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Gallia Lugdunensis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Provincia Gallia Lugdunensis
Province of the Roman Empire
27–25 BC / 16–13 BC–486
Roman Empire Gallia Lugdunensis.svg

Province of Gallia Lugdunensis highlighted.
CapitalLugdunum
Historical eraAntiquity
• Established after the Gallic wars
27–25 BC / 16–13 BC
260–274
486
Succeeded by
Frankish Empire
Today part of France
The Roman empire in the time of Hadrian (ruled 117–38 AD), showing, in central Gaul, the imperial province of Gallia Lugdunensis (north/central France). Note that the coast lines shown on the map are those of today, known to be different from those in Roman times in parts of Gallia Lugdunensis.
The Roman empire in the time of Hadrian (ruled 117–38 AD), showing, in central Gaul, the imperial province of Gallia Lugdunensis (north/central France). Note that the coast lines shown on the map are those of today, known to be different from those in Roman times in parts of Gallia Lugdunensis.

Gallia Lugdunensis (French: Gaule Lyonnaise) was a province of the Roman Empire in what is now the modern country of France, part of the Celtic territory of Gaul formerly known as Celtica. It is named after its capital Lugdunum (today's Lyon), possibly Roman Europe's major city west of Italy, and a major imperial mint. Outside Lugdunum was the Sanctuary of the Three Gauls, where representatives met to celebrate the cult of Rome and Augustus.

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  • ✪ NEHALENNIA: Pagan Goddess of the North Sea (Roman - Gaulish - Germanic Deity)

Transcription

What’s up guys! This is TIMOTHEVS! Today I’ll talk about Nehalennia. She was a local Goddess that was worshiped in Roman times in the area where the river Schelde flows into the North Sea in what is now the province of Zeeland (the Netherlands). There is evidence of temples dedicated to Nehalennia at at least 2 locations in this area: one in Domburg and one in Colijnsplaat. Since the rediscovery of these sacred sites (the one in Domburg was rediscovered as early as the 17th century), hundreds of altars and pieces of altars have been dredged up from the bay alongside a considerable number of other finds including roof tiles and bowls. The temples were probably in use during the 2nd and 3rd century. The altars are constructed in a Roman fashion: A relief of the Goddess, typically in a shell-headed niche, with a formulaic Latin inscription. It seems likely that the worship of Nehalennia predates the Roman era though. She probably was a Germanic or Gaulish Goddess that was later Romanised. Altar reliefs of Nehalennia are remarkably similar: She is usually shown seated with a fruit basket on Her lap, next to Her on the floor, or both, and on the other side, there’s usually a dog sitting right next to Her. With the evidence we have today, it is impossible to determine the meaning of the fruit and the dog with absolute certainty, but in Greco-Roman religion, both have been associated with the Underworld and therefore fertility. Or perhaps Nehalennia’s canine friend should be seen in the light of a now unknown ritual role dogs had in Germanic or Gaulish religion. About 200km from the temples (= 125 miles), in the Belgian city of Tongeren,... dog skulls have been found ritually buried alongside mysterious earthenware plates with edges that were deliberately chipped off. It’s unclear what the purpose of this ritual was. If we knew why the remains of dogs were buried in this way, perhaps it could help us interpret Nehalennia’s altars Another reoccurring attribute in reliefs of Nehalennia, is Her distinct shoulder cape, which gives Her a particularly local appearance. Occasionally, she also carries a staff. On top of Her altars, there usually is no circular depression for burning incense as can be commonly seen on Roman altars. Instead, many Nehalennia altars appear permanently laden with offerings of apples and pears. It seems reasonable to assume that actual pears and apples were also put on top of Her altars. The Latin inscriptions on the altars tell us something about the people who dedicated them. Most supplicants were ship-owners or merchants who wanted to thank Her for granting a safe passage across the sea to Britannia and back. This altar for example reads: To the Goddess Nehalen(n)ia Marcus Exgingius Agricola citizen of Trier and salt merchant in Cologne fulfils his vow, willingly and deservedly. So this gives us a pretty good picture of the kind of people that would have visited the temples to worship Nehalennia. On this map you can see where the temples were located and based on the inscriptions we can say that most supplicants were from: Germania Inferior Germania Superior, Gallia Belgica, or Gallia Lugdunensis. The fact that so many people from all over the area passed by Nehalennia’s temples before or after crossing the sea to Britannia indicates that there must have been an important harbour there. Unfortunately, the coastline has changed quite a bit since Roman times so a lot of artefacts were undoubtedly swallowed by the sea. Looking for them is apparently very difficult as diving conditions in the bay are unpredictable and just not very good in general. In spite of this, a few passionate divers keep on looking for more evidence. Who knows what mysterious treasures are still waiting for them on the bottom of Nehallenia’s waters? Who knows what mysterious treasures are still waiting for them on the bottom of Nehallenia’s waters? In 2004, a Gallo-Roman style temple was built at Colijnsplaat to give an idea of what the temple might have looked like. As there is no evidence for the exact appearance of the temple, it is no more than an educated guess, but at least Nehalennia is no longer homeless. That was it for this video guys! Don’t forget to hit the like button and if you would like to see more videos on pagan deities and rituals, please subscribe to my channel and check out my playlists! For references, you can click on the link to my blogpost in the description. This was TIMOTHEVS! Thanks for watching!

Contents

History

In De Bello Gallico describing his conquest of Gaul (58–50 BC), Julius Caesar distinguished between provincia nostra in the south of Gaul, which already was a Roman province in his time, and the three other parts of Gaul: the territories of the Aquitani, of the Belgae, and of the Galli also known as the Celtae. The territory of the Galli extended from the rivers Seine and Marne in the north-east, which formed the boundary with Gallia Belgica, to the river Garonne in the south-west, which formed the border with Gallia Aquitania. Under Augustus, Gallia Lugdunensis was created by reducing in size the territory of the Galli: The portion between the river Loire and the Garonne was given to Gallia Aquitania, and central-eastern portions were given to the new province of Germania Superior. The map shows the extent after these reductions. The date of the creation of Gallia Lugdunensis is under discussion, whether between 27 and 25 BC or between 16 and 13 BC, during Augustus' visits to Gaul.

It was an imperial province, deemed important enough to be governed by an imperial legate. After Diocletian's Tetrarchy (AD 296), it was the major province of a diocese confusingly called Galliae ('the Gaul provinces'), to which further only the Helvetic, Belgian (both also Celtic) and German provinces belonged; with the dioceses of Viennensis (the southern provinces of Gaul), Britanniae (also Celtic) and Hispaniae (the whole Celtiberian peninsula) this formed the praetorian prefecture also called Galliae, subordinate to the western emperor.

The province effectively ceased to exist in AD 486 when the Roman general Syagrius was defeated by the invading Franks.

Governors

Fiction

The fictional unconquered village from the French comic book Asterix is located here, on an Armorican peninsula (modern Brittany).

See also

References

  1. ^ Fishwick, Duncan (2005). The Imperial Cult in the Latin West: Studies in the Ruler Cult of the Western Provinces of the Roman Empire. E.J. Brill. p. 347.

External links

This page was last edited on 7 November 2019, at 12:28
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