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Louis Plamondon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Louis Plamondon

Leader of the Bloc Québécois
in the House of Commons
In office
August 12, 2014 – October 22, 2015
Preceded byJean-François Fortin
Succeeded byRhéal Fortin
In office
June 2, 2011 – December 16, 2013[1]
Preceded byPierre Paquette
Succeeded byAndré Bellavance
In office
1992 – November 9, 1993
Preceded byJean Lapierre
Succeeded byMichel Gauthier
Dean of the House of Commons
Assumed office
October 14, 2008
Preceded byBill Blaikie
Chair of the Bloc Québécois Parliamentary Caucus
In office
August 26, 2004 – February 28, 2018
Member of Parliament
for Bécancour—Nicolet—Saurel
Bas-Richelieu-Nicolet-Bécancour (2000–2015)[2]
Richelieu (1984–2000)
Assumed office
September 4, 1984
Preceded byJean-Louis Leduc
Personal details
Born (1943-07-31) July 31, 1943 (age 78)
Saint-Raymond, Quebec, Canada
Political partyBloc Québécois
Other political
Québec debout (2018)
Progressive Conservative Party (before 1990)

Louis Plamondon MP (born July 31, 1943) is a Canadian politician who has represented Bécancour—Nicolet—Saurel (formerly known as Bas-Richelieu—Nicolet—Bécancour and Richelieu) in the House of Commons since 1984, making him the Dean of the House, the longest-serving current member of the House of Commons.

Plamondon has won his seat in eleven consecutive federal elections, winning twice as a Progressive Conservative before becoming a founding member of the Bloc Québécois in 1990, after which he has been reelected nine more times. He, along with six other Bloc MPs, resigned from the Bloc's caucus to sit as an independent MP on February 28, 2018 citing conflicts with the leadership style of Martine Ouellet.[4] He rejoined the Bloc Québécois caucus on September 17, 2018.[5]

Early life and career

Plamondon was born in Saint-Raymond-de-Portneuf, Quebec and is the brother of lyricist Luc Plamondon.[6] He has a teaching certificate from L'École normale Maurice L. Duplessis (1964), a Bachelor of Arts degree from Laval University (1968), and a B.A.An. from the University of Montreal (1976). He was a math teacher and restaurant owner before entering political life.[7] Plamondon supported the "oui" side in Quebec's 1980 referendum on sovereignty.[8]

Member of Parliament

Progressive Conservative MP

Plamondon was first elected to the Canadian House of Commons in the 1984 federal election, defeating Liberal Party incumbent Jean-Louis Leduc in Richelieu. The Progressive Conservatives won a landslide majority government in this election under Brian Mulroney's leadership, and Plamondon entered parliament as a government backbencher. He was associated with the Quebec nationalist wing of his party and soon became known as a maverick.[9] In 1986, he criticized justice minister John Crosbie for appointing an anglophone to replace the sole francophone judge on the Ontario Court of Appeal.[10] He later criticized industry minister Sinclair Stevens for awarding a multimillion-dollar untendered contract to a shipbuilding company in Quebec City.[11] Plamondon also expressed sympathy with fellow MP Robert Toupin, who left the Progressive Conservatives in May 1986 to sit as an independent.[12]

Plamondon was on the socially liberal wing of the Progressive Conservative Party. He voted against a motion to re-introduce capital punishment in 1987 and later opposed efforts to restrict abortion services.[13] He strongly supported the Mulroney government's efforts to strengthen official bilingualism and criticized dissident anglophone Tory MPs who tried to weaken the government's reforms.[14]

Plamondon was also one of the more pro-labour members of the Tory caucus. In 1985, he promoted a partnership between the federal and Quebec governments and the Quebec Federation of Labour's Solidarity Fund.[15] Two years later, he stood with striking letter carriers in Sorel and criticized his own government's decision to approve replacement workers.[16] He was prominent among a group of Quebec Tory MPs who tried to reduce the party's reliance on corporate donations.[17] Ricardo López, a right-wing Quebec Tory MP, once suggested that Plamondon would be more suited to the social democratic New Democratic Party.[18]

Plamondon was re-elected without difficulty in the 1988 federal election, as the Progressive Conservatives won a second majority government across the country. Over the following year, he became even more strongly aligned with the Quebec nationalist wing of his party. He supported Quebec premier Robert Bourassa's use of the Canadian constitution's notwithstanding clause to prohibit outdoor English-language signs, and expressed regret that the ban was not extended to indoor signs.[19] He also criticized D'Iberville Fortier, Canada's official languages commissioner, for suggesting that Quebec was acting in an unjust manner toward its anglophone minority.[20]

Consistent with his nationalist views, Plamondon was a vocal supporter of the Mulroney government's proposed Meech Lake Accord on constitutional reform and opposed Jean Charest's efforts to modify the accord in early 1990.[21] During this period, Plamondon speculated that sovereignty-association between Quebec and Canada would be "logical and reasonable" if the accord failed and added that he might become a "Quebec-only MP" in that event.[22] When the accord was rejected in June 1990, Plamondon resigned from the Progressive Conservative caucus and informed the House of Commons that he could no longer support a united Canada.[23]

Bloc Québécois MP

Mulroney and Campbell Governments (1990–93)

Plamondon was one of a group of Progressive Conservative and Liberal MPs from Quebec who left their parties after the failure of the Meech Lake Accord. This group soon coalesced as the Bloc Québécois under the leadership of Lucien Bouchard. The Bloc was not initially given official recognition in the House of Commons, and its members were designated as independent MPs. Plamondon was recognized as the Bloc's house leader in 1992.

In its original form, the Bloc Québécois was a loose alliance of parliamentarians rather than a formal political party. Plamondon was one of the first Bloquistes to promote the creation of a strong party organization to challenge the Progressive Conservative Party's Quebec machine in the next federal election. Others, including Lucien Bouchard, initially favoured a weaker party structure that would simply allow Bloc candidates to have their party designation appear on the ballot.[24] The vision favoured by Plamondon ultimately won out, and the Bloc became a strong political organization throughout Quebec.

Shortly after joining the BQ, Plamondon asked the federal government to apologize to the province of Quebec and provide financial compensation for those who were wrongly arrested under the War Measures Act in the 1970 FLQ Crisis.[25] He later spoke against a bid by Izzy Asper to bring his Global Television Network to Montreal, arguing that the market was already saturated.[26] In 1992, he described Mordechai Richler's book Oh Canada! Oh Quebec! as hate literature.[27]

Plamondon was charged with attempting to hire a prostitute during an undercover sting operation in April 1993.[28] He claimed innocence, saying that the charge was the result of a "bad joke between friends which lasted 45 seconds," but nonetheless resigned as his party's house leader pending resolution of the matter.[29] He was renominated as the Bloc candidate for Richelieu despite the controversy.[30]

Chrétien Government (1993–2003)

Plamondon was re-elected without difficulty in the 1993 federal election, as the Bloc won fifty-four out of seventy-five seats in Quebec to become the official opposition in the House of Commons. The Liberal Party won a majority government under the leadership of Jean Chrétien. At his own request, Plamondon was left out of the Bloc's initial shadow cabinet.[31] He pleaded guilty to the charge against him in April 1994, maintaining his innocence but adding that he simply wanted to resolve the matter as quickly as possible. He received an absolute discharge and does not have a criminal record.[32]

Plamondon co-chaired a funding and membership drive for the Bloc in early 1995.[33] He opposed finance minister Paul Martin's austerity budget in the same year, arguing that it placed an unfair financial burden on the provinces to fight the federal deficit.[34] He personally opposed the Chrétien government's gun registry legislation, which the Bloc supported, and he absented himself from the parliamentary vote that led to its passage.[35]

After a narrow federalist victory in Quebec's 1995 referendum on sovereignty, Lucien Bouchard left the Bloc Québécois to become leader of its provincial counterpart, the Parti Québécois (PQ). Plamondon initially favoured Bernard Landry to become the Bloc's new leader, arguing that he was the best positioned of all candidates to unite the party's different factions.[36] Landry decided not to run, and Gilles Duceppe eventually succeeded Bouchard as leader.[37]

Plamondon supported the Chrétien government's choice of Dyane Adam to become Canada's official language commissioner in 1998, saying that she would be "tougher" than her predecessor Victor Goldbloom (whom he nonetheless acknowledged had done good work on education matters).[38] He endorsed Adam's criticism of the Chrétien government in 2000, when she wrote that it was not sufficiently committed to defending official bilingualism.[39] Plamondon strongly opposed the Clarity Act legislation introduced by intergovernmental affairs minister Stéphane Dion in 1999, arguing that it would create confusion in any future referendum on Quebec sovereignty.[40]

Martin Government (2003–2006)

Paul Martin replaced Jean Chrétien as Liberal Party leader and prime minister in late 2003. Shortly before he was sworn in, Plamondon published a short book entitled Le mythe Paul Martin.[41] As its title implies, the work was highly critical of its subject: Plamondon accused Martin of damaging Quebec's interests during his time in the Chrétien cabinet.[42] He also argued that Martin would become an ally of United States president George W. Bush, neglect the low-income citizens of Canada and Quebec, and favour the interests of English Canada. The Bloc distributed one thousand free copies of the book, and a further fifteen hundred copies were put on sale in bookstores. Martin's supporters dismissed the work as a negative campaign ploy lacking any progressive vision,[43] and Liberal MP Don Boudria asked the speaker of the House of Commons to investigate whether Plamondon had broken parliamentary rules by using publicly funded research staff to help compile the book.[44]

It was initially believed that Paul Martin's Liberals would win a majority of seats in Quebec at the expense of the Bloc, but the Liberal Party's fortunes were instead damaged by the sponsorship scandal, in which some advertising revenues approved by the Chrétien government to promote Canadian federalism in Quebec were found to have been misused. The Bloc soon re-established itself as the dominant federal party in Quebec,[45] and the Liberals were reduced to a minority government in the 2004 federal election. Plamondon was chosen as BQ caucus chair in the new parliament.[46]

When Bernard Landry resigned as Parti Québécois leader in 2005, rumours circulated that Gilles Duceppe would run to succeed him. Plamondon said that most Bloc MPs wanted Duceppe to stay in federal politics but would respect his decision one way or the other.[47] Duceppe chose to remain with the Bloc, and André Boisclair became PQ leader.

Harper Government (2006–2015)

Plamondon was elected to a seventh term in the 2006 federal election, as the Conservative Party won a minority government under the leadership of Stephen Harper. Widely respected as an electoral strategist, Plamondon later prepared an internal brief examining why the Bloc lost seats in the Quebec City area to the Conservatives.[48] He remained as the Bloc's caucus chair.[49]

André Boisclair resigned as Parti Québécois leader after a poor showing in the 2007 provincial election, and rumours again circulated that Duceppe would run to succeed him. This time, Plamondon told reporters that Duceppe should run for the provincial leadership to impose discipline on the notoriously unruly party.[50] Some in the PQ objected to this comment, which galvanized resistance to a Duceppe candidacy.[51] Duceppe eventually entered the leadership contest, but withdrew after only one day due to poor polling and a growing sense that the sovereigntist movement would be divided if he won. He stayed as leader of the Bloc, and Plamondon helped ensure his successful transition back to the federal scene.[52]

When Brian Mulroney released his memoirs in September 2007, he alleged that Lucien Bouchard had conspired with Jacques Parizeau to create the Bloc Québécois while still a federal cabinet minister. Plamondon rejected this, arguing that Bouchard was loyal to Mulroney until resigning in protest against the government's handling of the Meech Lake Accord.[53] Plamondon also criticized Jean Chrétien later in the year, when Chrétien wrote in his memoirs that he would not have recognized a narrow sovereigntist victory in the 1995 referendum.[54]

Plamondon was re-elected to an eighth term in the 2008 election as the Conservatives won a second consecutive minority government. He was again chosen as BQ caucus chair and, as the longest-serving member of the House of Commons, was also recognized as Dean of the House. Plamondon presided over the Commons when it re-elected Peter Milliken as its speaker in October 2008 and acknowledged the irony that an MP from a sovereigntist party would hold this position.[55]

Plamondon was returned by the narrowest margin of his career in the 2011 federal election following a strong challenge from the New Democratic Party (NDP). Gilles Duceppe was personally defeated in his riding and subsequently resigned as party leader. Plamondon was chosen as the Bloc's acting house leader and, in the absence of a full-time leader, became its main parliamentary spokesperson.[56] He remains Dean of the House and presided over the Commons when it chose Andrew Scheer to be Milliken's successor as speaker on June 2, 2011.[57]

Trudeau Government (2015–present)

Plamondon was the Bloc candidate in his riding for the 2015 Canadian federal election, and was the only Bloc MP elected in 2011 to be running under the party banner again.[58] He was re-elected to a tenth term in the House of Commons, presiding over the House as it elected Geoff Regan as Speaker. He was reelected to an 11th term in October 2019, to retain his position as Dean of the House[59] and preside over the election of Anthony Rota as Speaker.[60]


  • Le mythe Paul Martin, 2003

Electoral record

2019 Canadian federal election: Bécancour—Nicolet—Saurel
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Bloc Québécois Louis Plamondon 29,653 56.66 +16.68 $45,011.99
Liberal Nathalie Rochefort 9,332 17.83 -6.43 none listed
Conservative Pierre-André Émond 8,434 16.11 +4.7 none listed
New Democratic Carole Lennard 2,732 5.22 -16.87 $0.10
Green David Turcotte 1,697 3.24 +0.98 $0.00
People's Richard Synnott 489 0.93 none listed
Total valid votes/Expense limit 52,337 100.0  
Total rejected ballots 1,042 1.95 +0.15
Turnout 53,379 67.43 -0.20
Eligible voters 79,165
Bloc Québécois hold Swing +11.56
Source: Elections Canada[61][62]
2015 Canadian federal election: Bécancour—Nicolet—Saurel
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Bloc Québécois Louis Plamondon 20,871 39.98 +1.68
Liberal Claude Carpentier 12,666 24.26 +14.16
New Democratic Nicholas Tabah 11,531 22.09 -13.51
Conservative Yves Laberge 5,955 11.41 -1.62
Green Corina Bastiani 1,182 2.26 -0.71
Total valid votes/Expense limit 52,205 100.0     $212,219.80
Total rejected ballots 958
Turnout 53,163
Eligible voters 78,607
Bloc Québécois hold Swing +7.60
Source: Elections Canada[63][64]
2011 Canadian federal election: Bas-Richelieu—Nicolet—Bécancour
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Bloc Québécois Louis Plamondon 19,046 38.30 −16.37 $78,417.55
New Democratic Krista Lalonde 17,705 35.60 +27.43 none listed
Conservative Charles Cartier 6,478 13.03 −5.12 $21,283.89
Liberal Rhéal Blais 5,024 10.10 −6.18 $33,774.36
Green Anne-Marie Tanguay 1,479 2.97 +0.25 none listed
Total valid votes/Expense limit 49,732 100.0     $86,248.62
Total rejected, unmarked and declined ballots 1,058 2.08 +0.24
Turnout 50,790 65.71 +0.26
Eligible voters 77,290
Bloc Québécois hold Swing −21.90
2008 Canadian federal election: Bas-Richelieu—Nicolet—Bécancour
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Bloc Québécois Louis Plamondon 26,821 54.67 −1.25 $81,799.37
Conservative Réjean Bériault 8,904 18.15 −5.21 $36,546.14
Liberal Ghislaine Cournoyer 7,987 16.28 +3.30 $12,932.15
New Democratic Nourredine Seddiki 4,010 8.17 +3.64 $3,019.73
Green Rebecca Laplante 1,334 2.72 −0.50 none listed
Total valid votes/Expense limit 49,056 100.0     $83,078
Total rejected, unmarked and declined ballots 918 1.84 +0.10
Turnout 49,974 65.45 −1.41
Eligible voters 76,352
Bloc Québécois hold Swing +1.98
Sources: Official Results, Elections Canada and Financial Returns, Elections Canada.
2006 Canadian federal election: Bas-Richelieu—Nicolet—Bécancour
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Bloc Québécois Louis Plamondon 27,742 55.92 −8.75 $58,032.63
Conservative Marie-Ève Hélie-Lambert 11,588 23.36 +15.71 $29,709.34
Liberal Ghislaine Provencher 6,438 12.98 −9.70 $49,695.62
New Democratic Marie-Claude Roberge Cartier 2,248 4.53 +2.44 none listed
Green Louis Lacroix 1,595 3.22 +1.50 $115.96
Total valid votes/Expense limit 49,611 100.00     $77,549
Total rejected, unmarked and declined ballots 877 1.74
Turnout 50,488 66.86 +0.80
Eligible voters 75,514
Bloc Québécois hold Swing −12.23
Sources: Official Results, Elections Canada and Financial Returns, Elections Canada.
2004 Canadian federal election: Richelieu
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Bloc Québécois Louis Plamondon 31,497 64.67 +8.50 $62,831.92
Liberal Ghislaine Provencher 11,045 22.68 −8.83 $57,727.26
Conservative Daniel A. Proulx 3,726 7.65 −1.80 $4,855.32
New Democratic Charles Bussières 1,017 2.09 +1.09 none listed
Green Jean-Pierre Bonenfant 839 1.72 $475.00
Marijuana Daniel Blackburn 580 1.19 none listed
Total valid votes/Expense limit 48,704 100.00     $76,377
Total rejected, unmarked and declined ballots 1,308 2.62
Turnout 50,012 66.06 +1.18
Electors on the lists 75,702
Changes from 2000 are based on redistributed results. Change for the Conservative Party is based on the combined Canadian Alliance and Progressive Conservative totals from 2000.
Bloc Québécois notional hold Swing +8.66
Sources: Official Results, Elections Canada and Financial Returns, Elections Canada.
2000 Canadian federal election: Bas-Richelieu—Nicolet—Bécancour
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Bloc Québécois Louis Plamondon 25,266 56.92 +2.12 $58,797
Liberal Roland Paradis 13,781 31.04 +2.13 $50,880
Alliance Frédéric Lajoie 2,078 4.68 $882
Progressive Conservative Gabriel Rousseau 1,944 4.38 −9.78 $129
Marijuana Black D. Blackburn 901 2.03 $9
New Democratic Raymond Dorion 421 0.95 −1.18 none listed
Total valid votes 44,391 100.00
Total rejected ballots 1,229
Turnout 45,620 67.27 −8.80
Electors on the lists 67,815
Sources: Official Results, Elections Canada and Financial Returns, Elections Canada.
1997 Canadian federal election: Richelieu
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Bloc Québécois Louis Plamondon 26,421 54.80 $59,298
Liberal Jocelyn Paul 13,941 28.91 $41,680
Progressive Conservative Yves Schelling 6,827 14.16 $1,580
New Democratic Sylvain Pelletier 1,028 2.13 $560
Total valid votes 48,217 100.00
Total rejected ballots 2,418
Turnout 50,635 76.07
Electors on the lists 66,566
Sources: Official Results, Elections Canada and official contributions and expenses submitted by the candidates, provided by Elections Canada.
1993 Canadian federal election: Richelieu
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Bloc Québécois Louis Plamondon 31,558 66.52 $44,261
Liberal Michel Biron 10,933 23.05 +3.78 $46,920
Progressive Conservative Lorraine Frappier 4,455 9.39 −59.52 $44,361
New Democratic Carl Ethier 337 0.71 −6.06 $0
Commonwealth of Canada Paulo da Silva 157 0.33 $0
Total valid votes 47,440 100.00
Total rejected ballots 1,878
Turnout 49,318 81.73 +1.89
Electors on the lists 60,340
Source: Thirty-fifth General Election, 1993: Official Voting Results, Published by the Chief Electoral Officer of Canada. Financial figures taken from the official contributions and expenses submitted by the candidates, provided by Elections Canada.
1988 Canadian federal election: Richelieu
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Progressive Conservative Louis Plamondon 32,104 68.91 $40,540
Liberal Yvon Hébert 8,979 19.27 $17,953
New Democratic Gaston Dupuis 3,154 6.77 $0
Green Jacqueline Lacoste 1,896 4.07 $133
Rhinoceros Paul Poison Hevey 457 0.98 $0
Total valid votes 46,590 100.00
Total rejected ballots 869
Turnout 47,459 79.84
Electors on the lists 59,440
Source: Report of the Chief Electoral Officer, Thirty-fourth General Election, 1988.
1984 Canadian federal election: Richelieu
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Progressive Conservative Louis Plamondon 28,747 59.22 +39.25
Liberal Jean-Louis Leduc 14,933 30.76 −37.39
New Democratic Gaston Dupuis 2,174 4.48 −2.96
Parti nationaliste Guy Vachon 1,463 3.01 -
Rhinoceros Yves Pi-oui Banville 945 1.95 −1.02
Social Credit Rénald Bibeau 202 0.42 -
Commonwealth of Canada Yves Julien 76 0.16 -
Total valid votes 48,540 100.00
Total rejected ballots 661
Turnout 49,201 81.64
Electors on the lists 60,264
Source: Report of the Chief Electoral Officer, Thirty-third General Election, 1984.


  1. ^ "PLAMONDON, Louis, B.A.Ped., B.A.An". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved 26 April 2014.
  2. ^ The riding was briefly known as Richelieu in 2004.
  3. ^ "Official Voting Results". Elections Canada. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  4. ^ Allard, Clement (February 28, 2018). "Seven of 10 Bloc Quebecois MPs quit over Martine Ouellet's leadership". The Globe and Mail. The Canadian Press. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  5. ^ "5 Bloc Québécois MPs who quit party returning to the fold". CBC News. September 17, 2018. Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  6. ^ Elizabeth Thompson, "Passion and Tears: Jean Sworn In," Montreal Gazette, 28 September 2005, A1.
  7. ^ Canada Votes 2004: Richelieu, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 2004, accessed 6 August 2009.
  8. ^ Alan Freeman, "Quebec MPs take lead from Bourassa, not PM," Globe and Mail, 17 March 1990, A9; Alan Freeman and Ross Howard, "3 Quebec Tory MPs, 1 Liberal quit over rejection of Meech," Globe and Mail, 27 June 1990, A1.
  9. ^ Robert McKenzie, "Bourassa's support of Tories could backfire badly," Toronto Star, 6 November 1988, B3.
  10. ^ See Richard Cleroux, "Crosbie defends naming of judge," Globe and Mail, 8 February 1986, A11.
  11. ^ Joel Ruimy, "Quebec's Tories: Trying to delay a big headache," Toronto Star, 31 May 1986, B6.
  12. ^ Richard Cleroux and Francois Shalom, "Tory MP turns independent, cites profound disagreement," Globe and Mail, 15 May 1986, A1.
  13. ^ "How the MPs voted on capital punishment," Toronto Star, 30 June 1987, A10; David Vienneau, "MPs reject all abortion options," Toronto Star, 21 July 1988, A1; David Vienneau, "New abortion law won't end the fighting," Toronto Star, 26 May 1990, SA2.
  14. ^ Linda Diebel, "Ottawa moves to stop 'dinosaurs'," Toronto Star, 5 July 1988, A3.
  15. ^ "Maker of fire trucks plans modernization," Globe and Mail, 5 July 1985, B6.
  16. ^ David Stewart-Patterson, "PM won't cross picket line but backs postal policy," Globe and Mail, 27 June 1987, A9.
  17. ^ Richard Clereux and Susan Delacourt, "Cote gets little sympathy from vexed Tory caucus," Globe and Mail, 4 February 1988, A4.
  18. ^ Richard Clereux, "Quebec Tory MPs seek to edge dissident colleague from caucus," Globe and Mail, 15 October 1987, A5. The article title refers to Fernand Jourdenais, not Plamondon.
  19. ^ Richard Clereux and Hugh Winsor, "Override clause incompatible with rights charter, Mulroney says," Globe and Mail, 20 December 1988, A5; "Tories told to stay silent over signs storm," Toronto Star, 22 December 1988, A10; Richard Clereux, "Quebec PC supports Bourassa on clause," Globe and Mail, 14 April 1989, D14.
  20. ^ "MP demands resignation of languages commissioner," Globe and Mail, 22 June 1989, A12.
  21. ^ Graham Fraser and Susan Delacourt, "Meech Lake accord must be ratified as is, federal minister says," Globe and Mail, 27 March 1990, A13.
  22. ^ Rosemary Speirs, "Stakes too high for failure of Meech," Toronto Star, 29 April 1990, A1; Alan Freeman, "QUEBEC AFTER MEECH PART 1 PCs still committed to accord, loyal to PM," Globe and Mail, 12 May 1990, A10.
  23. ^ "TWO MORE QUEBECERS QUIT CANADA GOVERNMENT," Reuters News, 26 June 1990; Patrick Doyle, "4 federal MPs quit parties to back Quebec cause," Toronto Star, 27 June 1990, A1.
  24. ^ Patricia Poirier, "Bloc Québécois to seek party status in House of Commons," Globe and Mail, 11 February 1991, A1.
  25. ^ "MP demands apology, payment," Globe and Mail, 10 October 1990, A6.
  26. ^ John Partridge, "Izzy Asper stars in broadcast dealings," Globe and Mail, 15 March 1991, B1.
  27. ^ Graham Fraser, "BQ urges Ottawa to ban Richler book," Globe and Mail, 17 March 1992, A1.
  28. ^ "MP nabbed in red light district sweep," Toronto Star, 24 April 1993, A10.
  29. ^ "MP resigns post in Bloc Québécois over sex allegation," Toronto Star, 27 April 1993, A9.
  30. ^ "THE WEEK IN REVIEW: Monday, August 2, 1993, to Friday, August 6, 1993," Financial Post, 7 August 1993, 2.
  31. ^ "Bouchard criticizes Chrétien over Parliament opening delay," Kitchener-Waterloo Record, 11 November 1993, A5.
  32. ^ "MP pleads guilty," Financial Post, 7 April 1994, 2; "Bloc MP to remain in caucus after guilty plea: Bouchard," Winnipeg Free Press, 7 April 1994.
  33. ^ "Bloc launches funding drive," Winnipeg Free Press, 23 January 1995.
  34. ^ Paul Waldie and Terry Weber, "Critics rail at Liberals' missed chance to attack deficit," Financial Post, 28 February 1995, B6.
  35. ^ Tu Thanh Ha, "Firearms registry Ottawa's next project," Globe and Mail, 14 June 1995, A1. He later joined with three other Bloc MPs to vote against new funding for the program in June 2005. See Sylvain Larocque, "Duceppe semonce quatre députés qui ont voté contre le registre des armes," 15 June 2005, 04:28pm.
  36. ^ Rheal Seguin, "Bouchard to go for PQ job," Globe and Mail, 21 November 1995, A1; "Separatists confident Bouchard will lead them: Decision could spark new drive for separation," Hamilton Spectator, 21 November 1995, A3.
  37. ^ Michel Gauthier also served as interim leader for a time.
  38. ^ Edison Stewart, "Toronto woman candidate for language job," Toronto Star, 4 December 1998, A8.
  39. ^ Stephen Thorne, "Federal government failing bilingualism "at highest levels," says watchdog," Canadian Press, 5 October 2000, 3:24pm.
  40. ^ Graham Fraser, "PM dismisses Quebec legislation," Globe and Mail, 17 December 1999, A8.
  41. ^ Brian Laghi and Campbell Clark, "Opposition parties move fast to target Martin," Globe and Mail, 18 November 2003, A4.
  42. ^ "Le Bloc lance un livre contre Paul Martin et suscite des réactions," Nouvelles Tele-Radio, 24 November 2003, 3:24pm; Sylvain Larocque, "Le Bloc québécois lance un essai pour montrer "l'autre côté" de Paul Martin," La Presse Canadienne, 24 November 2003, 6:13pm.
  43. ^ Daniel LeBlanc, "Bloc MP produces anti-Martin volume," Globe and Mail, 25 November 2003, A9.
  44. ^ Elizabeth Thompson, "Liberals 'outraged' Bloc used staff for Martin book," National Post, 26 November 2003, A4.
  45. ^ Graham Fraser, "Bloc cashing in on Liberal scandals; Audit report boosts Duceppe," Toronto Star, 3 April 2004, F1.
  46. ^ Norman Delisle, "Il faut régler le déséquilibre fiscal pour mieux financer la santé, selon Duceppe," La Presse Canadienne, 26 August 2004, 02:17pm.
  47. ^ Isabelle Rodrigue and Sylvain Larocque, "Les députés du Bloc veulent convaincre leur chef de rester en poste," La Presse Canadienne, 6 June 2005, 5:47pm; Kevin Doherty and Elizabeth Thompson, "Legault won't run for PQ leadership: Cites family reasons, won't rule out future bid," Montreal Gazette, 5 June 2005, A10.
  48. ^ "Louis Plamondon assure que le Bloc sera attentif à Québec lors des prochaines élections," La Presse Canadienne, 11 February 2007, 11:13am. See also "Mario Laframboise sera l'organiseur électoral en chef pour le Bloc québécois," Nouvelles Tele-Radio, 3 April 2007, 10:30pm.
  49. ^ Graham Fraser, "Gilles Duceppe's tricky high-wire act," Toronto Star, 8 April 2006, F03.
  50. ^ Alexander Panetta, "Bloc MPs tell Duceppe to seek PQ leadership, 'kick party's butt'," Canadian Press, 9 May 2007, 5:00pm; Elizabeth Thompson and Philip Authier, "Duceppe should leave Bloc to save PQ, MPs say," Ottawa Citizen, 10 May 2007, A3.
  51. ^ Hubert Bauch, "Leadership race over before it ever began; Poll favouring Marois might have fuelled Duceppe's decision," Montreal Gazette, 13 May 2007, A4.
  52. ^ Elizabeth Thompson and Philip Authier, "Duceppe's shocking 'unity' bid," Ottawa Citizen, 13 May 2007, A3; Lina Dib, "Difficile retour à Ottawa pour Duceppe: il demande l'appui de ses députés," La Presse Canadienne, 13 May 2007, 2:53pm.
  53. ^ Hubert Bauch, "Plamondon rejects PQ conspiracy claim," Montreal Gazette, 8 September 2007, A13.
  54. ^ Marianne White, "Ex-PM would not have recognized referendum Yes," National Post, 15 October 2007, A1.
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  56. ^ Parliamentarian File - Federal Experience: Louis Plamondon, Parliament of Canada, accessed 30 June 2011; [ Louis Plante, "Louis Plamondon: «Le Québec se cherche»," Le Nouvelliste, 29 June 2011, accessed 30 June 2011. The latter piece incorrectly describes Plamondon as the Bloc's interim leader.
  57. ^ Althia Raj, "Youngest-ever Speaker elected; Job comes with $233,247-a-year salary, two homes," Montreal Gazette, 3 June 2011, A15.
  58. ^ Banerjee, Sidhartha (13 September 2015). "Louis Plamondon, Bloc Québécois devotee, prepares for fight of a lifetime". CBC News. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
  59. ^ "Canada election results: Bécancour—Nicolet—Saurel". Global News. 21 October 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  60. ^ Tunney, Catharine; Zimonjic, Peter; Harris, Kathleen (5 December 2019). "Liberal MP Anthony Rota elected Speaker of the House of Commons". CBC News. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
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  63. ^ Elections Canada – Confirmed candidates for Bécancour—Nicolet—Saurel, 30 September 2015
  64. ^ Elections Canada – Preliminary Election Expenses Limits for Candidates Archived 2015-08-15 at the Wayback Machine
  65. ^ Elections Canada – Official voting results, Forty-first general election, 2011
  66. ^ Elections Canada – Candidate's electoral campaign return, 41st general election

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