To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre, Baron of Santo Ângelo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre
Porto-Alegre by Ferdinand Krumholz, c. 1848
Porto-Alegre by Ferdinand Krumholz, c. 1848
BornManuel José de Araújo Porto-Alegre
(1806-11-29)November 29, 1806
Rio Pardo, Colonial Brazil
DiedDecember 30, 1879(1879-12-30) (aged 73)
Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
Pen nameTibúrcio do Amarante
OccupationWriter, painter, caricaturist, professor, diplomat, architect
Alma materEscola Nacional de Belas Artes
Period19th century
GenrePoetry, theatre, painting, drawing, editorial cartoon
Literary movementRomanticism
SpouseAna Paulina Delamare
ChildrenCarlota Porto-Alegre
Paulo Porto-Alegre

Manuel José de Araújo Porto-Alegre, Baron of Santo Ângelo (November 29, 1806 – December 30, 1879), was a Brazilian Romantic writer, painter, architect, diplomat and professor, considered to be one of the first Brazilian editorial cartoonists ever. He is the patron of the 32nd chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.


Porto-Alegre was born Manuel José de Araújo in Rio Pardo, Rio Grande do Sul, to Francisco José de Araújo and Francisca Antônia Viana. He would change his name to Manuel de Araújo Pitangueira during the independence of Brazil, citing nativist reasons. Later on, he finally changed it to its definitive form: Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre.

In 1826, he moved to Rio de Janeiro, in order to study painting with Jean-Baptiste Debret at the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes (at the time called the Academia Imperial de Belas Artes). He also studied at what is now the Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras and took a Medicine course and Philosophy. In 1831, he left Brazil along with Debret to Europe, in order to improve his painting techniques. In 1835, he went to Italy, where he met Gonçalves de Magalhães, another Brazilian poet. He and Magalhães would create in France, in the year of 1837, a short-lived magazine named Niterói, alongside Francisco de Sales Torres Homem. Also in 1837, he becomes history painting teacher at the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes, in a post that would last until 1848, when he would become a drawing teacher at the Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras, and starts doing his first caricatures. In 1838, he married Ana Paulina Delamare, having with her two children: Carlota Porto-Alegre (the future wife of painter Pedro Américo) and future diplomat Paulo Porto-Alegre.

A herma of Porto-Alegre in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
A herma of Porto-Alegre in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

In 1840 he is named the official painter and decorator of Emperor Pedro II's palace. He decorated the imperial palace in Petrópolis, the wedding of Pedro II with Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies and the aforementioned emperor's coronation. He was decorated with the Order of Christ and the Order of the Rose.

The coat of arms of the Baronage of Santo Ângelo, the same worn by the Araújo family
The coat of arms of the Baronage of Santo Ângelo, the same worn by the Araújo family

Reuniting with Gonçalves de Magalhães and Torres Homem, he founded a periodic named Minerva Brasiliense, that lasted from 1843 to 1845. He would publish in this periodic his poem Brasiliana. In 1844, alongside Torres Homem, he founded the humoristic magazine Lanterna Mágica, where he published his caricatures.

In 1849, Porto-Alegre founded the magazine Guanabara, alongside Joaquim Manuel de Macedo and Gonçalves Dias. The magazine, considered the official journal of the Romantic movement in Brazil, lasted until 1856.

In 1852, he enters the political career, assuming a position as a substitute councilman in the Municipal Chamber of Rio de Janeiro, lending service in the areas of urbanism and public health. He would exerce this post until 1854, the year when he became the headmaster of the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes, lasting until 1857.

In 1860, Porto-Alegre entered the diplomatic career, where he served as the consul of Brazil in the Kingdom of Prussia, in the Kingdom of Saxony and later in Portugal, where he died. (Porto-Alegre's remains were brought to Brazil in 1922.)

He was proclaimed Baron of Santo Ângelo by Emperor Pedro II in 1874, and was a member of the Brazilian Historic and Geographic Institute.


While in Dresden in 1865, Porto-Alegre wrote a letter to Joaquim Manuel de Macedo, then-tutor of Princess Isabel's children, in which he reveals that he became a Spiritist and was able to psychograph messages from the Underworld, and Isabel would ask him "who was [her] guardian spirit". The letter, now being kept at the Brazilian National Archives, has 12 pages.[1]

Literary works


  • Ode Sáfica (1830 — dedicated to Jean-Baptiste Debret)
  • Canto Inaugural (1855)
  • Brasiliana (1863)
  • Colombo (epic poem — 1866)
From left to right: Gonçalves Dias, Porto-Alegre and Gonçalves de Magalhães, on a picture dating from circa 1858
From left to right: Gonçalves Dias, Porto-Alegre and Gonçalves de Magalhães, on a picture dating from circa 1858

Theater plays

  • Prólogo Dramático (1837)
  • Angélica e Firmino (1845)
  • A Destruição das Florestas (1845)
  • A Estátua Amazônica (1851)
  • A Restauração de Pernambuco (1852)
  • A Noite de São João (1857)
  • Cenas de Penafiel (1858)
  • Os Judas (1859)
  • O Prestígio da Lei (1859)
  • Os Lobisomens (1862)
  • Os Voluntários da Pátria (1877)


  • Excertos das Memórias e Viagens do Coronel Bonifácio do Amarante (under pen name Tibúrcio do Amarante) (1848)


Famous paintings


  1. ^ Além da Vida magazine, 30th edition. Brazilian National Archives, Rio de Janeiro.

External links

Preceded by
New creation
Coat of arms of the Baron of Santo Ângelo

Baron of Santo Ângelo

1874 — 1879
Succeeded by
Preceded by
New creation

Brazilian Academy of Letters - Patron of the 32nd chair
Succeeded by
This page was last edited on 11 February 2022, at 23:50
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.