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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Maafa, African Holocaust, Holocaust of Enslavement, or Black Holocaust[1][2][3] are political neologisms popularized from 1998 onwards[4][5][6][7] and used to describe the history and ongoing effects of atrocities inflicted on African people, particularly when committed by non-Africans (Europeans and Arabs to be exact,[8] specifically in the context of the history of slavery, including the Arab slave trade and Atlantic slave trade) and argued as "continued to the present day" through imperialism, colonialism and other forms of oppression.[4][6][7][9][10][11] For example, Maulana Karenga (2001) puts slavery in the broader context of the Maafa, suggesting that its effects exceed mere physical persecution and legal disenfranchisement: the "destruction of human possibility involved redefining African humanity to the world, poisoning past, present and future relations with others who only know us through this stereotyping and thus damaging the truly human relations among peoples".[12]

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Transcription

History and terminology

Usage of the Swahili term Maafa ("Great Disaster") in English was introduced by Marimba Ani's 1998 book Let the Circle Be Unbroken: The Implications of African Spirituality in the Diaspora.[13][14] It is derived from a Swahili term for "disaster, terrible occurrence or great tragedy".[15][16] The term was popularized in the 1990s.[17]

The term African Holocaust is preferred by some academics, such as Maulana Karenga, because it implies intention.[citation needed] One problem noted by Karenga is that the word Maafa can also translate to "accident" and in the view of some scholars the holocaust of enslavement was not accidental. Ali Mazrui notes that the word "holocaust" is a "dual plagiarism" since the term is derived from Ancient Greek and thus despite being associated with the genocide of the Jews, no one can have a monopoly over the term. Mazrui states: "This borrowing from borrowers without attribution is what I call 'the dual plagiarism.' But this plagiarism is defensible because the vocabulary of horrors like genocide and enslavement should not be subject to copyright-restrictions".[18]

Some Afrocentric scholars prefer the term Maafa to African Holocaust[19] because they believe that indigenous African terminology more truly conveys the events.[14] The term Maafa may serve "much the same cultural psychological purpose for Africans as the idea of the Holocaust serves to name the culturally distinct Jewish experience of genocide under German Nazism".[20] Other arguments in favor of Maafa rather than African Holocaust emphasize that the denial of the validity of the African people's humanity is an unparalleled centuries-long phenomenon: "The Maafa is a continual, constant, complete, and total system of human negation and nullification"-[7]

The terms "transatlantic slave trade", "Atlantic slave trade" and "slave trade" have also been said by some[who?] to be deeply problematic because they serve as euphemisms for intense violence and mass murder. Referred to as a "trade", this prolonged period of persecution and suffering is rendered as a commercial dilemma, rather than as a moral atrocity.[21] With trade as the primary focus, the broader tragedy becomes consigned to a secondary point as mere "collateral damage" of a commercial venture. However, others[who?] feel that avoidance of the term "trade" is an apologetic act on behalf of capitalism, absolving capitalist structures of involvement in human catastrophe.[22]

See also

References

  1. ^ William Wright points to the differences between black history, and African history, and argues that the African Holocaust is a major reason why these two histories are not synonymous: William D. Wright, Black History and Black Identity: A Call for a New Historiography, p. 117
  2. ^ "What Holocaust". "Glenn Reitz".[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ Ryan Michael Spitzer, "The African Holocaust: Should Europe pay reparations to Africa for Colonialism and Slavery?", Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, vol. 35, 2002, p. 1319.
  4. ^ a b Barndt, Joseph. Understanding and Dismantling Racism: The Twenty-First Century. 2007, page 269.
  5. ^ The Global African: A Portrait of Ali A. Mazrui. Omari H. Kokole.
  6. ^ a b Reparations for the Slave Trade: Rhetoric, Law, History and Political Realities”.
  7. ^ a b c Jones, Lee and West, Cornel. Making It on Broken Promises: Leading African American Male Scholars Confront the Culture of Higher Education. 2002, p. 178.
  8. ^ Stewart, Sharon; Butts, Edward; Sadlier, Rosemary, Canadian Cultural Heritage Bundle: Louis Riel / Harriet Tubman / Simon Girty, Dundurn (2013), p. 314, ISBN 9781459727915
  9. ^ Wright, William D. (2001). Black History and Black Identity: A Call for a New Historiography. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780275974428.
  10. ^ The Global African: A Portrait of Ali A. Mazrui. Omari H. Kokole.
  11. ^ Ryan Michael Spitzer, "The African Holocaust: Should Europe pay reparations to Africa for Colonialism and Slavery?", Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, vol. 35, 2002, p. 1319.
  12. ^ "Letter by Maulana Karenga, 2001". H-net.msu.edu. 2010-04-29. Retrieved 2015-10-14.
  13. ^ Dove, Nah. Afrikan Mothers: Bearers of Culture, Makers of Social Change. 1998, p. 240.
  14. ^ a b Gunn Morris, Vivian and Morris, Curtis L. The Price They Paid: Desegregation in an African American Community. 2002, p. x.
  15. ^ Harp, O.J. Across Time: Mystery of the Great Sphinx. 2007, p. 247.
  16. ^ Cheeves, Denise Nicole (2004). Legacy. p. 1.
  17. ^ Pero Gaglo Dagbovie (2010). African American History Reconsidered. University of Illinois Press. p. 191.
  18. ^ "Ancestry, Descent And Identity" (PDF). Igcs.binghamton.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-13. Retrieved 2015-10-14.
  19. ^ Tarpley, Natasha. Testimony: Young African-Americans on Self-Discovery and Black Identity. 1995, p. 252.
  20. ^ Aldridge, Delores P. and Young, Carlene. Out of the Revolution: The Development of Africana Studies. 2000, p. 250.
  21. ^ Diouf, Sylviane Anna. Fighting the Slave Trade: West African Strategies. 2003, p. xi.
  22. ^ Epps, Henry. A Concise Chronicle History of the African-American People Experience in America. Lulu.com. p. 57. ISBN 9781300161431. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  • Anderson, S. E., The Black Holocaust For Beginners, Writers & Readers, 1995.
  • Ani, Marimba, Let The Circle Be Unbroken: The Implications of African Spirituality in the Diaspora. New York: Nkonimfo Publications, 1988 (orig. 1980).
This page was last edited on 14 February 2019, at 06:50
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