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Mahadaji Shinde

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mahadji Shinde
Meherban Shrimant Sardar Shinde Bahadur (High and Brave Chief of the Shinde)
Vakil-ul-Mutlaq (Regent of the Empire)
Amir-ul-Umara (Head of the Amirs)[1]
Udaipur Diwan Saheb (Regent of Udaipur State)[2]
Mahadaji Sindhia.jpg
Mahadaji Shinde by James Wales
Flag of the Maratha Empire.svg
6th Maratha Maharaja of Gwalior
Reign18 January 1768 — 12 February 1794
Coronation18 January 1768
PredecessorManaji Rao Shinde
SuccessorDaulat Rao Shinde
Born3 December 1730
Died12 February 1794 (aged 64)
Wanawadi, Pune, Maratha Empire (present-day Maharashtra, India)
Spouse9 wives
  • Annapurnabai (from Nimbalkar family of Beed)
  • Bhavanibai (from Ghatage family)
  • Parvatibai (Sister of Narsing Ghatage)
  • Bhavanibai (from Mhaske-Deshmukh family of Sangamner)
  • Gangabai (from Palavekar family)
  • Radhabai (from Padamsinh Raul family)
  • Bhagirathibai (from Kardekar family)
  • Yamunabai (from Ramling Raul family)
  • Lakshmibai (from Bhope-Kadam family of Tuljapur, Osmanabad)
IssueDaulat Rao Shinde (adopted son)
Bala Bai
Chimna Bai
Full name
Shrimant Madho (Madhoji) Rao Shinde
FatherRanoji Rao Shinde
MotherChima Bai

Mahadaji Shinde (3 December 1730-12 February 1794) also spelled as Mahadji Scindia or Mahādajī Śhindē, was a Maratha Statesman and ruler of Gwalior in Northern India. He was the fifth and the youngest son of Ranoji Rao Scindia, the founder of the Scindia dynasty.

Mahadaji was instrumental in resurrecting Maratha power in North India after the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761, and rose to become a trusted lieutenant of the Peshwa, leader of the Maratha Empire. Along with Madhavrao I and Nana Fadnavis, he was one of the three pillars of Maratha Resurrection. During his reign, Gwalior became the leading state in the Maratha Empire and one of the foremost military powers in India. After accompanying Shah Alam II in 1771 to Delhi, he restored the Mughals in Delhi and became the Vakil-ul-Mutlaq (Regent of the Empire)'.[3] Mahadji Shinde's principal Advisors were all Shenvis.[4]

He annihilated the power of Jats of Mathura and during 1772-73 he destroyed the power of Pashtun Rohillas in Rohilkhand and captured Najibabad. His role during the First Anglo-Maratha War was greatest from the Maratha side since he humbled the British in Central India, single handed, which resulted in the Treaty of Salbai in 1782, where he mediated between the Peshwa and the British. In 1787 Mahadji attempted to invade Rajputana but he was repulsed by the Rajput armies at Lalsot. In 1790 he defeated the Rajput kingdoms of Jodhpur and Jaipur in the Battles of Patan and Merta.

Treaty of Salbai

After the British defeat, Hastings through Murre proposed a new treaty, known as the Treaty of Salbai, between the Peshwa and the British that would recognize Sawai Madhavrao as the Peshwa and grant Raghunath Rao a pension. The treaty also returned to Shinde all his territories west of the Yamuna and so was made to withdraw to Ujjain. A resident, Mr. David Anderson (1750-1825), of St. Germains[5] (who had negotiated the treaty) was at the same time appointed to Mahadji's court.

After the Treaty of Salbai in 1782, he invaded and overpowered the Rajput states, particularly Jodhpur and Jaipur through the Battle of Patan, the Battle of Merta. Even Sikh Sardars of the cis-Sutlej region paid tributes to him.[6]

Later Years

Mahadji became Vakil-ul-Mutlaq (regent of Mughal affairs), and the Mughals also gave him the title of Amir-ul-Umara (head of the amirs) in 1784.[7]

Another achievement of Mahadji was his victory over the Nizam of Hyderabad's army in a battle. The Nizam state ceased be a factor in the north Indian politics after this battle and it generally confined itself in the Deccan afterwards. After the peace made with Tipu Sultan of Mysore in 1792, Mahadji exerted his influence to prevent the completion of a treaty between the British, the Nizam of Hyderabad, and the Peshwa, directed against Tipu.

Death and legacy

Shinde Chhatri, Wanawdi, Pune: A memorial dedicated to Mahadji Shinde
Shinde Chhatri, Wanawdi, Pune: A memorial dedicated to Mahadji Shinde

After the Battle of Lakheri, Mahadji was now at the zenith of his power, when he died, at his camp at Wanavdi near Pune on 12 February 1794. He left no heir, and was succeeded by Daulat Rao Scindia.

Keeney, the English biographer of Mahadaji Shinde, has described Mahadaji as the greatest man in South Asia in the 18th century.[8] Mahadaji Shinde's role was instrumental in establishing Maratha supremacy over North India.

Shinde Chhatri, located in Wanawadi, in Pune is a memorial dedicated to Mahadji Shinde. It is a hall that marks the spot of Mahadji Shinde's cremation on 12 February 1794. The three storied memorial in Rajput architectural style, is one of the most significant landmarks in the city.

Depiction in modern media

The Great Maratha was an Indian historical drama television series based on the life of Mahadaji Shinde. It directed by Sanjay Khan and produced by Numero Uno International Limited.[9] The drama aired on Doordarshan National.

See also


  1. ^ Page 334, A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century, By Salma Ahmed Farooqui, Publisher: Pearson Education India, 2011, ISBN 8131732029
  2. ^ Rajasthan Through the Ages By R.K. Gupta, S.R. Bakshi pg 255
  3. '^ Vakil-ul-Mutlaq (Regent of the Empire)
  4. ^ The Great Maratha Mahadaji Shinde - N. G. Rathod - Google Books. 1994. ISBN 9788185431529. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  5. ^ Burkes Landed Gentry: Anderson of Northfield
  6. ^ History Of The Marathas - R.S. Chaurasia - Google Books. 2004. ISBN 9788126903948. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
  7. ^ A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: From Twelfth to the Mid ... - Farooqui Salma Ahmed, Salma Ahmed Farooqui - Google Books. 2011. ISBN 9788131732021. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  8. ^ Page 156, The Great Maratha Mahadaji Scindia, By N. G. Rathod, Publisher: Sarup & Sons, 1994, ISBN 8185431523, 9788185431529
  9. ^ "Metro Plus Chennai / Telewatch : The return of the Sultan". The Hindu. 17 May 2006. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  • Hunter, William Wilson, Sir, et al. (1908). Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 12. 1908–1931; Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Keene, H. G. The Fall of the Moghul Empire of Hindustan e-text
  • Markovits, Claude (ed.) (2004). A History of Modern India: 1480–1950. Anthem Press, London.
  • [श्रीनाथ माधवजी : महायोद्धा महादजी की शौर्यगाथा / प्रथम संस्करण / प्रकाशन वर्ष - २०१३ / लेखक :- पण्डित नीलेश ईश्वरचन्द्र करकरे] / (Research book) Shreenath Madhavji: Mahayoddha Mahadji Ki Shourya Gatha/ First Edition / Published 2013/ Author :- Pandit Neelesh Ishwarchandra Karkare

Further reading

  • Neelesh Ishwarchandra Karkare (2013). Shreenath Madhavji : Mahayoddha Mahadji Ki Shourya Gatha. Neelesh Ishwarchandra ( Gwalior). ISBN 9789352670925.
  • Neelesh Ishwarchandra Karkare (2017). Tawaareekh-E-ShindeShahi. Neelesh Ishwarchandra ( Gwalior). ISBN 9789352672417.

External links

Mahadaji Shinde
Born: 3 December 1730 Died: 12 February 1794
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Manaji Rao Scindia
Maharaja of Gwalior
Succeeded by
Daulat Rao Scindia
This page was last edited on 11 March 2020, at 10:40
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