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Lower Seaboard Theater of the American Civil War

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Lower Seaboard Theater of the American Civil War encompassed major military and naval operations that occurred near the coastal areas of the Southeastern United States: in Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas) as well as southern part of the Mississippi River (Port Hudson and south).

Inland operations are included in the Western Theater or Trans-Mississippi Theater, depending on whether they were east or west of the Mississippi River. Coastal operations in Georgia, including the culmination of Sherman's March to the Sea, are included in the Western Theater.

The campaign classification established by the U.S. National Park Service, [1] which calls these the Lower Seaboard Theater and Gulf Approach operations, is more fine-grained than the one used in this article. Some minor NPS campaigns have been omitted and some have been combined into larger categories. Only a few of the 31 battles the NPS classifies for this theater are described. The Port Royal Expedition of 1861 has been added, although it has not been classified by the NPS. Boxed text in the right margin show the NPS campaigns associated with each section.

1861 cartoon map of Scott's plan.
1861 cartoon map of Scott's plan.

Union Naval activities in this theater were dictated by the Anaconda Plan, with its emphasis on strangling the South with an ever-tightening blockade, and later in executing attacks on and occupying the port cities of New Orleans, Mobile, and Galveston. The Confederate response was mainly limited to blockade running and the Confederate Navy reacting defensively to Union incursions, with mixed success.

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  • The People of Atlanta in the American Civil War - Issues in History Today
  • War and Priests: Catholic Colleges and Slavery in the Age of Revolution, with Dr. Craig Wilder
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Hi, I'm Dr. Robert Owens I'm the early american historian here at Wichita State University And I'll be your moderator. Welcome to the pilot program in the new WSU Department of history series Issues in History Today The planed two episodes per semester will focus on a variety of topics. These topics to address actions in the past and reflect on their consequences for us today. Generally these episode will showcase the research fields of faculty here at Wichita State University. But today we have Dr. Wendy Hammond Venet Of Georgia State University In Atlanta Georgia She's going to explore a topic of great interest The people of Atlanta during the Civil War. While most know about General Sherman's March through Georgia and 1864 And it's roll and bringing the Civil War to an end The feelings and attitudes About those black and white Are not well-known In a newly published book "A Changing Wind Commerce and conflict in Civil War Atlanta" She brought all these people's experiences and attitudes To life Let's get to the issues And welcome to Wichita State Dr. Venet Thank you So I think the first question We might ask Is Why was this book not written 50 years ago I mean this seems Such an interest with Margaret Mitchell and Gone With The Wind and The any idea of What goes on in Atlanta during the Civil War and yet it doesn't For some reason people seem to have ignored this topic. Full course I can't answer that question absolutely but Most Civil War historians have traditionally focused on the military narrative And it's only been in fairly recent years that Social historians and cultural historians have become interested in Other issues like the homefront and cities And perhaps Gone With the Wind dominated our thinking about the Civil War in Atlanta For too long So that's part of what motivated me to write this book So it's really I mean it's a civil war history but it's also very much an urban history and a social history as well Right I teach at Georgia State University which is right in downtown Atlanta And it is the place where the Civil War happened in our city and so over the Years as I strolled around the Streets of Atlanta And led groups students on tours of the city I became intrigued by A fundamental question How did the war transform the city of Atlanta And its people So that's what gave me the idea to write the book When you're living So close and sort of walking around literally In the footsteps of some of these people does that influence How you research and how you write and teach? Well it certainly gives me a connection to the place And there are some historical markers around downtown and Give me a sense of what was where when and you know one gets curious And eventually my curiosity Got piqued so much that I decide to write the book One of the things I found interesting in reading the book Was that Atlanta Although an in many ways it seems to be in the heart of the Confederacy is actually very much a unionist city Prior to the war at least in and even during parts of the war as well That's right Atlanta was a young City it was founded in the 1830s It's about a hundred years after Savannah To give it that perspective And Atlanta was from the very beginning dominated by railroads And a business so it was never a city that was about Farming and Plantation culture And so from the very beginning Atlanta was dominated by railroad men and Commercial men And these guys had strong ties to the north And so they were very concerned about Commerce and keeping that going And in the late 1850s when a group of radical Southern politicians called fire eaters Began ramping up their talk about Secession of the slave states from the Union Atlanta's commercial man wanted nothing to do with this because they were worried about the bottom line the The disruption of Commerce that potential War could bring And so they were opposed to secession and we know this because of the way that men voted in the presidential election of 1860 In that election nearly Two-thirds of Atlanta voters voted for one of two Unionist candidates for president And not the so-called southern rights candidate John Breckinridge Who carry the state of Georgia And all of the states Of the Lower South But unionism collapsed after Abraham Lincoln The winner Was elected in 1860 because white people in Atlanta and elsewhere in the south Regarded Lincoln's election as a kind of referendum on the future of slavery And moreover a secessionist in Atlanta including the local congressman Came up with an argument that was designed to woo Atlanta's fence sitting businessman And it went something like this Far from hurting business profits Confederate Independence could actually help the bottom line Because Southern merchants Could make even greater profits When they could trade directly with European nations And one of the city's newspapers put it like this Any Southern Merchant who has Credit in New York Can get credit in Liverpool And Liverpool was the main Port of Entry in England for American cotton This Fire eating politician this is Lucius Gartrell Lucius Gartrell was the local Congressmen at today he's virtually an unknown figure in Atlanta And he's one of the in Interesting characters that I Unearthed and put in this book He was a lawyer he was Is the city's leading litigator And in the late 1850s Is he decided That secession was the way to go and he was a magnetic Charismatic Very articulate spokesman and he gave lots of Speeches in Washington DC In the House of Representatives and in Atlanta And he certainly was The most Persuasive speaker In Atlanta and carried a lot of People with him Those are the people who tend to get us in trouble They are they are and he resigned of course his seat in the Congress The US Congress after Secession and he joined the Confederate Army And he fought in the first major battle of the conflict At Manassas Virginia His eldest son was killed in that battle And this really affected him his son was only 16 years old And he could apparently never hear the boy's name again without losing composure And so after that he resigned from the Army And went back to Atlanta and was elected to a seat in the Confederate congress Representing the city of Atlanta So a very important figure in the war and one who has lapsed Into undeserved obscurity It is funny how that happens in history right there some people you Come across them when you're doing research why is this This person not for famous Because they really are At the time they're just all over the place Can you talk a little bit about the importance of Atlanta To the Confederate war effort early in the war and maybe later as well Atlanta was founded as a rail City Literally the Terminus to the Western and Atlantic railroad Which is sometimes called the State Road Georgia owned that Railroad And over the 1830s 40s and 50s Additional railroads made Atlanta a hub and so by 1860 there were railroads that connected Atlanta North to Chattanooga Tennessee East to Augusta Georgia and the Eastern seaboard South to Savannah and In the Coast and where Best to Montgomery Alabama So Atlanta was already an important rail Center and When The War Began It became an important Transportation and supply center for the Confederacy But in 1862 Atlanta became Name even more important when it be Became an industrial center And this is because of two Key military events that occurred in the early years of 1862 The Union Army seized Nashville Tennessee and New Orleans And the Roll of the Navy In both of those captures Fort Henry and Fort Donelson Fell into Union hands and opened the door to the Capture of Nashville Which was the first Confederate Capital fall into Union hands And then New Orleans of course both the largest city and the most important port city And again in both of these cases the union Navy played a major role And as a result Confederate authorities in the capital of Richmond Took a long Long hard look at landlocked but rail accessible Atlanta And decided to To put a major Confederate Arsenal there And so in March of 1862 The confederate government established Arsenal in Atlanta And It produced a variety of military items most notably Percussion caps 41 million percussion caps Were produced at the Atlanta Arsenal during the two and a half years of its existence The confederate government also established a quartermasters depot in Atlanta that produced Clothing uniforms for the confederate government And the government also established a meat processing operation a slaughterhouse and Smokehouse operation in Atlanta Near the railroad tracks Private companies also made This equipment It seems We have again this vision of Atlanta being destroyed by the Civil War What seemed certainly feel like the first year-and-a-half The Civil War actually makes Atlanta And there's a search huge boom period for them Absolutely The population more than doubled From 9500 - a relatively small population Before the war To an estimated 22000 by 1864 so a vast immigration of people Moving to Atlanta in 1861 and 62 to work in these various government and private facilities So it seems for people in Atlanta initially Once these once War is declared Or once War breaks out Their enthusiasm for the Confederacy seems to rise quite a bit as the city grows But then in 1863 or so It seems to peak and then fall off afterwards Could you talk about that Yes my sense and of course there's no Polling data so I can't establish this Mathematically but my sense is that When unionism collapsed after Lincoln's election Most Atlantans did get on board One way or another with the idea of Confederate nationalism And that nationalism peaked early 1863 On New Year's Day the president of the Confederacy whose name is Jefferson Davis Visited Atlanta And he was a very popular figure up to this time he had visited Before his inauguration in 1861 and he of course is a symbol of the Confederacy So he comes on New Year's Day and he stopped at the rail depot and he gives a speech and he's greeted by a salute of guns And he's whisked off to a private dinner party And then he returns to Richmond the capital in A private rail car so He is the symbol Additionally Confederate Atlantans celebrated The victories of Robert E Lee's army the The many and rather spectacular victories of Robert E Lee's army in Virginia Including the Very great successively At Fredericksburg in December But starting later in 1863 The situation really starts To change in Atlanta The war has now been going on for For two years And no one, No one Thought this war was going to last as long as 2 years And one sees a very distinct War weariness Cropping up in the letters between husbands and wives There was a woman in Atlanta named Julia Davidson and she lives in Atlanta with her children While here husband John is serving in the military In letter after letter She talks to him about how much she and The Children miss him and at one point She suggests Why don't you resign from your Commission and come home to Atlanta and get a desk job in the army The city of Atlanta was slammed by waves of Infectious disease in the winter of 1862-63 Including the most dreaded scourge of them all Smallpox Because of course if smallpox didn't Kill you it could Disfigure you people were terrified of smallpox Smallpox finally flamed out in March but then there were other diseases like Scarlet fever and when the weather finally turned warm Typhoid and Dysentery Typical in urban environments right one Wave of disease weakens people and then something else comes in Ans the armies are binging these Diseases with them wherever armies travel They bring disease people don't really get that but that in fact is what's happening And all these Things are going on By 1863 especially negatively impacting The people of Atlanta could you talk a little bit compare and contrast Black residents of Atlanta and white residence and what's what's Going on with them During the first two years of the war times were pretty good For white people There were lots of jobs and so as I mentioned people are flooding into the city Seeking employment Are there's a very Lively Cultural life in Atlanta around the city's principal Theatre the Athenaeum So for the first two years of the war things are pretty good for white people they start to deteriorate in 1863 with disease and War weariness Also their inflation Has become a serious problem and enlisted men In the Confederate Army earn $11 a month And on this kind of pay they can't Support families In a growing number of case Wives are going to work and Even children Because inflation is just out of control in the Confederacy by this point It is And a weak harvest in the fall of 1862 leads prices to spike in early 1863 And there's actually an episode where women Bust into a butcher shop in the downtown area and demand that Set the butcher lower his price of bacon below $1.10 per pound And he says no and so one of the women pulls out a gun And the women steal the bacon and you know this may seem like a small episode But in the 19th century women didn't do this kind of thing and it generated a lot of news in Atlanta I find that story really interesting because you see similar things happening like during the American Revolution That's right There's essentially small riots in Philadelphia and elsewhere where Merchants are thought to be hoarding coffee or they are thought to Be hoarding Sugar or something That's right These women were pushed beyond the level of endurance They felt that their government was not being Responsive to them And so they staged this episode and there were similar episodes Other Georgia cities And throughout The Confederacy In the spring of 1863 Now for African-Americans the story is obviously very different We know that the pre-war population black population of Atlanta was about 1800 out of 9500 roughly 20% We don't know how many African Americans Lived in Atlanta during the Civil War but we assume that the number went up as did the number of whites From the very beginning of the war African Americans were put To work in the Confederate war effort Both male and female slaves were used Is to staff the cities 26 Confederate Hospitals Slave men were also used To work in the Arsenal And they were also put to work building the Fortifications That were designed to Protect the city from a possible Union invasion You'd think in that situation it would have been a ripe situation for a slave revolt. Did you get any whiff of that when you're doing your research? No Absolutely no whiff of it and I suspect that if there'd been some of that It would have Someone would have mentioned it That's there's no doubt that slaves took advantage of wartime conditions To stretch the boundaries of servitude And I'm there are for example cases where slaved figured out ways to make money a slave named Prince Ponder ran a grocery business And he paid part of his profits to his owner but he He secretly kept most of his profits for himself Another bondsman named Robert Webster was a barber And he would go into the city jail to Barber people and At the same time he ran a Clandestine currency exchange He was never caught So I mean again slaves are paying attention to what's going on there listening into white conversations Learning what they can learn about how the war is going And they are taking advantage of the situation the best that they can So Can you talk a little bit about the impact of military news During when the Union Army is basically going under General Sherman's going to close in on Atlanta in '64 right? This has become this really strategic place That needs to be captured Can you talk a little bit about how people are responding in that in Atlanta and maybe the The situation of people In the city at that time As you know armies in the Civil War generally did not fight during the winter time And so by December of 1863 The union or Yankee Army has Has fought its way all the way to Chattanooga And it's gone into winter quarters on the very Doorstep of Georgia Because Chattanooga's right on the border with Tennessee and Georgia And so Atlantans had a pretty good sense That they were going to be the targets Of the spring campaign Because they knew that they were Strategically important Because of the railroads, and the industries, and the hospitals So people were sitting back and waiting to see what was going to happen They had the sense that a big battle A big Climactic battle would decide their fate And until that battle happened There would be no obvious Clear resolution to that campaign so they're waiting for that In the meantime they were reading the newspapers Which were their main Source of information about military affairs And they were also listening to rumors which constantly swirled around the city And hearing what they can hear from From friends who are coming back from the northern front From being close to the Armies So Talking about Conditions in Atlanta as the noose is starting to slowly tighten in 1864 Could you go into that in a little detail? Atlantans thought that a big climactic battle would decide their fate and On June 27th A battle occurred at Kennesaw Mountain about 30 miles north of Atlanta And it was a confederate Victory And so initial reports Indicated that this might be the big climactic battle and Atlantans Thought that General Sherman would soon be retreating into Tennessee But that of course did not happen And the victory slowed General Sherman down but only for a few days and he started marching South again And at this point vast numbers of Atlantans started to evacuate the city People who had somewhere else to go We're leaving in large numbers Conditions in the city were pretty bleak by this point The winter of 1863-64 had been the coldest winter in Atlanta in 30 years And this very cold winter was followed by a Brutally hot summer And that only exacerbated poor sanitary conditions in the city This big meat processing in slaughterhouse operation of the Confederacy Produce not only terrible odors of but also almost certainly contaminated the local water supply So while women and it's mostly a city of women children and slaves at this point Women are eking out a pitiful existence Hand sewing clothing for the Confederate quartermaster or working at the Arsenal At the same time a bushel of locally grown sweet potatoes now cost $20 And a cord of wood cost $40 So things were looking pretty bleak in the city It seems probably a good transition then to the actual climactic campaign where Sherman actually comes after Atlanta Sherman came after Atlanta in July of 1864 And He tried A couple of battles. There were battles fought 5 miles north of the city and then 2 days later on The 22nd of July a Battle called the Battle of Atlanta The Battle of Atlanta was the bloodiest single day of the Atlantic campaign but it brought no resolution to it And so after that General Sherman famously began Bombarding the city And he bombarded Atlanta for a total of 5 weeks And atlantans who are stuck in the City by this point and they were probably at least 2,000 people still in the city Took refuge in holes that they dug in their Cellars Or in their Gardens So they literally lived Underground for a period of about five weeks We don't know how many people died during these five weeks I've seen estimates as low as 20 and estimates More like a hundred But there were people who died and there were people who were injured And then of course Sherman The Union Army Accepted the surrender of the city from the mayor of Atlanta On September 2nd 1864 Sherman dropped south of the city cut the last rail line into the city And forced the mayor to Surrender the city And by late morning on September 2nd 1864 Union Soldiers enter the city of Atlanta they began looting the downtown area And falling on their heels were Poor whites And African Americans And the poor people are interested in food And African-Americans are celebrating something even more fundamental than food they're celebrating freedom Because the arrival of General Sherman's army meant the end of slavery in Atlanta I find this really interesting we're talking earlier I've been teaching for years When I talk about the Civil War And the campaign in Georgia that you don't run into any Georgians named Sherman Anymore but you talk about how there's this interesting dichotomy between Atlanta and the rest of Georgia And how In the in the post-war period Sherman's actually going to be Forgiven is at the word by Atlantans or accepted Accepted. Atlanta bounced back very fast From the Civil War because of its railroads By 1866 all of the railroads have been rebuilt And Atlanta is already rebuilding Very very rapidly Ironically the Civil War fought to preserve Plantation slavery Had actually revealed the South's Cities as major drivers of it's economy In the post-war period Rail cities would eclipse port cities like Savannah As the most important cities in the south And so Atlanta simply moved ahead that is what Atlanta has always done It's always been Sort of the personality of the city Is to move forward and not back And so 1879 General Sherman visits Atlanta and it's been 14 years since the war has ended And people are literally putting it behind them and he was actually accepted Maybe not loved but accepted That's still pretty impressive I find this fascinating with the railroad Is it fair to say That it certainly with Atlanta in this period The railroad giveth And the railroad taketh away Right it makes it this important city It builds The city up during the early part of the war but it also makes it this target Right And yet then after the war It's a lot of cities are going to have Huge problems coming back but Atlanta Seems like a year year-and-a-half after the war is sort of back up and humming That's right. And I that's been a constant in Atlanta's entire history After World War II City fathers Made sure that Atlanta became an An airline hub for Delta Airlines And of course today we have the busiest Airport in the world So transportation is what put Atlanta on the map to begin with And transportation has kept Atlanta on the map And keeps it moving forward. And keep moving forward. We talked about it a little but Could you talk a bit about the post-war period Which I I find just endlessly fascinating How White and black Atlantans Sort of remember the War and commemorate it Because there does seem to be quite a difference at times There's a big difference African Americans use The 4th of July As annual occasions to celebrate freedom And the meaning of the end of slavery White people in the South refuse to celebrate the 4th of July during and after the war because they associated It with the United States I think it's a middle of World War II they finally celebrate the 4th again Even then it's only when Eisenhower appeals to them directly Vicksburg get over it and eventually African Americans will celebrate January 1st they will they will transition from the 4th of July which is then becomes a social hall Holiday to January 1st Which is the occasion of the The annual celebration of the signing by Lincoln of the amount Emancipation proclamation White people in Atlanta remember the war on April 26th Which is a holiday called Confederate Memorial Day And every year on that day People gather at the local Cemetery Or just called Oakland Cemetery And there are seven thousand Confederate soldiers buried there as well as Atlanta Civil War era Civilians And so that would be the occasion of laying wreaths And giving speeches and so on Could we talk a little bit more about Oakland Cemetery cuz I thought this was very eloquently Covered in the book about how There's some interesting African-American bookends to the cemetery right you have this there was A slave only identified his Bill who's actually the last Slave buried in Oakland and yet I think 2003 You have a former African American mayor of Atlanta whose also buried in the cemetery Right of Oakland Cemetery today is the place where the Civil War is most apparent In the modern landscape of the city of Atlanta because what Sherman didn't burn or destroy In 1864 has been paved over or torn down by subsequent Generations But at Oakland Cemetery the Civil War is really alive and well because not only do we have these 7000 Confederate Burials but we also have monuments to their memory But then there are these Really interesting African-American grounds There is a slave section of the cemetery and As you mention in the introduction to my book I a talk about Bill Who is the last recorded Slave burial they were probably slave burials later But they stopped keeping records I found that a very Very interesting tidbit and then there are these very interesting characters from the Civil War era including the slave barber Who's name was Robert Webster and he's buried in an unmarked grave And then a slave dentist named Roderick Badger Who was a prominent dentist in Atlanta Before during and after the war and he's buried in the African-American grounds with a tombstone that identifies him as Dr. Roderick D Badger He wanted everyone to know that he was a medical practitioner Unfortunately we're running out of time here but I've really enjoyed Our conversation about Atlanta during the Civil War and I hope people run out and buy A copy of "A Changing Wind" cuz it really is a very well written Lovely Narrative of an important topic I need to thank audience for listening Please tune in for future episodes This program I would be remiss if I did not note I was made possible by the generous support of the Vice President of Academic Affairs Office By the Dean of the Fairmount School of Liberal Arts and Sciences and by the Department of History at Wichita State University Thank you very much Hope to see you again soon


South Carolina

Much of the war along the South Carolina coast concentrated on capturing Charleston, due both to its role as a port for blockade runners and to its symbolic role as the starting place of the war.[2] One of the earliest battles of the war was fought at Port Royal Sound, south of Charleston. The Union navy selected this location as a coaling station for the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron.[3]

In attempting to capture Charleston, the Union military tried two approaches, by land over James or Morris Islands or through the harbor. However, the Confederates were able to drive back each Union attack. One of the most famous of the land attacks was the Second Battle of Fort Wagner, in which the 54th Massachusetts Infantry took part. The Federals suffered a serious defeat in this battle, losing 1,500 men while the Confederates lost only 175.[4] During the night of February 23, 1864, the CSS Hunley made the first successful sinking of an enemy warship by a submarine, although the Hunley was also sunk shortly afterwards. The Confederates used other crafts such as the David but these were not as successful.[5]


Fort Pulaski on the Georgia coast was an early target for the Union navy. Following the capture of Port Royal, an expedition was organized with engineer troops under the command of Captain Quincy A. Gillmore. After a month of positioning 36 mortars and rifled cannons on nearby Tybee Island, Gillmore opened a bombardment of the fort on April 10. The Confederates surrendered the following afternoon after their magazine was threatened by Union shells. The Union army occupied the fort for the rest of the war after making repairs.[6]


Following the secession of Florida in January 1861, Florida troops seized most Federal property in the state with the exceptions of Fort Zachary Taylor at Key West and Fort Pickens at Pensacola. The Union navy established a blockade of the coast early in the war, with the state's Atlantic coast covered by the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron and the Gulf coast by the East Gulf Blockading squadron.[7]

Several small skirmishes were fought in the state, but no major battles. In 1864, in an attempt to organize a pro-Union government in Florida, a Union force under Brigadier General Truman Seymour moved inland from Jacksonville but was defeated at the Battle of Olustee on February 20, which was the largest Civil War battle in Florida.[8] The Union army attempted to capture the state capital of Tallahassee but were defeated at the Battle of Natural Bridge on March 8, 1865. Florida was one of only two Confederate states not to have its capital captured in the war.[9]


One of the early Union objectives in the war was the capture of the Mississippi River, in order to cut the Confederacy in half. "The key to the river was New Orleans, the South's largest port [and] greatest industrial center."[10] In April 1862, a Union naval task force commanded by Commander David D. Porter attacked Forts Jackson and St. Philip, which guarded the river approach to the city from the south. While part of the fleet bombarded the forts, other vessels forced a break in the obstructions in the river and enabled the rest of the fleet to steam upriver to the city. A Union army force commanded by Major General Benjamin Butler landed near the forts and forced their surrender.[11]

The following year, the Union Army of the Gulf commanded by Major General Nathaniel P. Banks laid siege to Port Hudson for nearly eight weeks, the longest siege in US military history. To cut Port Hudson's supply lines through the Red River, Banks first advanced up Bayou Teche, capturing the Atchafalaya and the Red rivers up to Alexandria. (See Bayou Teche Campaign.)[12] The Confederates defending the city surrendered on July 9, after hearing of the surrender at Vicksburg. These two surrenders gave the Union control over the entire Mississippi River and split the Confederacy in half.[13]

For the rest of war the Confederates concentrated on trying to recapturing the areas they lost. From June to September 1863 Major General Richard Taylor, commander of the District of West Louisiana, attempted to recapture the Union gains, both to cut Bank's communications with New Orleans and possibly to recapture the city itself. While successful in some battles, the Confederates failed in both objectives.[14]


  1. ^ U.S. National Park Service, Civil War Battle Studies by Campaign
  2. ^ Symonds, p. 5.
  3. ^ Symonds, p. 15
  4. ^ Chaitiin, p. 127-128.
  5. ^ Symonds, p. 5; Chaitin, p. 139-141.
  6. ^ Kennedy, p. 63-67.
  7. ^ Chaitin, p. 138.
  8. ^ Chaitin, p. 139.
  9. ^ Kennedy, p. 434.
  10. ^ Kennedy, p. 58.
  11. ^ Kennedy, p. 58.
  12. ^ Kennedy, p. 179.
  13. ^ Kennedy, p. 182-183.
  14. ^ Kennedy, p. 180-181.


  • Chaitin, Peter M. The Coastal War: Chesapeake Bay to Rio Grande. Alexandria, Va.: Time-Life Books, 1984. ISBN 0-8094-4732-0.
  • Kennedy, Frances H. (editor) The Civil War Battlefield Guide, 2nd edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1998. ISBN 0-395-74012-6.
  • Symonds, Craig L. A Battlefield Atlas of the Civil War. Annapolis, MD.: Nautical and Aviation Publishing Company of America, 1983. ISBN 0-933852-40-1.

External links

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