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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Malbork
Neo-gothic train station in Malbork
Neo-gothic train station in Malbork
Flag of Malbork

Flag
Coat of arms of Malbork

Coat of arms
Malbork is located in Poland
Malbork
Malbork
Coordinates: 54°2′N 19°2′E / 54.033°N 19.033°E / 54.033; 19.033
Country Poland
VoivodeshipPomeranian
CountyMalbork County
GminaMalbork (urban gmina)
Town rights1286
Government
 • MayorMarek Charzewski
Area
 • Total17.15 km2 (6.62 sq mi)
Highest elevation
30 m (100 ft)
Lowest elevation
6 m (20 ft)
Population
(2006)
 • Total38,478
 • Density2,200/km2 (5,800/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
82-200 to 82-210
Area code(s)+48 055
Car platesGMB
Websitehttp://www.malbork.pl

Malbork ([ˈmalbɔrk] (About this soundlisten); German: Marienburg (About this soundlisten); Latin: Civitas Beatae Virginis) is a town in northwestern Poland in the Żuławy region (Vistula delta), with 38,478 inhabitants (2006). Situated in the Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999, it was previously assigned to Elbląg Voivodeship (1975–1998). It is the capital of Malbork County.

Founded in the 13th century by the Knights of the Teutonic Order, the town is noted for its medieval Malbork Castle, built in the 13th Century as the Order's headquarters and of what later became known as Royal Prussia.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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Transcription

Alright guys, so we are back at the train station for another day trip and today we are heading to Malbork (Marienburg) to visit this is the largest castle by land area in Europe. No, in the world. Oh, in the world. Wow. It is the biggest castle in the world. That is nuts. It is going to be impressive and yeah it should be a really fun day trip. We just bought our tickets and now we are waiting for the train to pull into the platform. Let's do this. Malbork Castle (zamek w Malborku - Ordensburg Marienburg) dates back to the 13th century, and it is a medieval brick castle constructed in the Gothic style. It was originally built by the Teutonic Knights, a German Roman Catholic religious order of crusaders, and expanded a few times as the number of knights grew. The Castle has an area of 143,591 square meters, making it the biggest in the world by land area. Alright, so we have made it to Malbork (Marienburg) and now we're on our way to the castle. We ended up taking the Inter City train which is a little bit faster. It got us there in 30 minutes. It is a little bit more expensive. We paid 55 złoty per person but that was the next one that was leaving otherwise we would have had to wait for like an hour and a half. So something to keep in mind but I think we are taking the cheaper train on the way back and that is only 11 złoty. But anyway that is enough information. Now let's make our way over to the castle. Alright, so we just got our tickets. It was 39.50 zł each and doesn't it already look massive this castle? Like just walking to the entrance. It is like woah. Yeah, I think I remember reading online that like to do the audio guide or to properly explore it it can take up to 3 hours. So yeah. It is massive. Woah! I'm glad we gave ourselves a lot of time because we're not going back until about 4pm so we have like 5 or 5 and a half hours. But that also includes lunch. That includes lunch and maybe I'm going to need some soon. Haha. But let's go in. First things first. Cat friends. Hello cat friends. Hi meow meows. Alright Sam. So now that we've met the cats we can proceed with the attraction. Exactly. We got that out of the way and now we can actually enjoy the castle. And we're also on the lookout for food. There maybe food in here. Oh my goodness. So we are quickly realizing this castle complex is massive. It is going to take us a while to walk around and we're going to need our energy. So we found a whole bunch of like little outdoor restaurants and yeah we're going to go eat probably there. We've got a cauldron and in there it looks like sauerkraut and sausage maybe? I maybe interested in this. So we just met the coolest guy ever. We randomly walked up to this restaurant because it looked kind of like Medieval. They had this big cauldron with Bigos it turns out. Yeah. But anyways they have us like a tour. He took photos of us. He took video. Um and yeah it was really fun. What an awesome guy. And the food looks amazing. That seriously does. So we got like these roasted potatoes. We got the traditional sausage Kielbasa I think it is. And the Bigos which kind of looks like sauerkraut with like bits of meat and some carrot. I think it is Bigos. And Sam also wanted Pierogi of course so we got a plate. This is one portion. Four big ones and apparently it is stuffed with spinach and feta. A little bit of onion on top so yeah I'm just going to start with this first. Dig right in. It looks so good. And it is just past eleven. I think maybe he liked us because we were so enthusiastic about food at like eleven in the morning. We're like yeah lunchtime. And that is how we roll. It is like if we have an opportunity to eat before we sightsee we always do. Oh my gosh. Is it good? The sausage is so good. Wow. And the skin is crispy. It is so big too. So soft it like melts in your mouth. It is like overflowing from the plate. It is massive. And potatoes perfectly seasoned. Like oh my gosh. I should be trying the Bigos actually. Try some Bigos. Let's see. Yeah. So a winning early lunch? It is so good. It wasn't that expensive. I mean we got all of this and a drink for 53 złoty which is less than what we paid for the train to get here. Right. I mean this is a lot of food and it is in a touristy place. But seriously worth it. This is wonderful. While you tried this so than means I will be the guinea pig for the pierogi. So let's dissect it. Oh these are nice and thick I can tell. Oh wow. Yayaya. You do have a knife. A fork knife. Caveman style. Oh. Oh, whoops. Wow, that looks good. Mmmmm. Wow. Those are really nice pierogies. Yeah? Mmm. We picked a great spot for lunch seriously. Yeah? Alright so we are feeling very well fed. How was that Sam? That was awesome. I'm so ready to explore now that I've had food. Yes now we can see the castle. Let's go. So once you're inside the castle. Inside the main courtyard there are actually lots of little shops. So we're seeing souvenir shops, candy manufactures. There is an amber gallery. Different restaurants you can eat at. So yeah, there is like quite a bit you can experience inside the castle and right now we're just climbing some stairs to go inside. We'll see what we find. While you’re in Malbork Castle (zamek w Malborku - Ordensburg Marienburg), you can visit the Castle Museum, which is home to 40,000 plus artefacts. You can see religious sculptures, old weapons and military equipment, coin collections, amber wares, landscape and portrait paintings, and a whole lot more. One of our favourite spots in the castle was the Southern Terrace, complete with a rose garden and sun chairs for lounging around. I think Sam and I both agree it is time for siesta. Yep. So we found a nice little patch of grass under a tree in the shade. Yeah. And yeah we need a break. I'm feeling tired. Like the castle is massive. I feel like we've been walking around for hours and there is still more left to see. Like we just exited the part that you have to pay. Yep. But you can actually visit the rest of the castle grounds for free. It is like open admission. There is a lot of things to do, there is places to eat, there are things to buy. So we've still got a lot to do but we are going to take a nap right now. Rest first. Do your thing. Do what you wanna do now. So I think we can officially say that we've walked the whole castle. We've seen the inside and I think we've done a full loop at this point. Yeah, as far as we can go. And we know that because if you turn around there is a gate. Where is it? Can you see the gate. That is as far as we can go. That is as far as we can go but you know what? It has been a while since lunch. I think I could have some tea and cake. Hahaha. Of course you could. If we can find cake. Let's go. So there is this cool wooden bridge that you can take directly behind the castle and that will bring you across the river. On this other side you can catch a riverboat tours for about 40 minutes and then they also have a few cafes so we're actually going to walk down and see if we can find me some cake. No cakes on the menu. Nothing sweet apparently it is only savory so we're going to keep looking. And? Take two hoping for cakes maybe even ice cream. I don't know. So we are now saying goodbye to Malbork Castle (zamek w Malborku - Ordensburg Marienburg) behind me. We've decided to head into town for a little bite. And yeah, it has been fun so far. Take three. Take three. Hopefully we find cake. I'm sure we will. There has got to be a cafe there. And yeah it'll be nice to see a bit of the town as well. Not just the castle. We've been sidetracked already. Sam saw something of interest. This is my doing. I saw a cool place that looks like they have a bunch of different beer and I'm thinking we've got time to kill before our train so let's go have beer before cake. So it is actually going to be cake take four when we finally get some. And we've found a very cool place to hang out and have our drinks. This feels like glamping. Haha. We've got like furniture like out on the grass which is pretty cool and I feel like our table. Isn't this like one of those old laundry machines you use to ring out the water? It could be. It could be. I think so. They also have like singer and sewing machines and other cool stuff. But anyways Sam got beer. Yep. And I got apple juice with elderflower. Which sounded really cool. Need some help with that? No. You've got it. I can manage. Awesome. Ooh. Does that smell nice? It does smell nice. Try it? My experience with elderflower was like gin flavored elderflower and it was really good. Was that in Edinburgh? Yeah. Yeah. In the gin dens of Edinburgh. Ooh. Is that nice? Mmmmm. It has got a nice sweetness at the end. Like floral honey. Floral honey. Yeah. So refreshing. Fancy apple juice. Alright and I got the local beer. Tell us about that beer. Did you get the name? No, I didn't. I didn't look. You're just like give me beer. I just got whatever is on tap and they gave me a blonde. So this is nice. Nice draught beer. Cold, refreshing and yeah this is just a cool place to chill and kill some time before we catch our train. Take four. What have we found? Cake take four. We've actually found a place. Cake and ice cream? We're not missing this opportunity. We are going in. Let's go. We're going to seize the moment. Seize the moment. Cake. Seize the sugar. Ice cream. Cheesecake. Happy person. Haha. I was starting to fall asleep and then I woke up all grumpy while Sam was drinking beer but now I've got three different flavors of ice cream. What did you get? It was like a vanilla chocolate mix. Then mint and chocolate chips and this is vanilla with blueberries. Oh la lah. Is it good? Polish ice cream man it is the best. It is so good. Okay time for the Polish cheesecake. I believe it is called Sernik (Polish cheesecake). Oh ho ho. Oh, it looks decadent. Mmmmm. Man. You're going to like this a lot. Yeah? The cheesecake part. Like. Struggling here. That was a big bite. It is very decadent. It is very rich. And the cheesecake part like cream cheese part is like really really thick. So ooh. It is good stuff. This is like a really nice way to finish off the day before heading back to Gdansk. It really is. (Train noises) Well, we are back at the station. It is so loud. Anyways, we're catching the train back to Gdansk. We had a really fun day visiting the castle. It was massive. Like seriously you kind of need a full day there. And the food was great so yeah you can turn it into a full day experience. Would highly recommend it. Yeah, it was awesome. And off we go. Tata.

Contents

History of the castle

Statue of Casimir IV Jagiellon in Malbork
Statue of Casimir IV Jagiellon in Malbork
Malbork Castle viewed over the Nogat River
Malbork Castle viewed over the Nogat River

The town was built in Prussia around the fortress Ordensburg Marienburg, which was founded in 1274 on the east bank of the river Nogat by the Teutonic Knights. Both the castle and the town (named Marienburg in German and Malborg or Malbork in Polish) were named for their patron saint, the Virgin Mary. This fortified castle became the seat of the Teutonic Order and Europe's largest Gothic fortress. During the Thirteen Years' War, the castle of Marienburg was pawned by the Teutonic Order to their imperial soldiers from Bohemia. They sold the castle in 1457 to King Casimir IV of Poland in lieu of indemnities.[1][2]

Under continuous construction for nearly 230 years, the castle complex is actually three castles combined in one. A classic example of a medieval fortress, it is the world’s largest brick castle and one of the most impressive of its kind in Europe. The castle was in the process of being restored by the Germans when World War II broke out. During the war, the castle was over 50% destroyed. Restoration has been ongoing since the war. The castle and its museum are listed as one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites.

History of the town

The town of Marienburg grew in the vicinity of the castle. The river Nogat and flat terrain allowed easy access for barges a hundred kilometers from the sea. During Prussia's government by the Teutonic Knights, the Order collected tolls on river traffic and imposed a monopoly on the amber trade. The town later became a member of the Hanseatic League, and many Hanseatic meetings were held there.

The Teutonic Order weakened greatly after the Battle of Grunwald against advancing Poles and Lithuanians.[3] The Siege of Marienburg (1410) left the Teutonic Order in control only of the town, until it sold the castle and in 1457 transferred its seat to Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia). The town of Marienburg, under Mayor Bartholomäus Blume and others, resisted the Poles for three further years. But when the Poles finally took control, Blume was hanged and quartered, and fourteen officers and three remaining Teutonic knights were thrown into dungeons, where they met a miserable end.[1] A monument to Blume was erected in 1864.[4]

The town became part of the Polish province of Royal Prussia after the Second Peace of Thorn (1466),[5] however still mainly settled by Germans. It was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in the First Partition of Poland in 1772 and became part of the Province of West Prussia the following year, which became part of the newly founded German Empire in 1871.

Marienburg in West Prussia, map of 1896
Marienburg in West Prussia, map of 1896

Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles after World War I, the inhabitants were asked in a plebiscite on July 11, 1920 whether they wanted to remain in Germany or join newly re-established Poland. In the town of Marienburg, 9,641 votes were cast for Germany, 165 votes for Poland.[6] As a result, Marienburg was included in the Regierungsbezirk Marienwerder within the German Province of East Prussia. During the Weimar era, Marienburg was located at the tripoint between Poland, Germany and the Free State of Danzig.

The town was hit by an economic crisis following the end of World War I. After a brief recovery in the mid-1920s, the Great Depression was particularly severe in East Prussia. In January 1933, Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power and immediately began eliminating political opponents, so that in the last semi-free elections of March 1933, 54% of Marienburg's votes went to the Nazis.[7]). After the German invasion of Poland in September 1939, leaders of the Polish minority were arrested and sent to concentration camps.

94th Bomb Group B-17 Flying Fortress targeting the Focke-Wulf factory as described.
94th Bomb Group B-17 Flying Fortress targeting the Focke-Wulf factory as described.

During World War II a Focke-Wulf aircraft factory was set up at the airfield to the east of Marienburg. It was bombed twice by the USAAF in 1943 and 1944. Today the airfield belongs to the 22nd Air Base of the Polish Air Force.

Near the end of World War II, the city was declared a festung and most of the civilian population fled or were evacuated, with some 4,000 people opting to remain. In early 1945, Marienburg was the scene of fierce battles by the Nazis against the Red Army and was almost completely destroyed. The battle lasted until March 9, 1945.[8] Following the town's military capture by the Red Army, the remaining civilian population disappeared; 1,840 people remain missing. In June 1945, the town was turned over to Polish authorities who had arrived in the town in April and was permanently renamed Malbork. The German population of Marienburg that had not fled was expelled.

Half a century later, in 1996, 178 corpses were found in a mass grave in Malbork; another 123 were found in 2005.[9] In October 2008, during excavations for the foundation of a new hotel in Malbork, a mass grave was found containing the remains of 2,116 people, a majority of whom were female. All the dead were said to have been German residents of pre-1945 Marienburg, but they could not be individually identified, nor could the cause of their deaths be definitely established. A Polish investigation concluded that the bodies, along with the remains of some dead animals, may have been buried to prevent the spread of typhus, which was extant in the turmoil at the end of World War II. On August 14, 2009, all the dead people’s remains were buried in a German military cemetery to the west of the town at Stare Czarnowo (German: Neumark) in Polish Pomerania, not far from the present-day German border.[10][11]

In Malbork one can also find a Commonwealth War Graves Commission cemetery [12] with 240 graves, mostly of POWs who died in the area during both wars, especially in the World War II Stalag XX-B camp.

After World War II, the town was gradually repopulated by Poles, many expelled from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union. In February 1946, the population of the town reached 10,017 people, then by 1965 grew further to 28,292 and by 1994 to 40,347.[13]

Also following the war, the Old Town in Malbork was not rebuilt; instead the bricks from its ruins were used to rebuild the oldest sections of Warsaw and Gdańsk.[13] As a result, with the exception of the Old Town Hall, two city gates and St. John's church, no pre-World War II buildings remain in the Old Town area.[13] In place of the old town, a housing estate was built in the 1960s.[13]

Notable residents

Teutonic Knights enter Malbork castle in 1309
Teutonic Knights enter Malbork castle in 1309
Adalbert Krueger
Adalbert Krueger
Marcelina Zawadzka, 2015
Marcelina Zawadzka, 2015
early times
19th C
20th C

International relations

Malbork is twinned with:

References

Notes
  1. ^ a b Wyatt, Walter James (3 March 1876). "The history of Prussia: tracing the origin and development of her military organization". Retrieved 3 March 2018 – via Google Books.
  2. ^ Weber, Matthias (3 March 2018). "Preussen in Ostmitteleuropa: Geschehensgeschichte und Verstehensgeschichte". Oldenbourg. Retrieved 3 March 2018 – via Google Books.
  3. ^ Turnbull, Steven (2013). Tannenberg 1410: Disaster for the Teutonic Knights. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 1472800095.
  4. ^ Weber, Matthias (3 March 2018). "Preussen in Ostmitteleuropa: Geschehensgeschichte und Verstehensgeschichte". Oldenbourg. Retrieved 3 March 2018 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ Stephen R. Turnbull, Peter Dennis, Crusader Castles of the Teutonic Knights, Osprey Publishing, 2003, p. 58, ISBN 1-84176-557-0, 9781841765570 Google Books
  6. ^ marienburg.de Archived 2008-12-25 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ "Deutsche Verwaltungsgeschichte Westpreußen, Kreis Marienburg". Verwaltungsgeschichte.de. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  8. ^ "Aktuell". www.berlinonline.de. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  9. ^ Bönisch, Georg; Puhl, Jan; Wiegrefe, Klaus (23 January 2009). "Death in Marienburg: Mystery Surrounds Mass Graves in Polish City". Retrieved 3 March 2018 – via Spiegel Online.
  10. ^ Kulish, Nicholas (26 February 2009). "Facing German Suffering, and Not Looking Away". Retrieved 3 March 2018 – via NYTimes.com.
  11. ^ "Malbork Massacre: World War II Mass Grave Unearthed in Poland". 8 January 2009. Retrieved 3 March 2018 – via Spiegel Online.
  12. ^ "Cemetery". www.cwgc.org. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  13. ^ a b c d "Visit Malbork - Visit Malbork". www.visitmalbork.pl. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  14. ^ IMDb Database retrieved 9 November 2018

External links


This page was last edited on 29 November 2018, at 16:43
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