014
15  Canada 162,074 2014
16   Switzerland 128,881 2014
17  Turkey 126,365 2014
18  Thailand 112,214 2014
19  Netherlands 95,683 2014
20  Australia 93,461 2016

Manufacturing processes


See also


  1. ^ Manufacturing & Investment Around The World: An International Survey Of Factors Affecting Growth & Performance, ISR Publications/Google Books, revised second edition, 2002. ISBN 978-0-906321-25-6.
  2. ^ Research, Industrial Systems (2002-05-20). "Manufacturing and Investment Around the World: An International Survey of Factors Affecting Growth and Performance". ISBN 978-0-906321-25-6.
  3. ^ Bailey, David and Soyoung Kim (June 26, 2009).GE's Immelt says U.S. economy needs industrial renewal. UK Guardian. Retrieved on June 28, 2009.
  4. ^ Brookings Institution, Why Does Manufacturing Matter? Which Manufacturing Matters?, February 2012 Archived 2012-10-08 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ "Factory jobs: 3 million lost since 2000". April 20, 2007.
  6. ^ "Manufacturing, value added (current US$)". access in February 20, 2013.
  7. ^ "Manufacturing, value added (current US$) for EU and Eurozone". access in February 20, 2013.


External links

This page was last edited on 14 October 2018, at 14:01
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