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Lviv Dormition Brotherhood

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Typographic seal of Lviv Dormition Brotherhood
Typographic seal of Lviv Dormition Brotherhood
Lviv Dormition Brotherhood coat of arms at the entrance to Stauropegion Institute in Lviv
Lviv Dormition Brotherhood coat of arms at the entrance to Stauropegion Institute in Lviv
An epistle of the Patriarch of Antioch to the Lviv Orthodox Brotherhood
An epistle of the Patriarch of Antioch to the Lviv Orthodox Brotherhood

Lviv Dormition Brotherhood (Ukrainian: Львівське успенське братство) also known as Lviv Stauropegion Brotherhood was an influential religious organization associated with the Dormition Church in Lviv and one of the oldest Brotherhood Orthodox organizations. It was first an association of Orthodox and then, from 1708, also Greek Catholic burghers in Lviv.[1] Like other brotherhoods in Ukraine, it is also a military force tasked with defending the Orthodox church and the faith, particularly against Polish and Latin influences.[2]

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  • ✪ Gologory Гологори - Золочів - Львів - Україна Ukraine Castle Lviv Zolochiv

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Village of Hologory (Bare Mountains) in Zolochiv district Lviv region is located among the low woodland mountains on the banks of the Zolota Lypa river (Gold Linden river) which flows from Maidan Golhirsky village and falls into the river Dnister. Gologory was f><ounded in 1099, and in the year 1144 were mentioned in the Laurentian Chronicle and in 1232 - in the Galician-Volyn annals, in times of King Danylo Gologory originally belonged to Zvenigorod principality, and from 1140 - to Galitsky principality. Gologory was a defensive city-stronghold, in which a Galician prince Volodymyr - Volodymyr Volodarevich "Vladimirko") (* 1104 - † 1152) the father of powerful Prince Osmomysl - felt safe before Vsevolod the Big Nest, (his uncle, Prince Vsevolod III Yuryevich of Vladimir) did not even try to make siege here, and instead went to Zvenigorod (according to the chronicle), For Volodymyr stood his ground on bare mountains. A great importance in the defense of the city There were also large blacks (shingles / gorges) between the villages of Gologirka, Trudvodch and Wall. The Tatar invasion, the started during Prince Danylo's reign, (1253–1264) caused major consequences for Gogory- then a princely fortress city and castle, - that was turned into remnants of fortifications of the settlement, and everything built from wood was destroyed. But, despite the Tatar and Turkish raids which did not cease, Gologory not only survived the hardship, but grew larger with buildings built mainly of stone. Gologory Castle, originally constructed with cut stones (the exact date of construction is unknown), was (after the siege) rebuilt in 1441, had a defensive meaning: with 4 sides and 4 towers, shaded and moat with water, a lift bridge served as an entrance to the castle In case of an attack of Tatars the population of the city would hide inside it's walls because the castle had a hidden underground exit leading to the woods of neighboring Gologirky (small bare mountains) The underground tunnels were fairly spacious and have survived until recently. According to the old-timers, those underground passages already in recent times were visited by brave men, but when their candles would fade, they returned. The people from church fraternity also attempted to enter from the Catherdal but after passing a certain distance of those passages, people turned back, because their light would quench, possibly from lack of air or a collapse. Hence on the ruins of the old city, among the picturesque hills, along the Zolota Lypa River Gologory again and again revived. But this historical landmark of Gologory the castle was completely destroyed under Soviet rule. In the 1950's it's stones were used to lay out the road and the construction of a collective farm. Another outstanding historical monument in Gologory was St. Anne Cathedral, built between 1400-1435 hand-cut stone, which survived in good condition until our times. during the liberation battles of 1945, to deprive the punitive bodies of the NKVD of supervisory platforms, the UPA troops destroyed the Cathedral's top. But this did not stop. the actions of the Soviet police. They found other units for observation such as a former forest man's tower, They decided to demolish the Cathedral completely, Once destroyed, in its place were left only a part of the ruined walls and a large pile of scattered stones. There still remain very interesting tombstones on the old cemetery - belongint to Sofia Volska and her husband A. Seninsky from Gologory village, performed by Lviv sculptor by the name of Yakiv around 1580-1590 transferred to the museum of the Olesko Castle And two tombstones from 1545 with the coats of arms of the rulers of Gologory are stored in the Lviv National Art Gallery their sizes are: 1.58x0.92m, and 1.82x0.84m., each 15cm. thick The most remarkable monument of the city's struggle with the Tatar invasions preserved to this day - a monument erected on the grave of the city's defenders, who died in battle with Tatars in 1442. This column - a statue of St. Mark, - is made of brick and stone it stands on a high hill opposite the former castle and is visible from afar above the town, The image of St. Mark (most likely bronze) was at the top of the monument but has not survived to this day. Before the war a statue of Christ, was placed on its crown Evangelists were depicted on the sides, from which today there is no sign. preserved for the longest time was the drawing of St. Mark, just as the monument is called: St. Mark's. Also, according to legend a Turkish Pasha could be buried here, who perished at the сapture of the city. The largest development in town occured from the beginning of the XV century., It becomes a large trading center. Gologory kept expanding and growing trade. At the same time, the consciousness and culture of the burghers progressed. Soon church brotherhoods would form. Thus Gologory received the Magdeburg right (in 1365, and 1469), according to which inhabitants were free and independent of the king (prince). The Polish kings called it a free royal city. From the year 1515 Gologory officialy became a city (until 1939). This in turn contributed to the growth of national consciousness of the local population. At that time In Gologory the church brotherhood was formed on statutes and under the leadership of Lviv and Uspensky (Dormition Church) fraternities. At the time there were four churches: wooden - St. Nicholas in the center of the city (near the cemetery), which burnt down a long time ago In it's place, on the hill, Up to our time there was a cross and two stale linden trees. The road curved around this slope. During the Soviet era, a new road was built straight across the village, those linden trees were cut down and the cemetery was partially destroyed. the villagers witnessing this came and collected the excavated remains of former graves into wooden chests and rebuild them at the new cemetery of Gologory. Since Ukraine's independence a large wooden cross was put there to commemorate the old cemetery. Later, in honor of the 10th anniversary of Independence of Ukraine, to the right of the cross a figure of Holy Mary was added. Later in the same place a symbolic monument was added to fellow villagers - victims of the communist terror 1939 -1953 years. The Church of St. Georgiy - built from wood, from 1592 - burned down during the First World War, a new one was rebuilt from stone instead (between 1927-1931) St. Yura (Saint George), constantly acting. Church of Holy Trinity (1630). in Volya part of the city , rebuilt in 1870 In this church there is a very beautiful iconostasis During the Soviet era this church was closed and opened only in 1991, and operates today. Church of Holy Trinity in Volya part of the village was very damaged during the First World War, especially the top and side walls, it once belonged to Volya parish in Gologory In the center of the village, Maidan Gologirsky on a high hill, among centuries-old linden trees, another wooden church of St. Onufriy (Onuphrius), built in 1727, operated until 1955 During the storm this church was destroyed, and in it's place a new one was built, also wooden. In the XVIth century, in connection with the development of the city, the influx of Jews into Gologory began, This led to a rapid increase of Jewish population in town. Mainly they were engaged in trade and had their temple - the synagogue and a school, their own cemetery (called okopisko) on the mountain, left of the tower of St. Mark, where a man resided who looked after this cemetery. Gologory previously occupied quite a large territory, where there were several large streets and a number of squatters. Zayura Street, located near the church St. Yura (St. Georcge Church), is quite big. In the center were once located administrative buildings: municipality, post office, a school, the police, and most of the stores. Large array of Volya (part of town) with the church of St. Trinity, Krupki, southern part of the village "beyond the pond". In these dense settlements, around the Jewish temple most potters was located, as well as tanners who treated leather Near the Zolota Lypa (Gold Linden) River. along its right bank and the pond there is Dovha Storona (part of town) "The Long side," In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in the Gologory there were three ponds, four water mills: in Krupki, on the Zolota Lypa river, and in Volya at the pond, which under Soviet Union was drained and turned into a collective farm, and at the end of Dovha Storona, one water mill is still standing on the river near the pond. There was a two-class elementary parochial school, and since 1846 - a four year school, later - six, and then - seven. In 1895 Baron Hirsch founded in the village a private Jewish school, which soon received a state status. In 1901 children of all denominations visited this school. In addition to grammar, the school trained "coopers" (barrel making business). the classes were conducted in Polish, but conscious Ukrainians constantly wrote requests, and declarations to Zolochiv to authorities in power demanding to study in a four-year school along with Polish language in their native Ruthenian (Ukrainian) language. Under Soviet Union due to efforts of then long-term principal of the school Panchuk M.V. a secondary school was organized for students of the villages of Gologory Zashkiv, Gologirky, Vyshnivchik, Chemerynets. At that time the teaching staff was replenished by young teachers from Eastern Ukraine, All our teachers were superb specialists. So the school's first commencement of our 10th grade consisted of 18 people and happened in 1947 From our graduating class the majority have received higher education, Before the war there was a local administrative building in Gologory serving 12 villages, police, pharmacy, one doctor, photographer, chimney sweepers and even 120 meters of pavement, and also beautiful flower beds in the city center a few grocery stores and, as they used to call, manufactured goods shops (fabrics, iron-brackish, leather, tobacco, etc., in general more than 30). There was also a Polish club "Kółko rolnicze" (an agricultural club) A National Home, Ukrainian reading room since 1885, also "Prosvita" (Enlightenment) society, which did a lot of cultural and educational work, "Sich" sports company, registered in 1910, and a gymnastics club "Lug" (Meadow), which also conducted cultural and educational work, it organized various exercises with songs, sticks and ribbons near the library in Volya. The history of Gologory is very complicated, there were many falls and rises especially after World War II The village was annihilated by the attack, the rest was ruined after the war. The buildings in the of former city centre were destroyed, and taken apart, and so not only the image of the city was lost, but gradually the human potential too. In 1968, the population fell to 2339 people, in 1983 - there were only 737 people. The reason for this was a number of factors, namely: between the years 1939-1940 many local intelligentsia, including Poles, especially those who settled on the best soil in Gologory, from Poland (Mazurs), were taken to Siberia. During the German occupation many local people (about 300), especially the youth were taken to Germany for various labor, But Jews (about 700 people), were mostly killed in the camp on the outskirts (village Lyatske until 1946 - today Krasnoe) and in the ghetto. Under Soviet Union Many Poles left for Poland. And between 1945-1950. Many local patriotically-minded Ukrainians, and those who did not join the collective farm in particular were taken to Siberia as "kulaks" Many people abandoned the cillage themselves, to escape persecution of the NKVD. Churches were mostly closed, and those that were open were taxed with high tariffs Of course, All NGOs were banned: "Sich", "Prosvita", Ukrainian women's union and others. For Gologory, came a period of hard, most frightful days of all their history. When the autumn-winter cold began, Dark nights called "the black crows" to arrest politically involved individuals, the "rich" people were deported with their whole families taking their scanty belongings, from their native dwellings which could only be taken by hand horse-drawn carriages to the railroad in Krasne village. There were people in freight wagons And taken to Kemerovo, Irkutsk region, Karaganda and others in Russian Far East most distant from Ukraine, regions of the Soviet Union Most of our people do not get to their destination, many died from serious illness and were thrown out of the train cars onto the road And those who arrived, were settled in the cold wooden hatches or in the desert forests of tundra and taiga. In these terrible conditions, poor settlers often ill, including typhus, and many of them, especially older people and children, soon died. Who measured the pain of mothers for their murdered children? How much tears they poured out! And they wept till the end of their days. For the most part, they could not even bury their children, because they did not know where they were or where they died. It should never be forgotten how hard life was for people in the village, who were left in their homes. The constant raids on the villages of the district authorities, that went demanding a surrender of unattainable contingents from house to house: grains, potatoes, milk, eggs and government loans for the "development of the national economy." All this created unbearable conditions. To this - add frequent raids of whole garrisons the search for "enemies of the people" in the villages. From such supervision so many women and their children suffered! How could a woman bare it in such circumstances, when she prepared food, which had to be transferred to a bunker, hidden in the stall under the shafts, or in the garden, where in the summer from the top grew a garden, and during winter was a pit with potatoes or beets. There hid young men - members of the UPA, Ukrainian Insurgent Army often high executives and waited calmly to be instructed through signals All the while the garrisons lodged in their homes What must that woman have felt! Such were our mothers, sisters and brothers, and our parents - true national heroes! Honor and glory to them for saving people, often without thinking about themselves. And all this is because they lived with God.

Contents

Overview

The organization possessed stauropegion rights and oversaw not only activities of its secular members, but also clergy and sometimes bishops. Members of any estate had a chance to join the brotherhood. Money contributed to the society were used to fund Monastery and church of St. Onuphrius and Dormition Church. With the help of the brotherhood, Lviv Orthodox eparchy which was liquidated by the Kingdom of Poland after annexation of Galicia (part of Galicia–Volhynia Wars) was revived in 1539.

Lviv Dormition Brotherhood had its own publishing house, operated hospitals, orphanages, elderly homes and provided other community services. It also founded a school in 1585 and campaigned against clerics who neglect their religious duties.[3] It was also a military force that fought the Polish and Latin influences although it capitulated to the latter, subsequently joining Unia or the Eastern Catholic Churches in the eighteenth century.[2]

Its first recorded organizational statute was approved by Patriarch of Antioch Joachim IV in 1586.

In 1708 it finally accepted the Union of Brest.

Following the partitions of Poland, in 1788 the Austrian authorities liquidated the organizations which was reformed into the Stauropegion Institute.

In 1989 Lviv Dormition Brotherhood was revived on the efforts of Volodymyr Yarema who at that time was a priest of the Moscow's Patriarchate Church of Peter and Paul. Since fall of the Soviet Union, it is associated with Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church.

See also

References

  1. ^ Katchanovski, Ivan; Kohut, Zenon E.; Nebesio, Bohdan Y.; Yurkevich, Myroslav (2013). Historical Dictionary of Ukraine, Second Edition. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. p. 339. ISBN 9780810878471.
  2. ^ a b DMin, Rev Fr Robert Holet (2013). The First and Finest. Bloomington, IN: Author House. p. 156. ISBN 9781491821367.
  3. ^ Stone, Daniel Z. (2014). The Polish-Lithuanian State, 1386-1795. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 227. ISBN 9780295803623.

Further reading

  • Isaievych Ia. Volunatary Brotherland: Confraternities of Laymen in Early Modern Ukraine. Edmonton–Toronto, 2006

External links

This page was last edited on 11 July 2019, at 05:09
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