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Mallow, County Cork

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mallow

Mala
Town
Main Street, Mallow, featuring the clockhouse and the junction of Spa Road and Bridge Street
Main Street, Mallow, featuring the clockhouse and the junction of Spa Road and Bridge Street
Motto(s): 
Per Ignem et Aquam (Through Fire and Water)
Mallow is located in Ireland
Mallow
Mallow
Location in Ireland
Coordinates: 52°07′52″N 8°38′29″W / 52.131°N 8.6415°W / 52.131; -8.6415
CountryIreland
ProvinceMunster
CountyCork
Area
 • Urban8.2 km2 (3.2 sq mi)
Elevation
74 m (243 ft)
Population
 (2016)[1]
 • Town12,459
 • Density1,517.9/km2 (3,931/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC±0 (WET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (IST)
Eircode routing key
P51
Telephone area code+353(0)22
Irish Grid ReferenceW549982
Websitemallow.ie

Mallow (/ˈmæl/; Irish: Mala or Magh Eala)[2] is a town in County Cork, Ireland, approximately thirty-five kilometres north of Cork. Mallow is in the barony of Fermoy.

It is the administrative centre of north County Cork and has been nicknamed the "Crossroads of Munster". The Northern Divisional Offices of Cork County Council are located in the town. Mallow is part of the Cork East Dáil constituency.

Name

The earliest form of the name is Magh nAla, meaning "plain of the stone".[2] In the anglicisation "Mallow", -ow originally represented a reduced schwa sound (/ˈmælə/), which is now however pronounced as a full vowel //.[3] In 1975, Mala—a shortening of Magh nAla—was among the first Irish placenames adopted by statute,[4] on the advice of the Placenames branch of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland.[5][6]

In the Annals of the Four Masters, compiled in the 1630s, Magh nAla is misrepresented as Magh Eala, the Donegal-based authors being insufficiently familiar with Cork places.[7] P.W. Joyce in 1869 surmised that in Magh Eala [sic], Ealla referred to the river Blackwater, and connected the name to the nearby barony of Duhallow.[7] Professor T. F. O'Rahilly in 1938 interpreted Magh Eala as "plain of the swans".[7] This false etymology remains widely cited and has caused resentment by some of the official Mala as being a gratuitous simplification of Magh Eala.[7] However, the name Mala has been used in Irish for more than 300 years.[2]

History

Evidence of pre-historic settlement is found in Beenalaght (13.6 km/8.5 miles south-west of Mallow), where an alignment of six standing stones lie on a hill to the west of the Mallow-Coachford Road.[8] (grid ref: 485 873, Latitude: 52.035818N Longitude: 8.751181W).[9]

During the Irish War of Independence, the town was the HQ of the North Cork Militia – known as North Cork Rifles. The town's RIC barracks was the only one captured nationwide during the war. In retaliation, several main street premises were subsequently torched by the British Army.

Mrs King, wife of Captain W H King, RIC was killed during an attack on her husband near Mallow Railway station. In retaliation, British military and Black and Tans killed three railway workers-Patrick Devitt, Daniel Mullane and Bennett. The killings prompted industrial action by the National Railworkers Union in Britain and Ireland.[10]

Geography

Mallow lies on the River Blackwater, and developed as a defensive settlement protecting an important fort on the river.

Some of the highest naturally occurring readings of radon ever have been recorded in Mallow, prompting local fears regarding lung cancer.[11][12]

Demography

Historical population
YearPop.±%
18214,114—    
18315,229+27.1%
18416,851+31.0%
18515,439−20.6%
18614,841−11.0%
18714,165−14.0%
18814,439+6.6%
18914,366−1.6%
19014,542+4.0%
19114,452−2.0%
19264,562+2.5%
19364,948+8.5%
19465,215+5.4%
19515,583+7.1%
19565,729+2.6%
19615,649−1.4%
19665,845+3.5%
19716,506+11.3%
19817,482+15.0%
19867,685+2.7%
19917,521−2.1%
19967,768+3.3%
20028,937+15.0%
200610,241+14.6%
201111,605+13.3%
201612,459+7.4%
[13][14][15][16][17]

As of the 2016 census, the town had a population of 12,459.[1] In the same census the population was reportedly made up of 76% white Irish, 1% white Irish travellers, 12% other white ethnicities, 4% black, 2% Asian, 2% other, with 3% not stating their ethnicity.[18]

Economy

Mallow developed in the late 16th century as a plantation town. It prospered throughout the centuries as a market town due to its rich agricultural hinterland.[citation needed] Irish statesmen such as Thomas Davis and William O'Brien were both born in Mallow in the 19th century. The main street in Mallow is called Davis Street (although commonly referred to as Main Street), and joins with William O'Brien Street outside Mallow Town Hall. At the point where Davis Street meets O'Brien Street there is a monument to J.J. Fitzgerald, a little-known local politician who was involved in establishing both Mallow Urban District Council and Cork County Council.[citation needed]

The town developed an industrial base in the early 20th century, based largely on its agricultural capability, with dairy produce and sugar beet supplying the Sugar Factory, Rowntree Mackintosh, Bournes and Dairygold. Changes in the European Union sugar subsidy programme resulted in the closure of the sugar beet factory in mid-2006, after 75 years continual production. One of the last sugar beet plants to be closed in Ireland.

Transport and communications

Road

Mallow lies at the convergence of several important routes: National Primary Route 20 (N20) north-south road between Cork (35 km) and Limerick (70 km), National Secondary Route 72 (N72) east-west between Dungarvan (51.5 km) and Killarney (41.5 km), National Secondary Route 73 (N73) northeast to Mitchelstown and the M8 motorway (21 km).

Mallow looking southwest from the railway station
Mallow looking southwest from the railway station

Bus

Mallow is a stop on the Bus Éireann 51 bus service from Cork to Galway and 243 bus service from Cork to Newmarket service.

Rail

The Mallow railway viaduct which straddles the Blackwater, commonly known as the "Ten Arch Bridge", was bombed and destroyed during the Irish Civil War. It was rapidly rebuilt in girder form due to its importance in connecting the Cork, Tralee and Dublin lines. An additional line east through Fermoy and Lismore to the Waterford South station closed in 1967. Mallow railway station was opened on 17 March 1849 by the Great Southern and Western Railway.[19] It is served by trains to via Limerick Junction to Dublin Heuston, Cork and Killarney, Farranfore and Tralee.

Onward connecting trains link Mallow via Limerick Junction to Limerick, Ennis, Athenry and Galway as well as Carrick-on-Suir and Waterford.

Air

The nearest airports are Cork Airport (42.5 km), Kerry Airport (70 km) and Shannon Airport (84 km).

Kerry Airport is accessible by train from Farranfore railway station, whilst Shannon Airport requires a train via Limerick Junction to Limerick railway station for a connecting bus. Bus Éireann also offer a direct bus to Shannon Airport.[citation needed]

There is also a flying club at nearby Rathcoole. There is also a Helicopter Charter Company in nearby Dromahane.

Mallow Racecourse, now known as Cork Racecourse, became an emergency airfield on 18 April 1983, when a Mexican Gulfstream II business jet piloted by Captain Reuben Ocaña made a precautionary landing. A temporary tarmacadam runway of 910 m (3,000 ft) in length which was paid for by the plane's insurers was laid to enable the aircraft to leave five weeks later. In the meantime Captain Ocaña became a local celebrity. On 23 May 1983 just before the plane departed, the Captain said his farewell to the people of Ireland in the Irish language.[20] The runway was subsequently used for parking during race meets and for learner driving. Light aircraft have occasionally landed at the racecourse on the grass area. The F3A World Model Aircraft Aerobatic Championship was held there in 2001. The 1983 incident formed the basis of the 2010 film The Runway.[21] There is now a bar-restaurant called "Ocaña's" on Mallow's main street.[citation needed]

Sport

Founded in 1882, Mallow Rugby Club is one of the oldest rugby clubs in the country.[22] Former players include Munster Second Row Ian Nagle, who played juvenile rugby for Mallow and Ulster Prop Jerry Cronin, who played juvenile and Junior Rugby for the club.[citation needed]

The town's association football club, Mallow United Football Club, was founded in 1926 and fields senior, junior, schoolboy, and schoolgirl football teams in the Munster Leagues.[23] Mallow Golf Club, founded in 1947,[24] is located just outside Mallow and has 18 holes. There is a driving range situated a few kilometres from the town centre.[citation needed]

The local racecourse, Cork Racecourse, now renamed "Cork Racecourse at Mallow",[25] plays host to large horse racing events.

Mallow GAA is the town's GAA club, and fields teams in hurling and Gaelic football. The club won the 2017 Cork Premier Intermediate Football Championship.[26]

Mallow AC [27] is a running club with almost 200 adult members.[citation needed]

Amenities

Mallow has a cinema as well as other community amenities such the Youth Centre and a nearby swimming pool. It also has several gyms.

The town also has several pubs and nightclubs.

People

Thomas Davis Street (Main Street), Mallow in August 1903
Thomas Davis Street (Main Street), Mallow in August 1903

International relations

Mallow is twinned with the towns of

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Population Density and Area Size 2016". Central Statistics Office (Ireland). Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  2. ^ a b c "Mala / Mallow". logainm.ie. Placenames Database of Ireland. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  3. ^ Gazetteer of Ireland / Gasaitéar na hÉireann. Government of Ireland. ISBN 0-7076-0076-6.
  4. ^ "I.R. Uimh. 133/1975 – An tOrdú Logainmneacha (Foirmeacha Gaeilge) (Uimh. 1) (Postbhailte) 1975" (in Irish). Government of Ireland. 22 July 1975. Retrieved 27 January 2008. Mallow (33) Mala (g. Mhala)
  5. ^ "Placenames Orders". Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs. Archived from the original on 2 April 2008. Retrieved 27 January 2008.
  6. ^ "The Placenames Commission". Archived from the original on 24 September 2007. Retrieved 27 January 2008.
  7. ^ a b c d Ó hÚrdail, Roibeárd (1 March 1996). "Marshmallows". The Irish Times. p. 15.
  8. ^ Weir, A (1980). Early Ireland. A Field Guide. Belfast: Blackstaff Press. p. 113. ISBN 0-85640-212-5.
  9. ^ "Beenalaght". The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 11 June 2008.
  10. ^ O'Donoghue, Florence (1954). No other law: the story of Liam Lynch and the Irish Republican Army, 1916–1923. Irish Press. p. 132.
  11. ^ "Record radon levels found at Mallow office". RTÉ News. 20 September 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
  12. ^ "Ireland's Radon Gas Levels Dangerous". Radon Barrier Co Ltd. Archived from the original on 12 May 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
  13. ^ Census for post 1821 figures. Archived 9 March 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ http://www.histpop.org Archived 7 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  16. ^ Lee, JJ (1981). "On the accuracy of the Pre-famine Irish censuses". In Goldstrom, J. M.; Clarkson, L. A. (eds.). Irish Population, Economy, and Society: Essays in Honour of the Late K. H. Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  17. ^ Mokyr, Joel; O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). "New Developments in Irish Population History, 1700–1850". The Economic History Review. 37 (4): 473–488. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x. hdl:10197/1406. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012.
  18. ^ "Mallow Demographics". Census 2016 - Small Area Population Statistics. CSO. 2016.
  19. ^ "Mallow station" (PDF). Railscot – Irish Railways. Retrieved 31 August 2007.
  20. ^ Hegarty, Mandy. "Interview: 'The Runway' Writer/Director Ian Power On His Debut Feature Film". Irish Film and Television Network. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  21. ^ Wilkinson, Ron (25 July 2012). "The Runway – Movie Review". Monsters and Critics. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
  22. ^ Official Mallow Rugby Website
  23. ^ Official Mallow United FC Website
  24. ^ Mallow Golf Club
  25. ^ Cork Racecourse At Mallow
  26. ^ O'Callaghan, Therese (16 October 2017). "Heartbreak for St Michael's as Mallow win Cork Premier Intermediate final". irishexaminer.com. Irish Examiner. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  27. ^ Mallow AC
  28. ^ Lunney, Sheila (2009). "Bowe, Catherine Mary (Sister Celeste)". In McGuire, James; Quinn, James (eds.). Dictionary of Irish Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  29. ^ "My Weekend". echolive.ie. The Echo. 28 February 2020. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  30. ^ Hutton, William Holden (1885–1900). "Davis, Thomas Osborne". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  31. ^ "Donovan: Call him Mallow yellow". irishexaminer.com. Irish Examiner. 18 September 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  32. ^ United States Congress. "John Hogan (id: H000691)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  33. ^ Harper, J. Russell (1972). "Paul Kane". In Hayne, David (ed.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. X (1871–1880) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
  34. ^ "Obituaries - Joe Lynch". independent.co.uk. The Independent (UK). 13 August 2001. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  35. ^ "Joan Denise Moriarty: Mother of the dance". independent.ie. Independent News & Media. 11 March 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  36. ^ Lee, Sidney, ed. (1894). "Murphy, Robert" . Dictionary of National Biography. 39. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  37. ^ William O'Brien at the Encyclopædia Britannica
  38. ^ "Stephen O'Flynn interview". extratime.com. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  39. ^ "Sullivan, Sir Edward, first baronet". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/26774. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  40. ^ "Sister Cities". ie.usembassy.gov. US Embassy in Ireland. Retrieved 13 August 2020.

External links

This page was last edited on 14 November 2020, at 10:49
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