To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

MAX Light Rail

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

MAX Light Rail
TriMet MAX logo.svg
Ad-free MAX train of two Type 2 cars on Steel Bridge in 2015.jpg
A westbound Type 2 Blue Line train seen crossing the Steel Bridge in Portland
Overview
LocalePortland, Oregon, U.S.
Transit typeLight rail
Number of lines5
Number of stations97
Daily ridership121,100 (as of 2018)[1]
Annual ridership38,906,694 (as of 2018)[1]
WebsiteMAX Light Rail
Operation
Began operationSeptember 5, 1986
Operator(s)TriMet
Number of vehicles145[2]
Technical
System length60 mi (96.6 km)[2]
Track gauge4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)
(standard gauge)
Electrification750 V DC, overhead catenary[3]

MAX Light Rail (for Metropolitan Area Express) is a light rail system in Portland, Oregon, United States, that is owned and operated by TriMet. Consisting of five lines over a 60-mile (96.6 km) network, it serves 97 stations, connecting the North, Northeast, and Southeast sections of Portland; the suburban communities of Beaverton, Clackamas, Gresham, Hillsboro, and Milwaukie; and Portland International Airport to Portland City Center. With an average daily ridership of 121,100 and just under 39 million annual riders in 2018, MAX is the fourth-busiest light rail system in the United States after comparable light rail services in Los Angeles, Boston, and San Francisco. Lines run on all days of the week with headways often in 15 minutes to as short as five minutes during rush hour.

Among the first second-generation American light rail systems to be built, MAX was conceived as a result of freeway revolts that took place in Portland in the early 1970s. Construction of the Blue Line's inaugural eastside segment, then known as the Banfield light rail project, began in 1982 and completed for the line to commence service on September 5, 1986. The system has since expanded through subsequent extension projects that have built upon the original line, with the Orange Line, opened in 2015, as its latest extension. Future expansion plans include extending Red Line service further west to Hillsboro in 2023 using existing rail infrastructure and, if funding is approved by voters in 2020, a proposed Green Line extension to Southwest Portland, Tigard, and Tualatin is slated for completion in 2027.

MAX is one of three urban rail transit services operating in the Portland metropolitan area, with the other two being the Portland Streetcar and WES Commuter Rail. It provides direct connections to other modes of public transportation, including local and intercity buses at most stations and Amtrak via Union Station.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/2
    Views:
    4 281
    1 521
  • ✪ Evolution of the Portland MAX
  • ✪ 🔴Portland PDX International Airport to Downtown Max Business Travelers Vacation Travel Tourist $2.50

Transcription

5.Sep.2016, the day after this video is uploaded, marks the 30th anniversary of the Portland MAX. So, how did the MAX come to be what it is today? In 1974, well before the first tracks were laid, actually 2 years before the opening of the Metro in DC, politicians were deciding on a new 8-lane superhighway straight through the city of Portland [boo!], when the plans were changed to an above-ground light rail, and in 1986, the MAX opened with a stretch from Gresham’s Cleveland Avenue, west towards downtown Portland, ending at Library/Galleria stations, splitting the tracks into a loop on SW Yamhill and Morrison, ending at a turnaround loop on SW 11th Avenue, still here to this day. The line opened largely on the side of the I-84 highway and NE Holladay St., between Rose Quarter and Gateway, forming what I like to call the “northeast corridor”, (not to be confused with the one between DC and Boston) as it will later be served by three lines. In 1997, the MAX was expanded a bit west to Kings Hill station, near Lincoln High School, and offering services to PGE (now Providence) Park [go, Timbers!]. In 1998, what would become the blue line was completed with an extension far west to Beaverton and Hillsboro, and Trimet’s first, and (currently) only underground station under Washington Park, which I made a video about [here]. 2001 saw the opening of the red line between Library/Galleria and Portland International Airport, giving direct service between the airport and downtown Portland. It also saw the opening of the Portland Streetcar, on what would become the North-South (or NS) line, between NW 23rd Avenue and SW 10th/11th & Clay. The line was extended to Beaverton Transit Center (TC) in 2003. In 2004, the yellow line opened between Library/Galleria and the Expo Center, providing services to North Portland through a second station at the Rose Quarter, making transfers really confusing to newcomers. In 2005, the streetcar was extended south to around SW Harrison, and was further extended in 2006 to meet up with the new Aerial Tram between the OHSU Hospital at the top of the Marquam Hill, and the new and emerging South Waterfront/SoWa district. In 2007, the NS line was finally complete, with the opening of the South Waterfront loop. 2009 was a big year for Trimet, as the completion of the SW 5th/6th Avenue transit mall between Union Station and Portland State University allowed the yellow line to be rerouted to ease congestion. This was also the year the green line opened, from PSU, through the “northeast corridor”, all the way to the Clackamas Town Center mall, providing the first rail services to SE Portland, let alone Clackamas county. Trimet also unveiled its first commuter rail, the Westside Express Service (WES), between Beaverton TC and Wilsonville, connecting most of Washington county. In 2012, a new streetcar line opened, then called the Central Loop (CL) line, between SW 10th/11th & Clay and OMSI, via the Broadway Bridge and the Central Eastside Industrial District (CEID). 2012 also saw the end of the fare zones, and thus, the Fareless Square. Now Trimet riders required only one fare, no matter where they went, but would now have to pay for trips downtown (you win some, you lose some, I guess). Finally, in 2015, the CL line was renamed the A loop for clockwise routes, and the B loop for counter-clockwise routes, connecting at the new Tilikum Crossing, also served by the new orange line, technically an extension of the yellow line, through inner SE Portland and Milwaukie, leaving us with what we have today, with the MAX map’s distinctive lizard-like look. In the future, Trimet is likely to expand in many ways, like a new MAX line to Tualatin, an extension of the blue line to Cornelius and Forest Grove, and further projects like more streetcars, green or orange line to Oregon City, or yellow line to Vancouver… actually that was cancelled in 2010, but you get what I mean!

Contents

History

Background

An Oregon Electric train seen in Beaverton
An Oregon Electric train seen in Beaverton

In the early 20th century, privately-funded interurban railways gave Portland one of the largest urban rail systems in the American West, including lines that once extended from Forest Grove through Hillsboro and Gresham to Troutdale.[4] Portland's first trolleys, initially drawn by horse and mule, were introduced in 1872, brought over from San Francisco by Ben Holladay. In 1890, the first electric streetcar service opened in Albina, operated by the Willamette Bridge Railway Company, and the first cable car began running along 5th Avenue in Portland; these lines marked the start of an era of major streetcar line expansion.[5] The East Side Railway Company built the city's first long-distance interurban line in 1892, operating a 16-mile (25.7 km) route between Portland and Oregon City.[6] In 1908, the Oregon Electric Railway introduced a branch service to Forest Grove from its main line depot in Garden Home,[7][8] while the Mount Hood Railway and Power Company operated the Mount Hood Line between Montavilla, Gresham, and Bull Run.[9] In 1912, as Portland's population exceeded 250,000, transit ridership rose to 70 million passengers annually.[10] By the 1920s, streetcars started to decline in line with the rise of the automobile and suburban and freeway development.[11] The region's last two interurban lines, which went to Oregon City and Bellrose (Southeast 136th Avenue), ceased operation in 1958.[12][13]

Early beginnings

An original Bombardier light rail car seen entering the 11th Avenue turnaround loop in 1987
A westbound Blue Line train seen at Willow Creek/Southwest 185th Avenue Transit Center in 2008

In the mid-1970s, Tri-Met began a study for light rail using funds intended for the canceled Mount Hood Freeway and Interstate 505,[14] which were made available by the passage of the Federal-Aid Highway Act in 1973.[15] The proposal became known as the Banfield light rail project, named for the Banfield Freeway—a segment of Interstate 84—that part of the alignment followed. The Tri-Met board approved the project in September 1978.[16] Construction of the 15.1-mile (24.3 km), 27-station route started in March 1982,[17] and the system opened between 11th Avenue in downtown Portland and Gresham on September 5, 1986.[18] Of the project's total cost of $214 million (equivalent to $955 million in 2016 dollars), 83 percent was funded by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (now known as the Federal Transit Administration).[19] Less than two months before opening, Tri-Met adopted the name Metropolitan Area Express, or MAX, for the new system following an employee contest.[20]

As the planning of a second light rail line to the west side gained momentum in the late 1980s, the original MAX line came to be referred to as Eastside MAX, so as to distinguish it from the Westside MAX project.[21] Early proposals called for the westside extension to terminate at 185th Avenue, just west of the border between Hillsboro and Beaverton.[22] Staunch lobbying by Hillsboro and state officials led by Mayor Shirley Huffman pushed the line further west to downtown Hillsboro in 1993.[23] Construction of the 18-mile (29 km) line began in August 1993.[24] The extension opened in two stages: from downtown to Kings Hill/Southwest Salmon Street station in 1997, and then to Hatfield Government Center station, its present western terminus, the following year.[25] The resulting 33-mile (53 km) line began operating as a single, through route on September 12, 1998.[26] It became known as the Blue Line in 2001, after Tri-Met adopted color designations for its separate light rail routes.[27]

South–North proposal

Metro began studying a north–south line in 1979, initially deeming light rail unfeasible.[28] Portland voters approved funding for a light rail study between Portland and Oregon City in November 1990,[29] which Metro completed in 1993.[30] Early proposals projected a route to run from Hazel Dell, Washington south to Clackamas Town Center and Oregon City via Milwaukie.[31][32] Tri-Met formally named the proposal South–North line to acknowledge Clackamas County's support of the region's past light rail projects.[33] In November 1994, Tri-Met introduced a $475-million ballot measure to fund the line's share in Oregon that received 63-percent support from voters.[33] Clark County voters subsequently rejected Washington's portion in February 1995,[34] prompting Tri-Met to downsize the plan and abandon the Clark County and North Portland segments up to the Rose Quarter.[35] In July 1995, the Oregon House of Representatives approved a $750-million transportation package that included $375 million for the scaled-back light rail line,[36] The Oregon Supreme Court invalidated the funding package in January 1996 due to its inclusion unrelated measures,[29] which violated the state's Constitution.[37] The legislature met again to approve another $375 million package in February,[29] but opponents forced a statewide vote that defeated it in November.[38]

Following the proposal's defeat, surveys conducted with local leaders in December 1996 revealed that the region remained in support of light rail.[39] A new proposal followed, placing the line between Lombard Street in North Portland and Clackamas Town Center.[40] In early 1997, Metro and Tri-Met proposed building the line without contributions from either Clark County or the state; funding would be sourced from Clackamas County and Portland instead. The proposal drew opposition from Milwaukie residents and forced a campaign that recalled the Milwakie mayor and city council in December 1997. In August 1998, Tri-Met placed another ballot measure to reaffirm voter support for the originally-approved $475-million funds.[33] The measure failed by 52 percent in November 1998, effectively canceling plans to build the proposed line.[41]

Later extensions

In 1997, Bechtel submitted an unsolicited proposal to design and build the planned extension to Portland International Airport in exchange for development rights to the Portland International Center—later renamed Cascade Station. A public–private partnership was negotiated and the Airport MAX project began construction in 1999. With no federal assistance requested and public right-of-way already secured, the 5.5-mile (8.9 km) extension opened for Red Line service in September 2001.[42] In 2003, the Red Line was extended to Beaverton Transit Center amid strong ridership in the westside corridor. In 1999, North Portland residents expressed their desire for what remained of the South–North plan, prompting officials to move forward with the Interstate MAX project that broke ground in 2000 and completed in May 2004;[33] it was designated the Yellow Line and initially ran from Expo Center in North Portland to 11th Avenue in downtown Portland, following the Blue and Red line downtown alignment starting from the east end of the Steel Bridge.

In 2001, Metro conducted two studies that revisited light rail in Clackamas County: one from Gateway Transit Center to Clackamas Town Center via Interstate 205, and the other from downtown Portland to Milwaukie via the Hawthorne Bridge.[43] Both proposals were approved in 2003.[44][45] The I-205/Portland Mall light rail project began in January 2007 with the reconstruction of the Portland Transit Mall.

Infrastructure

Lines

Schematic map of MAX Light Rail and WES Commuter Rail lines
Schematic map of MAX Light Rail and WES Commuter Rail lines

The MAX system consists of five lines, each designated by a color. The use of colors to distinguish the separately-operated routes was first adopted in 2000[27] and brought into use in 2001.[46] All five lines traverse downtown Portland; the Blue and Red lines from west to east via Southwest Yamhill and Southwest Morrison streets and the Green, Orange, and Yellow lines from north to south via the Portland Transit Mall on Southwest 5th and Southwest 6th avenues. All lines except the Orange Line cross the Steel Bridge and pass through the Rose Quarter, although conversely, the Orange Line is the only MAX service that travels across Tilikum Crossing. Moreover, the Green Line is the only line that shares parts of its route with all of the other lines.[47]

Line Commenced Last extension Stations Termini
Blue Line[48] September 5, 1986 1998 51 Hatfield Government Center
(Hillsboro)
Cleveland Avenue
(Gresham)
Green Line[49] September 12, 2009 30 PSU South
(PSU)
Clackamas Town Center TC
(Clackamas)
Orange Line[50] September 12, 2015 17 Union Station
(City Center)
Southeast Park Avenue
(Milwaukie)
Red Line[51] September 10, 2001 2003 29 Beaverton TC
(Beaverton TC)
Portland International Airport
(Airport)
Yellow Line[52] May 1, 2004 2009 17 Expo Center
(Expo Center)
PSU South
(City Center)

Network

The MAX rail network is 59.7 miles (96.1 km) long. It was built in a series of six separate projects, and each line runs over one or more of the previously opened segments. The Yellow Line, which opened in 2004 following the completion of the Interstate MAX project, originally followed the same route into downtown Portland as the Red and Blue lines along First Avenue, Morrison Street, and Yamhill Street; it was shifted to a new alignment along the Portland Transit Mall in 2009, introducing light rail service to the corridor.[53][54]

Project Opened Line(s) End points New
stations
Length Construction Cost
(mi) (km)
Eastside (Banfield)[55] September 5, 1986 Blue, Green, Red 31 (27
originally)
15.1 24.3 March 1982–September 1986 $214 million
Westside[56] September 12, 1998 Blue, Red
  • Hatfield Government Center
  • Library/Southwest 9th Avenue and Galleria/Southwest 10th Avenue
20 17.6 28.3 July 1993–September 1998 $963 million
Airport[57] September 10, 2001 Red 4 5.6 9.0 May 1999–September 2001 $125 million
Interstate[58] May 1, 2004 Yellow 10 5.8 9.3 November 2000–May 2004 $350 million
Portland Transit Mall[59] August 30, 2009 Green, Orange, Yellow 14 (7 per direction) 1.8 2.9 February 2007–September 2009 $575.7 million
I-205[59] September 12, 2009 Green
  • Gateway/Northeast 99th Avenue Transit Center
  • Clackamas Town Center Transit Center
8 6.5 10.5
Portland–Milwaukie[60] September 12, 2015 Orange 10 7.3 11.7 June 2011–September 2015 $1.49 billion
Total 97 59.7 96  

Stations

A two-car train at the Clackamas Town Center Transit Center platform
A two-car train at the Clackamas Town Center Transit Center platform

97 stations are served by the MAX. Of these, 51 stations are served by the Blue Line, 29 by the Red Line, 28 by the Green Line, 17 by the Orange Line, and 17 by the Yellow Line. Moreover, 32 stations are served by two lines and eight stations are served by three lines.[47] Eleven stations operate as transit centers, providing connections to local and regional bus services.[61] Additionally, WES Commuter Rail connects to Beaverton Transit Center as its northern terminus.[62] Riders may connect to Amtrak at Union Station via Union Station/Northwest 6th & Hoyt Street and Union Station/Northwest 5th & Glisan Street and to the Portland Streetcar at points in downtown Portland and the Central Eastside where lines intersect. The system's central stations, where all trains connect, encompass Pioneer Courthouse and Pioneer Courthouse Square; these are Pioneer Courthouse/Southwest 6th and Pioneer Place/Southwest 5th served by the Green, Orange, and Yellow lines and Pioneer Square South and Pioneer Square North served by the Blue and Red lines, respectively.[47]

A majority of MAX stations are at-grade. Exceptions include Washington Park, the system's only underground station as well as North America's deepest transit station at 260 feet (79.2 m) below the ground, Sunset Transit Center, SE Bybee Boulevard, and several stations along the I-205 and Banfield freeways. Platforms are about 200 feet (61 m) long.[63]

TriMet commissioned Zimmer Gunsul Frasca to design the system's 27 original stations, which earned the firm a Progressive Architecture Award in 1984.[64] MAX stations vary in size, but are generally simple and austere. As is typical of light rail systems, there are no faregates or specially segregated areas. Stations outside of downtown have platforms and entrance halls, while most stations in downtown are little more than streetcar-style stops. Official concessionaires sometimes open coffee shops at stations.

Accessibility and safety

A high-floor Bombardier light rail car and a wayside lift seen at Oak Street station in 1987
A high-floor Bombardier light rail car and a wayside lift seen at Oak Street station in 1987

Stations on the original MAX line were built with wayside lifts to accommodate riders with disabilities on the high-floor, first generation vehicles. The lifts were installed on each station platform, rather than on the trains, to prevent malfunctions from potentially delaying services.[65] Increased use of the lifts ultimately became the cause of delays.[66] Additionally, many users felt stigmatized by the lifts' "box" design and time-consuming operation.[67] Following the passing into law of the Americans with Disabilities (ADA) Act of 1990, TriMet began considering changes to enhance accessibility with the submission of a paratransit plan to the FTA in January 1992.[68] Before the commencement of the Westside MAX project, the MAX became the first light rail system in North America to obtain low-floor vehicles after a TriMet study of European systems.[66] The first low-floor cars, which were designed by Siemens, entered service in August 1997.[67]

In 2011, TriMet began upgrading sections of the Blue Line to improve pedestrian safety and compliance with updated ADA standards.[69] In 2013, pipe barriers were installed at Gateway/Northeast 99th Avenue Transit Center platform crossings to force pedestrians to slow down and face oncoming trains before crossing the tracks. In 2014, TriMet realigned sidewalks and crosswalks at four at-grade crossings in Gresham. Other improvements made throughout the line include pedestrian warning signal installations and tactile paving upgrades.[70]

Future

Proposed extensions

Red Line Extension to Washington County Fair Complex (Beaverton TC – Fair Complex/Hillsboro Airport):

  • Projected opening: 2021
  • Route: From the Red Line terminus at Beaverton Transit Center to the Washington County Fair Complex in Hillsboro via existing Blue Line track serving 10 existing stations. On the east side, TriMet would reconfigure the Red Line approach and add a second platform to Gateway Transit Center Station.[71]

Downtown Portland – Tualatin (Lincoln Street/SW 3rd – Bridgeport Village):

  • Projected opening: 2027[72]
  • Route: From PSU to Tualatin via Tigard along dedicated lanes on Barbur Boulevard.[73] In May 2016, light rail was chosen as the mode over bus rapid transit,[74] with the project expected to cost $2.5 billion.[75] Proposals to serve Marquam Hill/OHSU, Hillsdale, and PCC Sylvania with tunnels were dropped from the plan because they would be costly, have severe construction impacts, and attract few new transit riders.[76][77] Connecting OHSU to a surface transit line though elevators or escalators is being studied.[78] As of June 2018, the Southwest Corridor project is expected to cost $2.64 to $2.86 billion to construct.[79]

Cancelled extensions

Yellow Line Extension to Vancouver, WA (Expo Center – Marshall Center/Clark College):

  • Former projected opening: 2019; length: 2.9 miles (4.7 km); stations: 5
  • Route: From Expo Center to Clark College in Vancouver. This Yellow Line extension would have served Hayden Island and Vancouver, and initial planning for it took place in conjunction with the Columbia River Crossing project. Tracks in Vancouver would have been laid out as a northbound and southbound couplet on Broadway and Washington, respectively. This couplet would have merged onto 17th before terminating at Clark College. In February 2010, it was projected that construction could begin in 2014 for the Washington segment, 2015 for the Oregon segment.[80] In March 2014, the extension was canceled along with the Columbia River Crossing after the State of Washington pulled out of the project and the Oregon Legislature voted against the state continuing to fund it solely.[81]

The Yellow line MAX extension into Vancouver remains part of Metro's 2040 Plan. Per their 2018 RTP (ID-10902), [82] it shows $4.1 Billion for the entire project. There is $850 million for mass transit, $3.1 billion for a replacement Interstate Bridge, and $80 million for a second bridge, connecting Hayden Island to north Portland's Expo Center. The SW WA Regional Transportation Council (RTC) has a Yellow line extension into Vancouver in their 2035 plan.[83]

Other extensions

TriMet has indicated that additional extensions have been studied or discussed with Metro and cities in the region.[84][85] These proposed extensions include the following, with light rail being considered along with other alternatives:

  • Extension of either the Orange Line from Milwaukie and/or the Green Line from Clackamas Town Center to Oregon City[84]:67
  • Extension of the Blue Line from Hillsboro to Forest Grove[84]:67
  • Constructing a subway tunnel under downtown Portland[86]

Operations

TriMet's 2015-opened Tilikum Crossing is the only place where MAX shares tracks with the Portland Streetcar system.
TriMet's 2015-opened Tilikum Crossing is the only place where MAX shares tracks with the Portland Streetcar system.

In parts of the MAX system, particularly in central Portland and Hillsboro, MAX trains run on surface streets. Except on the Portland Transit Mall, trains run in reserved lanes closed to other motorized vehicles. On the Transit Mall, trains operate on the same lanes as TriMet buses (although MAX trains have traffic priority). Elsewhere, MAX runs within its own exclusive right-of-way, in street medians, alongside freeways, and on former freight railroad lines.

Where the tracks run in a street median, such as the majority of the Yellow Line and the section of the Blue Line along Burnside Street between Gateway Transit Center and Ruby Junction, intersections are generally controlled by traffic signals which give trains preemption. Where the tracks occupy a completely separate right-of-way, the tracks are protected by automated grade crossing gates. A three-mile (4.8 km) section consists of two tunnels below Washington Park. While this section has only one station, it is 260 feet (79 m) below ground level, making it the deepest transit station in North America[66] and one of the deepest in the world.

Because of Portland's relatively small 200-foot (61 m) downtown blocks, trains operate with only one or two cars (technically, the single-car "trains" are in fact not trains). The MAX cars are about 90 feet (27.4 m) long, so a stopped train consisting of more than two cars would block intersections. All service is typically operated with two-car trains, except for certain trips during late-night hours. During the first few years of Red Line and Yellow Line service, those lines normally used single cars on a portion of their service, but as ridership has grown and additional light rail cars have been acquired, those lines now normally use all two-car trains. The 2009-introduced MAX Mall Shuttle, which provided supplementary service along the Portland Transit Mall on weekday afternoons only, normally always used a single car;[53] it was discontinued in June 2011.[87]

Average Daily Ridership, Jan 2002 thru Nov 2016

The trains operate on direct current and utilize two voltages, 750 V DC nominal on sections west of NE 9th Avenue & Holladay Street and 825V DC nominal on the remainder. The two systems are electrically isolated.[88]

Trains run every 15 minutes from early in the morning until late at night, even on weekends. The Blue Line runs every 10 minutes during rush hour. Headways between trains are shorter in the central section of the system, where lines overlap. Actual schedules vary by location and time of day. At many stations, a live readerboard shows the destination and time-to-arrival of the next several trains, using data gathered by a vehicle tracking system.

Arrival information screens are in place at all stations on the Green Line and Transit Mall, with reader boards on the Yellow Line and some Red Line stations. These show arrival countdowns for trains and information about any service disruptions. After a $180,000 grant from the Federal Transit Administration, TriMet began adding digital displays to Blue and Red Line stations in 2013, initially on the west side, and then on the east side.[89] All MAX stations are expected to be fitted with screens by 2016.

Rolling stock

The interior of a Type 2 car, facing towards the middle section
The interior of a Type 2 car, facing towards the middle section
A MAX train composed of one low-floor car and one high-floor car on the Portland Transit Mall in 2015
A Type 4 light rail vehicle, seen utilized by the Red Line

TriMet operates five models of light rail vehicles, of which two were successive upgrades of the same model. They are designated by the agency as Type 1 through Type 5 and total 145 cars. The models vary in length, from 89 feet (27.1 m) to 95 feet (29.0 m), though all of them are used interchangeably by every line on the network.[90] The first type, Type 1, total 26 vehicles and were manufactured by a joint venture between La Brugeoise et Nivelles and Bombardier beginning in 1983 for the Banfield light rail project.[91] Similar in design to Bombardier vehicles used in Brussels and Rio de Janeiro,[91] the first of the high-floor vehicles arrived in Portland in 1984.[92] Wayside lifts were installed on stations of the original MAX line in order to accommodate riders using mobility devices.

With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Tri-Met officials conducted an accessibility study in 1992 and determined that low-floor cars were the most cost-effective way to provide universal access to the system.[90] Amid preparations for the Westside MAX project, the MAX became the first light rail system in North America to acquire low-floor train sets following the procurement of 35 model SD660 cars, dubbed Type 2, from Siemens in 1993.[93][94] The Type 2 trains, equipped with built-in wheelchair ramps,[95] entered service during the partial opening of the Westside MAX in 1997.[96] In 1999,[97] Tri-Met ordered 17 additional Type 2 cars for the Airport MAX project.[90] The system's 27 Type 3 vehicles, which were ordered as part of the Interstate MAX project and first brought into use in 2003, are the same model as the Type 2 vehicles, with the primary differences being various technical upgrades and a new paint scheme.[90][98]

Twenty-two Siemens S70 low-floor cars, designated Type 4, were purchased in conjunction with the I-205 MAX and Portland Transit Mall projects and were first used in 2009. They feature a more streamlined design, have more seating, and are lighter in weight and therefore more energy-efficient. The Type 4 cars were also the first to use LED-type destination signs.[99] The second series of Siemens S70 cars, TriMet's Type 5 vehicles, were procured for the Portland–Milwaukie light rail project. TriMet placed the order for the Type 5 cars with Siemens in 2012 and delivery commenced in 2014.[100] These vehicles include some improvements over the Type 4 cars, including a less-cramped interior seating layout,[101] and improvements to the air-conditioning system and wheelchair ramps.[102]

The majority of MAX service is provided by two-car consists. Type 2 and 3 vehicles are capable of running singularly, or coupled to another Type 1, 2, or 3 vehicle. Trainsets composed of one low-floor and one high-floor car allowed the removal of wayside lifts from Eastside MAX stations. Type 4 and 5 trains can only be coupled with one another.[90]

Service

Fares

A TriMet ticket vending machine with a ticket validator next to it
A TriMet ticket vending machine with a ticket validator next to it

As is standard practice on North American light rail systems,[103] MAX uses a proof-of-payment fare collection system, and MAX stations do not have ticket barriers.[104] Ticket vending machines at stations accept cash[105] (at least one machine at each station) as well as credit and debit cards, but non-cash payment methods not involving use of a ticket vending machine are also offered. On all of its services, including MAX, TriMet employs an automated fare collection system through a stored-value, contactless smart card called Hop Fastpass.[106] A physical Hop card can be purchased from retail stores.[107] A virtual card is available to Android users.[108] Alternatively, chip-embedded, single-use tickets can be purchased from ticket vending machines located at station platforms.[109] Smartphones with a debit or credit card loaded into Google Pay, Samsung Pay, or Apple Pay can be used as well.[110] Portland Streetcar ticket vending machines also issue 2½-hour tickets and 1-day passes that are valid on MAX.[111]

Prior to each boarding, riders must tap their fare medium to a card reader found at every station.[107] Fares are flat rate and are capped based on usage.[112] Riders may transfer to other TriMet services, C-Tran, and the Portland Streetcar using Hop Fastpass.[113]

Rider 2½-hour ticket Day Pass Month Pass
Adult $2.50 $5 $100
Youth, Honored Citizen $1.25 $2.50 $28

Discontinued services

Portland Vintage Trolley

In addition to regular MAX service, the Portland Vintage Trolley operated on the MAX system from 1991 until 2014, on most weekends, serving the same stops. This service, which operated for the last time in July 2014,[114][115] used 1991-built replicas of 1904 Portland streetcars. Until 2009, the Vintage Trolley service followed a section of the original MAX line, between the Galleria/Library stations and Lloyd Center, but in September 2009 the service moved to the newly opened MAX alignment along the transit mall, running from Union Station to Portland State University,[53][116] and remained on that route in subsequent seasons. In 2011, the service was reduced to only seven or eight Sundays per year,[117] and in July 2014 it was discontinued entirely, with the sale of the two remaining faux-vintage cars to a group planning a streetcar line in St. Louis.[114][115]

Fareless Square

From the MAX system's opening until 2012, riding was free in Fareless Square (known as the Free Rail Zone from 2010 to 2012), which included all of downtown and, starting in 2001, part of the Lloyd District. The 37-year-old fare-free zone was discontinued on September 1, 2012, as part of systemwide cost-cutting measures.[118] As part of the same budget cuts, TriMet discontinued its zonal fares, moving to a flat fare system. Zones had been in place since 1986, with higher fares for longer rides, and three fare zones (five until 1988).[118]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "TriMet Service and Ridership Statistics" (PDF). TriMet. October 5, 2017. Retrieved September 2, 2018.
  2. ^ a b "TriMet At-A-Glance". TriMet. January 2016. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
  3. ^ "Power, Signals and Traffic Interface" (PDF). TriMet. July 2016. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  4. ^ Selinger 2015, p. 7–8.
  5. ^ "A History of Public Transit in Portland". TriMet. Archived from the original on December 7, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  6. ^ "Portland's Interurban Years". TriMet. Archived from the original on December 5, 2018. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  7. ^ "Orenco Area History". TriMet. Archived from the original on December 7, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  8. ^ "Beaverton Central Area History". TriMet. Archived from the original on December 7, 2018. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  9. ^ "Historic Downtown Gresham" (PDF). Metro. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 28, 2018. Retrieved November 28, 2018.
  10. ^ Selinger 2015, p. 8.
  11. ^ Selinger 2015, p. 9.
  12. ^ Thompson, Richard H. (2012). Portland's Interurban Railway. Arcadia Publishing. pp. 61, 93. ISBN 978-0-7385-9617-4.
  13. ^ Selinger 2015, p. 10.
  14. ^ Selinger 2015, p. 30.
  15. ^ Selinger 2015, p. 20.
  16. ^ Hortsch, Dan (September 27, 1978). "Tri-Met board votes to back Banfield light-rail project". The Oregonian. p. F1.
  17. ^ Federman, Stan (March 27, 1982). "At ground-breaking: Festivities herald transitway". The Oregonian. p. A12.
  18. ^ Koberstein, Paul (September 7, 1986). "Riders swamp light rail as buses go half-full and schedules go by the way". The Oregonian. p. A1.
  19. ^ Federman, Stan (September 5, 1986). "All aboard! MAX on track; ride free". The Oregonian. p. A1.
  20. ^ Anderson, Jennifer (May 5, 2006). "Stumptown Stumper". Portland Tribune. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
  21. ^ "Banfield Light Rail Eastside MAX Blue Line" (PDF). TriMet. July 2016. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
  22. ^ United States. Federal Transit Administration (1994). Hillsboro Extension of the Westside Corridor Project, Washington County: Environmental Impact Statement (Report). Federal Transit Administration. p. P1–P5. Retrieved July 29, 2018.
  23. ^ Hamilton, Don (February 23, 2000). "Shirley Huffman, fiery lobbyist, earns praise; Hard work and a sharp phone call put light-rail trains into downtown Hillsboro". The Oregonian. p. E2.
  24. ^ Oliver, Gordon (August 8, 1993). "Groundbreaking ceremonies set to launch project". The Sunday Oregonian. "Westside Light Rail: Making Tracks" (special section), p. R1.
  25. ^ O'Keefe, Mark (September 1, 1997). "New MAX cars smooth the way for wheelchairs". The Oregonian. p. B12.
  26. ^ Oliver, Gordon; Hamilton, Don (September 9, 1998). "Go west young MAX". The Oregonian. p. C1.
  27. ^ a b Stewart, Bill (September 21, 2000). "Local colors roll out: Tri-Met designates the Blue, Red and Yellow lines". The Oregonian. pp. E1, E10.
  28. ^ Stewart, Bill (February 19, 1998). "Vancouver light rail rears head again". The Oregonian. p. E2.
  29. ^ a b c "Some light-rail history". The Oregonian. October 7, 1996. p. A8.
  30. ^ Oliver, Gordon (March 7, 1993). "Decisions to be made soon on north–south light rail". The Oregonian. p. C4.
  31. ^ Leeson, Fred (February 13, 1994). "Planners narrowing options for north–south light-rail line". The Oregonian. p. C5.
  32. ^ McCarthy, Dennis (September 15, 1994). "Light-rail service? On to Oregon City!". The Oregonian. p. D2.
  33. ^ a b c d Selinger 2015, p. 80.
  34. ^ Stewart, Bill (February 8, 1995). "Clark County turns down north–south light rail". The Oregonian. p. A1.
  35. ^ Oliver, Gordon; Stewart, Bill (March 1, 1995). "MAX may skip Clark County, N. Portland". The Oregonian. p. B1.
  36. ^ Green, Ashbel S.; Mapes, Jeff (August 4, 1995). "Legislature is finally working on the railroad". The Oregonian. p. A1.
  37. ^ Spicer, Osker (January 31, 1996). "Light-rail would be good for areas". The Oregonian. p. C2.
  38. ^ Oliver, Gordon; Hunsenberger, Brent (November 7, 1996). "Tri-Met still wants that rail line to Clackamas County". The Oregonian. p. D1.
  39. ^ Oliver, Gordon (December 12, 1996). "Survey revives light-rail plan". The Oregonian. p. B1.
  40. ^ Oliver, Gordon (February 12, 1997). "South–north light-rail issue keeps on going". The Oregonian. p. A1.
  41. ^ Oliver, Gordon (November 7, 1998). "South–north line backers find themselves at a loss after election day defeat". The Oregonian. p. B1.
  42. ^ Selinger 2015, p. 82.
  43. ^ Rose, Joseph (May 8, 2001). "New MAX plan tries the double-team approach". The Oregonian. p. D1.
  44. ^ Leeson, Fred (March 27, 2003). "TriMet board agrees to plan for southeast light-rail lines". The Oregonian. p. C2.
  45. ^ Oppenheimer, Laura (April 18, 2003). "Metro gives final OK to MAX lines". The Oregonian. p. D6.
  46. ^ Briggs, Kara (August 29, 2001). "Airport MAX light-rail service in sight". The Oregonian. p. C2.
  47. ^ a b c Rail System Map with transfers (PDF) (Map). TriMet. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
  48. ^ "MAX Blue Line Map and Sechdule". TriMet. Retrieved November 2, 2008.
  49. ^ "MAX Green Line Map and Sechdule". TriMet. Retrieved September 12, 2009.
  50. ^ "MAX Orange Line Map and Sechdule". TriMet. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
  51. ^ "MAX Red Line Map and Sechdule". TriMet. Retrieved November 2, 2008.
  52. ^ "MAX Yellow Line Map and Sechdule". TriMet. Retrieved November 2, 2008.
  53. ^ a b c Morgan, Steve (2010). "Expansion for Portland's MAX: New routes and equipment". Passenger Train Journal. White River Productions, Inc. 33 (1 – First quarter 2010): 38–40.
  54. ^ "New MAX line opens downtown". Portland Tribune. August 28, 2009. Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. Retrieved May 17, 2015.
  55. ^ "Eastside MAX Blue Line Project History". TriMet. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
  56. ^ "Westside MAX Blue Line Project History". TriMet. Archived from the original on March 31, 2015. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
  57. ^ "Airport MAX Red Line Project History". TriMet. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
  58. ^ "Interstate MAX Yellow Line Project History". TriMet. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
  59. ^ a b "MAX Green Line Project History". TriMet. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
  60. ^ "Portland-Milwaukie Light Rail Project" (PDF). TriMet. June 2014. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  61. ^ "Transit Centers". TriMet. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  62. ^ WES Commuter Rail (Map). TriMet. Retrieved December 1, 2018.
  63. ^ Running, Jim (August 18, 1983). "16-block tear-up for light-rail delayed". The Oregonian. p. B1.
  64. ^ Murphy, Jim (November 1986). "Portland transit system inaugurated". Progressive Architecture. Vol. 67. p. 25+.
  65. ^ "Banfield Light Rail Eastside MAX Blue Line" (PDF). TriMet. July 2016. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
  66. ^ a b c "Westside Light Rail MAX Blue Line extension (fact sheet)" (PDF). TriMet. November 2009. Retrieved January 23, 2011.
  67. ^ a b Selinger 2015, p. 54.
  68. ^ Selinger 2015, p. 53.
  69. ^ Nunez, Jenifer (November 14, 2013). "TriMet begins pedestrian safety upgrades along MAX Blue Line". RT&S. Archived from the original on August 3, 2018. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
  70. ^ Murphy, Angela (November 13, 2013). "Renew the Blue moving forward along Eastside MAX Blue Line". TriMet News. Archived from the original on August 3, 2018. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  71. ^ Howard, John (October 26, 2017). "TriMet considering expansion of MAX Red Line to county fairgrounds". Portland Tribune. Retrieved November 7, 2017.
  72. ^ Theen, Andrew (November 2, 2018) [online date November 1]. "Council gives SW MAX line unanimous OK". The Oregonian. p. 1. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
  73. ^ "Southwest Corridor Plan". Metro. Retrieved September 3, 2014.
  74. ^ Njus, Elliot (May 9, 2016). "Committee picks light rail for SW Corridor transit project". The Oregonian. Retrieved May 10, 2016.
  75. ^ Haas, Ryan (November 8, 2016). "Tigard Voters Saying Yes To Light Rail Plan". Oregon Public Broadcasting. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
  76. ^ Tims, Dana (July 14, 2015). "No deep tunnel for OHSU: Southwest Corridor plan". The Oregonian. Retrieved July 20, 2015.
  77. ^ Beebe, Craig (May 10, 2016). "Leaders decide: Light rail for Portland to Bridgeport Village, no PCC tunnel". Metro News. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
  78. ^ Beebe, Craig (July 13, 2015). "Southwest Corridor leaders drop Marquam Hill/Hillsdale tunnels, leave door open on Sylvania option". Metro News. Retrieved July 20, 2015.
  79. ^ Mesh, Aaron (June 13, 2018). "The Price Tag on Light Rail to Bridgeport Village Has Grown by Nearly a Billion Dollars". Willamette Week. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
  80. ^ "Columbia River Crossing information packet". ODOT, WSDOT. February 2010. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
  81. ^ Manning, Jeff (March 7, 2014). "Columbia River Crossing: ODOT to pull plug, bridge project is dead". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 3, 2014.
  82. ^ https://www.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=73e94a0343ea487e82b4830fead7c88e&extent=-13751666.1848%2C5656339.7069%2C-13586562.2037%2C5748675.6371%2C102100
  83. ^ https://www.rtc.wa.gov/reports/rtp/Rtp2014ClarkProjectsMapE.pdf
  84. ^ a b c "Transit Investment Plan FY 2012" (PDF). TriMet. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
  85. ^ Rivera, Dylan (September 5, 2009). "MAX Green Line signals decades of rail growth". The Oregonian. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
  86. ^ Njus, Elliot (June 14, 2017). "City planners float idea of subway tunnel through downtown Portland". The Oregonian. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
  87. ^ Rose, Joseph (June 3, 2011). "TriMet will make several seasonal bus line adjustments Sunday". The Oregonian. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
  88. ^ "One Breakpoint is Enough: Traction Power Simulation in Portland" (PDF). Transportation Research Board. Retrieved May 1, 2010.
  89. ^ Blevins, Drew (July 23, 2013). "We're adding arrival screens at more Blue and Red Line MAX stations". How We Roll. TriMet. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
  90. ^ a b c d e "TriMet's Rail Vehicle Fleet" (PDF). TriMet. July 2016. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  91. ^ a b "'Roomy, good-looking' light-rail cars please Tri-Met official". The Sunday Oregonian. November 27, 1983. p. B5.
  92. ^ "First car for light rail delivered". The Oregonian. April 11, 1984. p. C4.
  93. ^ Oliver, Gordon (April 15, 1993). "Tri-Met prepares to purchase 37 low-floor light-rail cars". The Oregonian. p. D4.
  94. ^ Vantuono, William C. (July 1993), "Tri-Met goes low-floor: Portland's Tri-Met has broken new ground with a procurement of low-floor light rail vehicles. The cars will be North America's first low-floor LRVs.", Railway Age: 49–51
  95. ^ Vantuono, William C. (February 12, 2016). "Retractable bridge plates a first for Brightline". Railway Age. Archived from the original on July 10, 2018. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  96. ^ O'Keefe, Mark (September 1, 1997). "New MAX cars smooth the way for wheelchairs". The Oregonian. p. B12.
  97. ^ Stewart, Bill (June 17, 1999). "Light-rail line to PDX starting to take shape". The Oregonian. p. B1.
  98. ^ Leeson, Fred (August 14, 2002). "Hyphen and '70s hues left by the wayside". The Oregonian. p. C1.
  99. ^ Redden, Jim (August 6, 2009). "TriMet puts new light-rail cars on track". Portland Tribune. Archived from the original on August 31, 2009. Retrieved May 17, 2015.
  100. ^ Tramways & Urban Transit magazine, July 2015, p. 289. UK: LRTA Publishing. ISSN 1460-8324.
  101. ^ Rose, Joseph (July 31, 2012). "TriMet asks cramped MAX riders to help design next-generation train's seating". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
  102. ^ "PMLR Type 5 LRV Fact Sheet" (PDF). TriMet. March 2015. Retrieved May 17, 2015.
  103. ^ Larwin, Thomas F.; Koprowski, Yung (November 2013). "Off-Board Fare Payment Using Proof-of-Payment Verification". Transportation Research Board. Retrieved November 26, 2018. Since the late 1970s POP verification has become the standard fare collection technique employed by all modern light rail transit systems in North America.
  104. ^ Rose, Joseph (March 20, 2015). "Fare turnstiles coming to Portland-Milwaukie MAX stations". The Oregonian. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  105. ^ "Ticket Machines". TriMet. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
  106. ^ "NXP helps the Portland-Vancouver Metro region move intelligence to the cloud with the new Hop Fastpass™ Transit Card used on Buses, the Light Rail and Streetcars". NXP Blog. October 9, 2017. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
  107. ^ a b Altstadt, Roberta (February 8, 2018). "Major retailers continue selling paper tickets as Hop Fastpass™ rollout continues". TriMet News. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  108. ^ Altstadt, Roberta (April 16, 2018). "Portland's Virtual Hop Fastpass™ transit card now available to all Google Pay users". TriMet News. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  109. ^ Altstadt, Roberta (May 16, 2018). "Hop Fastpass™ fare system takes more leaps forward with ticket machine, retail store transitions". TriMet News. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  110. ^ Lum, Brian (August 22, 2017). "You Can Now Use Hop With Just Your Phone". How We Roll, TriMet. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  111. ^ "Fare Info: How to Purchase Fares". Portland Streetcar Inc. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  112. ^ Njus, Elliot (July 10, 2017). "Hop Fastpass: The pros and cons of TriMet's new e-fare system". The Oregonian. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  113. ^ "Hop fares". TriMet. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  114. ^ a b "Vintage Trolley Has Ceased Operation". Portland Vintage Trolley website. September 2014. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
  115. ^ a b "Portland double-track is brought into use". Tramways & Urban Transit. LRTA Publishing. November 2014. p. 454.
  116. ^ "Vintage Trolley 2012 Schedule on the Portland Mall". Portland Vintage Trolley website. Archived from the original on February 1, 2013. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  117. ^ Tramways & Urban Transit, April 2011, p. 152. LRTA Publishing Ltd.
  118. ^ a b Bailey Jr., Everton (August 30, 2012). "TriMet boosts most fares starting Saturday; some routes changing". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 3, 2012.

Work cited

External links

This page was last edited on 20 March 2019, at 07:10
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.