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Louis A. Frothingham

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Louis Adams Frothingham
Louis Adams Frothingham.png
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 14th district
In office
March 4, 1921 – August 23, 1928
Preceded byRichard Olney II
Succeeded byRichard B. Wigglesworth
41st Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
In office
1909–1912
GovernorEben Sumner Draper
Eugene Foss
Preceded byEben Sumner Draper
Succeeded byRobert Luce
Speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives
In office
1904–1905
Preceded byJames J. Myers
Succeeded byJohn N. Cole
Massachusetts House of Representatives
11th Suffolk District
Personal details
Born(1871-07-13)July 13, 1871
Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts
DiedAugust 23, 1928(1928-08-23) (aged 57)
North Haven, Maine
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)Mary Shreve (Ames) Frothingham
Alma materAdams Academy
Harvard University, 1893
Harvard Law School, 1896
ProfessionAttorney
Military service
AllegianceUnited States of America
Branch/serviceBattery A of the Massachusetts Field Artillery,[1]
Massachusetts National Guard
Massachusetts Naval Brigade, Auxiliary Naval Force
United States Marine Corps
United States Army
Years of serviceApril 25, 1895 – April 25, 1898[2]
May 1898 – January 1899
RankPrivate,[1]
Ensign,
Second Lieutenant,
Major
Battles/warsSpanish–American War,
World War I

Louis Adams Frothingham (July 13, 1871 – August 23, 1928) was a United States Representative from Massachusetts.

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  • ✪ The Garden as a Picture: Agnes Northrop’s Stained-Glass Designs for Louis C.Tiffany

Transcription

Good evening everyone. I'm Betsy Broun of the Smithsonian American Art Museum and welcome to the 2016 season of the Clarice Smith Distinguished Lecture series. It's always very special when Clarice herself is able to attend as she is tonight, and we are delighted to thank you again for this wonderful series. I think we are in our 13th year if I can count. Clarice, of course is well known as a painter and now she has become a stained glass artist as well, so tonight's talk is very pertinent. Thank you again for making all this possible. We not only bring great lecturers who delight us and illuminate us, but we also provide an occasion at a reception afterward in the courtyard for you to come and talk with the lecturer informally, so you're all invited upstairs to the courtyard after. A couple of housekeeping notes, you might turn off your cell phones or put them on mute. When we get to the question-and-answer part after the lecture, it would be great if you go and use the microphones. This is being webcast and so it makes it easier for people listening online if they can hear the questions through the microphone. This is going to be a truly great season. We want you to come back on October 19th when we will feature sculptor Deborah Butterfield and then again on November 2nd for a really wonderful Art Critic named Edward Rothstein. We're starting the season off at the very highest level with the extraordinary scholar Alice Cooney Frelinghuysen. She's better known by her wide circle of friends as Nany, and if you just glanced at her resume you would imagine her to be very ancient, because her list of publications and awards is so remarkable it would dignify a scholar twice her age. She graduated from Princeton, got an MA from the Winterthur Program in Early American Culture, and then joined the Metropolitan Museum of Art as an Andrew W. Mellon Fellow. She is now, years later the Anthony W. and Lulu C. Wang curator of American Decorative Arts at the MET. I think if you're in Dec Arts at the MET you must feel you've died and gone to heaven. In that role she has curated any number of major exhibitions, written major books, lectured widely on American ceramics, glass, stained glass, jewelry, furniture, and more. You might have seen her show last year at the MET called "Artistic Furniture of the Gilded Age" and I'm pretty sure everybody here has been to see her inspired installation of the Engelhard Court which opened in 2009. The list of her publications runs on for many pages. I'm not going to try to go there, but she has published on topics such as stained glass at Woodlawn Cemetery, Chinese export porcelain, finance manufacturing, American ceramics, John Lafarge, the home of the Havemeyer family, and many other subjects. By far the preponderance of her scholarship has addressed the inexhaustible subject of Louis Comfort Tiffany. She has produced literally dozens of shows, books, and articles on this amazing artists, all aspects of his career. We owe a lot of what we know about Tiffany to Nany. He was, of course, at once an artistic genius who reinvented stained glass for the modern age. He was a powerfully influential teacher and studio director. He was one of the most enterprising businessmen, a true entrepreneur in the 19th century gilded age, and he was a master marketer who knew how to put American decorative arts onto the international map. He even won the first prize at the Paris Exposition for a beautiful screen that is in a collection here in Washington DC and the French glassmakers never forgave him for it. Her book on Tiffany's home which was called, "Lauralton Hall" is quite a revelation. An exhibition of Tiffany stained glass was shown in Paris, Montreal, and in Richmond and is a landmark study in its own right. I have to say one of my own favorite things that she's done on Tiffany is a little short two-minute video on the Metropolitan's website. She talks about a tiny hair ornament. It's about three inches high that Tiffany made for Louisine Havemeyer. It shows to dragonflies on little dandelion puffs and it's all exquisitely made in enamel and precious stones and precious metals. It is a marvel, and somehow she's a Marvel who managed to make it just come alive in two minutes. It's unforgettable you have to go see it. Overall, of course, across all of these projects Nany has helped us recover an age of extraordinary aesthetic range in American culture. From the elite homes and lives of our Gilded Age ancestors, and shows us a part of our heritage that was hidden for far too long when people were focusing almost exclusively on paintings and sculpture. No wonder then that she received the Frederick E. Church award for her contributions to American culture in 2014. It is a real pleasure to welcome Nany Frelinghuysen to the museum, where she is going to talk tonight about a collaborator of Tiffany's, Agnes Northrop. Nany. Well, Betsy that was a truly beautiful introduction for which I thank you. I just want to say what an honor it is for me to have been invited to speak here as part of the Clarice Smith's Distinguished Lecture Series. I'm just thrilled to be at the Smithsonian American Art Museum. I have to echo a little bit what Betsy was talking about this amazing and to me totally unexpected connection between my topic and Clarice Smith. Clarice Smith, a woman artist, but most recently as a designer and maker of stained-glass who collaborated with the stained glass maker and restored Tom Ventrella on a wonderful oculus commissioned by the New York Historical Society. Which was unveiled only last night, but I have to tell you, in true transparency, I only just learned of Mrs. Smith's work in stained glass last week. It's a wonderful residence with a kind of legacy, i'd like to think, established by Agnes Northrop. As Betsy indicated I have spent the better part of my career studying various aspects of the work of Louis Comfort Tiffany. Of course, Tiffany is a well-known name the son of the founder of the eponymous jewelry and silver store. This artistic polymath whose career spanned over half a century worked in more diverse media than any other single artists of his time, indeed perhaps of all time. Yes, that's a bold statement to make, but one must consider the range of his work from paintings - and i'm showing you two examples here from your collection. Market day at Tangiers, one of them, in the upper left, of 1873. Pastels, watercolors, and photography again from SAAM's collection. Tiffany's photograph of fishermen in Sea bright, New Jersey of 1887, to stained glass windows, mosaics, and lamps to blown glass vessels, enamel work, and pottery to furniture textiles, jewelry - here's that piece that was being referred to - and book design to the design of buildings, interiors, and gardens. Like great artistic and design studios through the ages, Tiffany's workshop was staffed with artists and highly-skilled skilled craftspeople selected by him, most of whom have remained largely anonymous. Yet recent documentation and new research has brought to light the contributions of some of those unknown talents, highlighting especially the important role played by women in Tiffany's studios. A great cache of letters from one of them, Clara Driscoll, identified many women. Driscoll's role as a designer of floral lamb shades and as a manager of what became the Tiffany girls was elucidated in an exhibition a few years ago by the New York Historical Society. The Tiffany girls seen here, pose for their photograph on the roof of the studio's building, where the women responsible for that critical phase in the production of windows and lampshades, which involved the selecting of the glass for the individual components and delicately cutting them into often intricate and unusual shapes. Clara Driscoll is seen standing at the far left of the photograph, but it is the woman standing at the opposite end of the group of women, Agnes Northrop, who has been a particular interest to me. My interest in Northrop was sparked by two drawings in the MET's extensive holdings of water color ink and pencil designs from the Tiffany studios. Few are signed by the artists. Two window designs, however, bear Northrop's signature. The subjects are telling, one is a floral border design for a four seasons allegorical window, the other an elaborate garden landscape. The central figure of the finished window of the drawing on your, let me just back up a little bit. The border does not survive, you just see one detail here. None of those individual panels have come to light yet. Although the central image does, but happily for that garden landscape, the drawing is just the central panel of what is a magnificent three paneled window, that does survive. These then began my quest. My search was aided by the discovery of a memoir that Northrop wrote very late in her life, which helped piece together her biography and provided documentation for a number of the important window commissions. This lecture has given me the opportunity to further my research on Northrop and indeed to consider it in a new light. Louie Tiffany made many innovations in stained-glass notably his development and use of a type of glass called opalescent. Yet one of his most important origination was the introduction of a totally new subject matter. Previously and is practiced by contemporary stainless studios both here and abroad, windows were either strictly decorative or more commonly embodied a narrative or symbolic content with figural subjects. Here you see on your left a window by Edward Burne-Jones for Morris and Company of King David the Poet, and on your right an allegorical figure of spring by Daniel Cottier of New York and London, both dating to the late 19th century. Such was the demand that Tiffany's studios too maintain a thriving business in the design and production of figural windows. Some extraordinarily elaborate, and these can be found in churches throughout the country, thousands. By the end of the 19th century, these figures were often set into either a mere suggestion of a landscape, or even a fully-realized one. Yet no stained glass artist prior to Tiffany promoted and utilized landscape as its sole subject. Tiffany's early artistic mentor, the American tonalist painter George Inness, may have provided a critical influence in directing Tiffany to landscape compositions. The period also coincided with the burgeoning garden movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in which I posit had a similarly important influence on a particular kind of landscape that Tiffany's studios would produce. Windows that would become the domain of the designer Agnes Northrop, who more than once emphatically assertive that she did not do windows, do figures, excuse me. Who was this remarkable unsung woman who pioneered new subject matter and worked on commissions for some of America's most prominent Gilded Age citizens? It's been possible to piece together a rough biography. Agnes was born in 1857 to Emily Fairchild and Alan P Northrop in Flushing, a community in Queens just outside of Manhattan. Her maternal grandfather, Ezra Fairchild, was a well-known educator and established the Fairchild Institute, also known as the Flushing Institute in 1841. Her father taught at the school where he met Magnus's mother and married her. Tiffany acknowledged that his early schooling was in Flushing and although the class rosters for 1860 when he would have matriculated there are missing, it's very possible that he attended the Institute as a young adolescent. Although the institute was a noted private boarding school for boys, it also gave Northrop her first formal education, and she resided there for most of her life even after the death of her parents. Moving only in her final years to the Gramercy Park Hotel where she died at the age of 96 in 1953. Her obituary indicated that she was actively designing windows for churches and mausoleum until two years is before her death. While the Fairchild Institute may account for Northrop's academics schooling, the source of her artistic training is unknown. She's said to have shown an early aptitude for art and briefly designed book covers for a publishing house, like other women of the era. Here I show you a book cover and a stained-glass window both designed by Northrop's contemporary, Sarah Wyman Whitman. One cannot say definitively when Northrop began her career with Tiffany, but in her memoir she recalled that in 1884 at the age of 27 she knew someone who had a friend who worked in "Mr. Tiffany's stained glass business" and she was introduced to him. Tiffany then referred her to Mr. Pringle Mitchell, manager of the firm who told her that she could try it. Agnes Northrop fit the requisite profile of the women Tiffany employeed. She was Protestant, middle class, and unmarried. The studios themselves may have provided some of her artistic training and Northrop recalled that Ann Vanderlip took her under her wing in the very beginning. Vanderlip was one of a small number of women designers working there during the late 1880s and 1890s just for a short time. Here I show you Vanderlip's Minnehaha window with its original design that was made for the Duluth Public Library. During those early years Northrop probably worked in varying capacities and acknowledged the help of Vanderlip. She was made to do copy work, produced cartoons, all kinds of different things in the studios, but she particularly valued the critiques by Tiffany. Such was this by the early eighteen nineties she had forged an independent role for herself within the studios. The first published reference to Northrop's association with Tiffany dates to 1893 when she exhibited a cartoon for a window of an art museum at the Architectural League of New York captioned as having been, designed by L.C. Tiffany drawn by A.F. Northrop. Unfortunately the cartoon is not known to survive, but it may have been a window in the Henry Field Memorial Gallery that Tiffany design for the Art Institute of Chicago also an 1893, and the only Tiffany studio's Art Museum commission that I'm aware of. Might it have been for the skylight which was described as having slender bands in a lotus pattern in light and dark green on the field of soft rich pink? 1893 was an important year for Tiffany and for Northrop. It was the year of the World's Columbian Exposition of Chicago intended to be the largest in history of the international exhibitions. It was significant, the exhibition was significant, for its inclusion of the woman's building, a kind of mini museum that would serve to illustrate the progress women had made over the past 400 years since the country's founding. The building featured a substantial presentation of American applied arts by women: decorative painting, wood carving, pottery, jewelry, several categories of textiles, book design, and stained-glass. Women artists working at the Tiffany Glass and Decorating Company as, it was called at the time, may have had a bit of an edge for Candice Wheeler the mastermind of the building had been a partner with Tiffany in the early 1880s. Northrop contributed a sketch for an elaborate rose window also never executed. Tiffany, himself put on an extensive display at the Chicago fair to great acclaim. This landmark exhibition was a pivotal event in introducing Tiffany's art to the International public, and promoting it for future clients, as well. The extensive display included an entire chapel complete with mosaic reredos, an enormous glass electrolier. glass mosaic columns and baptismal font, and leaded glass windows. Northrop may well have drawn the design for the field of lilies, seen beyond the mosaic columns. You can see that almost trompe l'oeil columns that have been employed here, as well. Indeed in an important article in Art Interchange the following year it was said that Northrop had, "a natural talent for flowers and all conventional designs." She's wisely made these her specialty. A related window of conventionalized annunciation lilies was illustrated in that particular article. Here are the lilies superimposed upon a composition loosely derived from 13th century medallion windows. Northrop did not work with the other women in Tiffany's employ, the glass cutting room where the women selected, arranged, and cut the glass. Although she depended on them greatly for the realization of her designs. Nor did she work in the studio with the other male designers of windows. At least by the early eighteen nineties she had a studio of our own, away from the girls. It was reached by walking through a labyrinthine hole to what was described as a small room with a few flower studies in color and great sheets of Manila paper tacked to the walls. The process began with a small water color rendering usually at a scale of 1 inch to a foot. Watercolor being the medium so well-suited to convey the subtleties of the translucency of colored glass. The sketch was then cast in the designing room into a cartoon the exact size of which the window will be. Northrop was also involved in this process, as well. From there, it was turned over to the selectors and cutters. Northrop was one of the few women to secure a patent for her designs, a practice often employed by her male counterparts. Her first, dates to 1896 and is seen here in the photograph that was part of her patent submission. It was for an ornamental chancel window for St. Matthews Evangelical Lutheran Church in Brooklyn. In the realization of her design as it survives today, the central panel features a jeweled cross surrounded by cherub faces, but the lower half of it and the side lancsets display floral motifs of purple clematis and the stylized leaves and blossoms of the passionflower, in an artistic style that she would utilize in subsequent windows. The windows with which Northrop has been most associated however, are those for her family church in Flushing, the Reformed Church where her grandfather, the Reverend Azra Fairchild, became pastor in 1865. Family members including Agnes were baptized, worshiped, and were burried there. In 1892 they built a new church, a larger building to be adorned with modern windows. The church was particularly proud that their local girl was the designer of the windows. Deemed at the time of the church's 10th anniversary celebration in 1902 to be of exquisite coloring and adding greatly to the beauty of the interior. By 1899 she had designed the Robert Baker Memorial window. The central panel features carefully realized floral motifs, the annunciation lilies and poppies with their symbolic meanings, but also a profusion of lushes double red peonies and magnolia blossoms. These motifs would have had special resonance for the deceased and his family, for Baker was the secretary and treasurer of one of the largest nurseries in Flushing. Northrop received a more poignant commission in 1903 when she was asked to design a window to memorialize her father who had served as an elder in the church. Evoking medallion windows and its overall composition, the top encloses an opalescent heavenly city, but a stylized fruit tree dominates the window set in a landscape of a stream meandering through purple mountains emblematic of the voyage of life. Conventionalized passion-flowers frame the composition. Floral motifs were considered especially appropriate for this window as well because as noted in the local paper when it was unveiled one of Mr. Northrop's chief pleasures was working in his flower garden, which would have proved handy subject matter for Agnes. Although Northrop was primarily a designer of windows, Driscoll's letters reveal that from time to time Tiffany directed her to assist the Tiffany girls when short-staffed. Like when he suggested that she helped Driscoll on the design of this complex deep sea lap. She again helped Driscoll with some small bronze boxes based on Queen Anne's lace and other decorative objects, even designing silk lampshade panels like these decorated with stylized pinks. Northrop knew the drill, she had preceded Driscoll as head of the Tiffany girls for about a year or so with about nine young women under her, but she never liked her managerial role preferring art. She recalled that she was ever so pleased when she learned of Driscoll's arrival, Northrop gladly resigned in her favor. Designing windows was her enduring passion. It's important to remember that numerous artists design Tiffany windows. In the true sense of a studio there was a constant flow of work from designers to those who executed the leaded glass all under Tiffany's supervision, but of the men and women involved in the studios during the 1880s and 1890s Northrop outlasted them all enjoying an unprecedented career of nearly half a century there. The majority of those who contributed designs were men in addition to Tiffany, Frederick Wilson, Joseph Louberg, Jacob Holzer, and Edward Sperry who like Northrup was also from Flushing. Yet like many of the designers of Tiffany's lamps and windows Northrop was not generally credited for her role. The studios were active and busy and Driscoll's letters suggest that there was more of an atmosphere of collaboration then has been previously acknowledged. In true studio fashion, it was apparently not unusual for two designers to work on different aspects of a single-window. A description published in 1894 acknowledged that Northrop was called upon to "add details and flowers too many important windows." One example that was singled out was the Jay Gould memorial window at Roxbury, New York where Northrop drew the floral background for Frederick Wilson's figural design. British-trained Wilson was Tiffany's principal designer of figural windows. Northrop by then had become the principal for flowers, foliage, and then landscapes. This drawing that I showed earlier is for an allegorical four seasons window and it documents an important collaboration between Tiffany and Northrop. It was made for Walter Jenning's Long Island mansion, Burwood, just across Cold Spring harbor from Tiffany's country estate Lauralton Hall. Jennings, a founder of Standard Oil, commissioned this window for the landing of the grand staircase above the front entrance - a typical location for a Tiffany window. The long vertical rectangle was for the figural panels, and as they survive today are remarkably close to the original watercolor, as you can see here. It had a elaborate decorative border and the figure in the center of the drawing was signed at the bottom of the fall/winter design, you can barely make out the Louis C. Tiffany. The bottom of the floral border was also signed and it, as I hope you can read, says A.F. Northrop. The border is composed of 12 individual floral panels - perhaps a much favored temporal allegories - referencing in their number the months of the year. Each depicts a different flower. The two side panels one with the hourglass the other with a sickle also allude to the transitory nature of time. They offer a virtual vocabulary tablet of some of Northrop's and Tiffany's favored motifs. The top register portraying flowering vines, climbing white planetas, purple wisteria, trumpet bynum and purple clematis. The bottom register was all water plants, the waterlily lotus, and Japanese iris. two panels depict vases of flowers, one of peonies, and the other of poppies. Floral studies were introduced as subject matter in their own right for stained glass during the aesthetic era. Some windows, such as those by Fredrick Crowning Shield or Daniel Cottier, referenced the pre-Raphaelite style as seen in the window, Cottier's window, on your left in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. La Farge's flower studies were equally distinctive in there homage to Japanese art, such as the MET's Peonies Blowing in the Wind, and both date to about 1880. Northrop forged her own individualistic style, at times more decorative mode, at others more naturalistic. Her most notable floral study is her Magnolia window made for the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1900 and now in the collection of the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg. It's almost abstract in its rich assemblage of five luscious magnolia blossoms. The creamy white petals are arrayed in such a fashion that they're almost indistinguishable from the dense green foliage. It received high acclaim in the exhibition press called superb nothing approaching it is shown by class workers anywhere. It garnered a diploma of Merit from the judges who singled out Northrop for the excellent window designed by her and exhibited by Tiffany studios. Whether Tiffany would have credited Northrop and the other designers is not known, because the requirements of the exhibition of Paris stipulated that all entrance supply the designers, name not always the practice. This window is also evidence of Northrop's careful observation of nature. Indeed magnolias were a subject of a particularly beautiful watercolor study as well as for a photograph of hers. The relatively large number of her photographs that survived is testament not only to Northrop's interested in nature but also her early interest in photography. Her use of the camera prompted Driscoll to write in one of her letters on June 15th, 1898 that, "Miss Northrop has a sixty-dollar camera and has taken some beautiful photographs of dogwoods, ferns, and other plants that are so fine. They are of great value to her. The only trouble is that the expense only begun when the camera is bought. Each photograph cost something." Driscoll's concern over the cost and Tiffany's for that matter didn't seem to phase Northrop. As seen on a sketching trip to Europe that Northrop took at Tiffany's invitation, joined by Driscoll and Parker Mcelhenney also in Tiffany's employ. In the journal that Tiffany keep of that trip - one of the very few Tiffany holographic materials to survive - he wrote in July 1907 that, "he insisted that Dr. Mcelhenney and Mrs. Driscoll save the film, and photograph only what I have selected, but could do nothing with Miss Northrop who took a picture regardless of anything I had said." I think she would well have benefited from our digital age. Nonetheless her photographs of plants provided important source material for many of her window designs. Tiffany's journal of that trip provides further confirmation of her focus on floral subjects. They toured the French countryside traveling in style and flashy automobile photographing and sketching apparently with greater or lesser success. For Tiffany commented on one outing that, "Miss Northrop tore her's up, Mrs. Driscoll's in pencil - no good. Here you see them sketching with Tiffany in the middle, Clara on his right, and Agnes on his left all sketching on a sidewalk in Campere. On another day, Tiffany bought for Agnes some very fine gladiolas, dark purple, verry rich and asked her to stay at home and paint them. A few days later he purchased some fine dahlias almost like chrysanthemums sent them all home and found miss Northrop arranging them when I got back. It was the introduction of landscapes as an appropriate subject matter for stained glass windows that was where Tiffany truly made his mark. It was connected to the various philosophical discourses of the second half of the 19th century. Swedenborgian thought that enice had embraced, as well as ideals espoused by Emerson and Thoreau on the spiritualism conveyed by nature. Fields and woodlands were widely admired as nature's gardens. Tiffany's earliest woodland landscape window, Northrop's, dates to 1895 the Isaac Harding Frothingham Memorial for the Church of the Savior, now the First Unitarian Church in Brooklyn, with its Old Testament subject of the heart and the brook. At the time of its installation, it received a write-up in the Brooklyn daily Eagle. The description based, no doubt, on a press release written by Tiffany's very ambitious marketing department. It was especially glowing. "The lower part of the memorial window is a beautiful landscape representing a bounding rushing brook in a forest glade. Illuminated with the light of the setting sun which warms and fills with a rich glow the most remote nook of the glade. So close to nature, as the scene depicted that for a moment it seems as if it were nature itself seen through an open window." The landscape is actually only the lower half of the window. The upper half above the balcony was a figural design of angels that was designed by Frederick Wilson. Despite this dramatic innovation and subject matter, that the landscape represented and perhaps emblematic of the struggles of women receiving little recognition for their work, the newspaper article identified only Wilson as the designer, failing to credit Northrop at all for her contribution. Tiffany did credit Northrop for her design of the first landscape window he published in one of the vast amount of promotional literature that the studios produced. The little pamphlet dating to 1896 featured 16 windows, all but one figural designs, all designed by Tiffany's stable of male designers. Only one woman's work was represented, a landscape, Northrop's. The landscape window in the Brooklyn church was not the sublime that attracted American landscape painters of earlier decades, rather it is the familiar intimate view. It's tempting to speculate that Northrop's local surrounding served as inspiration. Suggested by one of her luminous photographs that she took of her local Kassena Brook, part of Kassena Park in Flushing, which captures a very similar scene of a meandering rock-strewn Brooks surrounded by trees. Almost a full decade later she created a similar woodland landscape again referencing the heart and the brook in the Trobridge Memorial, originally for the First Church of Christ now Center Church in New Haven, Connecticut. She would eventually introduced this now almost generic view for an ecclesiastic setting to as Northrop wrote, "apartments where a window was wanted for color and to blot out a view not interesting." She adapted the scene in 1910 for a window for the New York dining room commissioned by Helen Gould, the daughter of Robert Baron Jay Gould. Northrop's memoirs provide this crucial documentation. The subject of a rock filled stream amidst autumn foliage bears a striking similarity as well to the autumn landscape window in the MET's collection. It, too, a domestic window. The original drawing indicated that it was designed in 1923 for the Brookline Massachusetts Neo-Gothic masion of real estate magnate Lauren Delbert Toll. But in many ways the window, I think, may have been prophetic. Such a tunnel woodland scenes often grace mausoleums or were appropriate memorials in churches. Toll, however, went bankrupt and died before his house was even completed and presumably his heirs, unable to pay his debts, including the Tiffany studios bill, defaulted before the window was actually installed in the house. Tiffany at that point convinced his close friend Robert De Forest to donate it to the Metropolitan just a few years later. About the time that Northrop was probably working on the designs for the Gould window, Tiffany studios received the commission for some windows for a small church, Union church, in Proctor, Vermont. The town, founded by the Proctor family, is best known for its marble quarries and stone cutting. The lengthy correspondence between the Proctor family and Tiffany studios survives, shedding rare light on the patron client relationship. One of the founders of the town, Frederick Proctor, first contacted Tiffany studios in 1909 requesting a window for the church. The studios wrote in reply, "we will be glad to prepare special designs for your consideration or possibly you may have a particular subject in mind?" Proctor evidently did have a particular subject in mind, in fact the view of the Vermont mountains that are visible from the church. Proctor sent the studios a photograph of the view of Mount Killington and Mount Pico, which the proctors partially owned. These photographs were turned over to Northrop and one of these here remarkably survived in a group of Northrop's effects. Several sketches were apparently drawn sent back and forth, full-size cartoons were made, visits to and from the studios, and much bargaining. The original estimate was four to five thousand dollars and it was eventually negotiated to a price of two thousand. The resulting window based on this photograph was completed in 1911, a luminous depiction of that spectacular site-specific mountain view in summer. So successful was that window that when Frederick Proctor died the following year his widow went to Tiffany studios to commission a companion window, autumn, in her husband's memory. there are No records of photographs for this, but certainly it too features the Vermont countryside now in its fiery autumn foliage. It's likely that Northrop was also responsible for the design of Proctor's third window dating to nearly two decades later. This time a memorial to Frederick Proctor's widow. Here depicting spring, complete with the field of daffodils in the foreground. Northrop adapted her mountain landscape theme again in 1913 in perhaps a more structured landscape. A composition that is almost arts and crafts and its aesthetic with its rigid vertical trees that serve as a framing device with a canopy of greenery at the top. Here she added a profusion of pink floral and rhododendrons in the foreground. The window figured prominently the Northrops memoirs, no doubt, for the importance of the commission by Andrew Carnegie and his wife, for a window in memory of his parents and siblings in Dunfermline Abbey in Scotland. The reception of that window demonstrates, however, that Tiffany's and Northrop's new subject matter was not universally embraced. As arresting as the design was the window proved too radical for a more conservative British clientele steeped in their tradition of narrative windows. The pure landscape subject defended the local clergy and it was rejected for the Abbey by the authorities because it was deemed, "unecclesiastic and too modern." They wanted conventional designs drawn from geometry or hagiography. They also rejected the new opalescent glass, adding they prefered for it to be made up of little pieces of glass. But Carnegie was quoted as saying that he selected the design because it expressed to him religious emotion as he said, "God is in the all the great outdoors." Carnegie like Proctor had a close connection with this commission and he visited the studios often during the process. He contributed various suggestions, some not chosen like replacing the rhododendrons in the foreground with thistles to connect to his Scottish heritage. The window, however, is not pure landscape it's rather, with its foreground rendering of flowering shrubs, it's more of a landscape koon garden. Now I would like to conclude by looking at Tiffany and Northrop in light of their bridging of those worlds - landscapes and gardens - from a new perspective and more particularly connecting the world of stained glass with the blossoming garden movement and the work of the American impressionist painters. The period of the flourishing of Tiffany's landscape and garden windows coincides with gardens themselves becoming a dominant subject in American painting. I'm fortunate to have so many wonderful images to choose from the Smithsonian here. Here Childe Hassam and Celia Thaxter's garden on the Isles of Shoals, that I couldn't resist. This was a theme that was rarely encountered as gardens in and of themselves prior to the advent of American impressionism. These artists painted the colorful, intimate, pleasing, domestic scaled gardens which found great favor among the American public. The late 19th century saw tremendous growth in interesting gardens. Urbanization and denser and noisier city living caused many to move out to the newly formed suburbs where they made their own private domestic scale gardens. At the same time the newly rich, who are creating grand homes in cities like New York, on Fifth and Park Avenues, we're building concomitant country estates establishing seasonal resort homes and communities and Lenox, Massachusetts and Newport, Rhode Island or on Long Island. I'm just showing you two early 20th century estate gardens from the Smithsonian's digitization project of the Garden Club of America's lantern slides. Both of these of Long Island Gardens. The one on the left, the doubled day garden and on the right the garden for Mrs. Harold Pratt, also a Tiffany patron in Glencoe. This interest in gardens of all kinds was nurtured by the proliferation of gardening articles in the popular press, as well as the new magazines and books devoted to the subject. House in Garden, Country Life in America, and countless publications. Many authored by women such as Alice Morse Earl's Old-Time Gardens of 1901, and Hildegard Hawthorn's the Lure of the Garden of 1911, that provided both practical advice as well as well illustrated discussions of garden philosophy and design. Garden clubs and societies sprouted nationwide culminating in the founding of the Garden Club of America in 1913. I want to credit Anna Marley of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art and her exhibition and publication on artists and the garden movement as one of the catalyst for my rethinking of Northrop's windows in this particular context. She began her essay quoting Annalee Merit's 1908 book, An Artist's Garden. "An artist's interest in gardening is to produce pictures without brushes." Indeed, I would agree. Tiffany and Northrop demonstrate another way to produce pictures without brushes. This sentiment was put forth by the noted landscape architect Beatrice Barron the previous year when she wrote in an essay published in Scribners entitled, The Garden as a Picture, "the landscape gardener paints with actual color, line, and perspective to make a composition, as the maker of stained glass does." Both authors may well have been channeling Gertrude Jekyll whose publications were many in which had a large following in the United States. It was Jekyll who promoted the idea of the garden as a series of pictures as early as 1882. The period also saw a proliferation of interest on the part of artists to construct their own gardens, which often served as subjects for their paintings. Notably the gardens of the artistic circle of Cornish, New Hampshire, or those of Lillian Wescott and Phillip Hail outside of Philadelphia, and John Henry Twachtman in Connecticut whose home and grounds became a gathering place for fellow impressionist, to name just a few. Certainly gardens were an important theme for impressionist painters both here and abroad. In the present context, Tiffany himself was something of a self-taught landscape architect and he designed extensive gardens on his nearly 600 acre country estate Lauralton Hall. He created both formal and natural gardens throughout the property as these rare color images published in Country Life in America, suggest. Often demonstrating his preference for native varieties, they included sweeps of purple iris near a pond, or pool of water with great clusters of water lilies. He also maintained extensive greenhouses on the property to continually restock the gardens, terraces, and interior court. When he commissioned the Spanish artist, Joaquín Sorolla, to do his portrait in 1911, he chose as his setting the flower-filled terraces of Lauralton Hall. Although Northrop did not have the space nor the means to maintain a garden, there was one that she frequented at the Flushing Institute, as seen in this photograph of hers of hydrangeas in bloom there. You can just barely make out the Institute garden. Perhaps more importantly, during the third quarter of the 19th century and well into the twentieth her hometown of Flushing was dominated by the horticultural industry. The first commercial nursery in the nation was founded there in 1735, and the industry grew in the 19th century, as the garden movement flourished in the ensuing decades. By the turn of the century Flushing was the nursery capital of New York and widespread surrounding areas. There were at least five large nurseries establish there, and as witnessed by these trade catalogs, just a few of the many that were published that date to the first decades of the 20th century, they were extensive indeed. There were at least 20 different varieties, I counted, of magnolias alone listed in the Parsons nursery catalog. During this period, nurseries took on the role of botanical gardens and they invited members of the public to view and enjoy their stock. Northrop most certainly spent much time there. Pure garden windows were typically more the province of domestic commissions rather than ecclesiastic, with few exceptions. One of the earliest of Northrop's ambitious domestic garden landscapes dates to 1905. This glorious window, now at the Corning Museum of Glass. It was commissioned by Melchior Beltzhoover, an oil and cotton millionaire, from Natchez, Mississippi for the music room Rochroane the 44 room castle he built in Irvington, New York. Beltzhoover had earlier, in 1895, commissioned from Tiffany a resurrection angel window in memory of his wife's parents, in Natchez. The mansion's architect A.J. Manning was not notable other than the fact that he was local to Irvington, and Tiffany worked with him on several notable commissions. Tiffany, himself, spent long summers, many summers in his parents country place in Irvington before building his own country estate on Long Island. The house overlooked the Hudson River and indeed the landscape in stained glass suggest the views of the Hudson as it might have been seen from the house. The foreground, however, is the garden with the flowers serving as the framing elements. As such the grandeur of the Hudson River landscape is mediated by more comfortable garden flowers, recognizable species hollyhocks, trumpet vines, and clematis. The window created by Northrop, an artistic invention of a perpetual garden. Such gardens were redolent of the old-fashioned garden, part of the nostalgic atmosphere of the colonial revival. These gardens were comforting and expressed reassuring notions to an America anxious over the potent political and social changes taking place in the decades following the nation's centennial in 1876. Issues of immigration from both Europe and Asia and the stirrings of unrest that would lead to World War One. Gardens were also considered for their therapeutic qualities. Thus depictions of gardens in one's home in paintings or windows imparted qualities of comfort and well-being year round, but unlike a painting a stained-glass window took it one step further. It actually closed off the troubling outside world presenting instead an idealized gardenview. Period publication endorsed not only the therapeutic value of gardens themselves, but as an ideal of the Arts and Crafts movement promoted the close connection between the garden and the home. Careful consideration was given to the view of the garden out of the window of the home. The noted landscape architect Fletcher Steel in his article, tying together house and garden in Garden Magazine of 1915, wrote, "if care is taken that every house window shall be a frame for a beautiful picture, and that there be as much variety as possible in the views, the landscape will become a living picture tied up with the house in the best way." As impressionist paintings often show domestic gardens viewed from a window or from an open doorway, a garden stained-glass window could do one better. It would literally provide a constant pleasing garden view not from the window but as the window itself, and as such the garden always seen at its peak. Here we are, opps, I guess it was taking just a while. One of the more elaborate, or probably one of the most elaborate of Northrop's garden landscapes was this three-panel panorama window of 1913 made for Sarah Cochran's country estate Linden Hall outside of Pittsburgh. The drawing composed of washes of gouache and semi transparent watercolor confirms Northrop's authorship with her signature at the lower right. It was commissioned by a woman. Cochran's husband Philip died young but not before making a fortune in developing a process to make coke and this providing her with the means to build Linden Hall. Cochran loved gardens and built extensive ones on the grounds. Hence the subject she requested for the window which may be a departure from the fictionalized gardens that were Northrop's usual repertoire. The garden had a long vista through tall pines flanking a central sculptural fountain. The two side panels depict on the left foxgloves and peonies exquisitely rendered in glass, and on the right hollyhocks, much favored by Northrop and the American Impressionists. Indeed the plants at Northrop depicted for her garden windows aligned with those that brought to mind the comforting nostalgia of the old-fashioned garden, and those promoted by the many garden writers, such as hollyhocks, penes, iris, poppies, lilies, sweet william, and fox glove. The hollyhock was one of the most esteemed by garden writers and artists alike. Here I show you Frederick Frieseke among the hollyhocks of 1911, from the National Academy of Design. Most writers prefer the simpler single blossom variety to the double ones and they conjured up thoughts of one's ancestors. Candace Wheeler, Tiffany's partner early in this decorative career wrote in 1901 in her book, Content in a Garden, "the hollyhocks and marigolds of our present gardens undoubtedly stretch an unbroken chain of linked seeds back to the English gardens from which our Puritan foremothers parted in sorrow and this thought makes them more welcome and dear." It was much favored in painting and in glass. Foxgloves and peonies also favored by Northrop and her American impressionist counterparts appealed to the antiquarianism of grandmother's garden. Earl for example, in her old time gardens spoke of the peonies charms and how fine peonies plants in an old garden personified New England Brahmins. Similarly the iris through its association with the old-fashioned garden was promoted throughout the period. Articles proliferated on its suitability in the various periodicals and books at the time. It provided subject matter for painters like Maria Oakey Dewing and her Iris at Dawn of 1899. The old-time garden association and Christian iconography together combine to make iris and lilys ideal subjects for garden stained-glass memorials, such as this memorial window for a mausoleum in Brooklyn of magnolias and iris. It's now in the MET's collection. Here I couldn't help but compare a detail from that window with the mass irises in Tiffany's garden. As demonstrated here and by the floral renditions in the Cochrane window, the windows revealed that Northrop shared her employers aptitude for exploiting the varied textures, lush colors, and light effects that were made possible with opalescent glass and plating. Tiffany had revolutionized the making of stained-glass, producing an extraordinary new range of colors and chromatic effects. Glass with streaks of commingled color and hand manipulated to achieve textures. Just to notice here the model glass of the leaves here of this incredible shaded glass - all of this in the glass itself. I show you here two details from the MET's autumn landscape window further demonstrating these effects, the effects of Tiffany glass, and it's rendering of the texture and the solidity of the boulder on one side or light coming through the autumn foliage on the other. In this detail from the Northrop memorial, it reveals that Tiffany studios utilized every technique available. Here acid etching on flashed glass to achieve the distinctive corona of the passionflower. American Impressionists often people their garden pictures with women, but Northrop generally did not. One exception is the window which still remains in the setting for which it was created, dating to approximately the same time as the Cochrane window. This lush garden interpretation was commissioned for Swannanoa the grand commanding country home of Richmond, Virginia millionaire James Dooley and his wife, Sally Mae. This was the mountain retreat for the Dooleys who lived in a grand mansion in a park-like setting, Maymont. A wonderful historic house by the way, which is open to the public and which is also graced by a massive Tiffany window. Swannanoa, privately owned today, is located high on the crest of the blue ridge mountains. Here the figure is the personification of Sally Mae just having gathered, like Celia Thaxter coming out of her garden, some flowers or greenery. The idealized woman garbed in a flowing white classical gown rather than one of more contemporary fashion. The figure aside, its composition conforms to that of the Cochrane and Beltzhoover windows. She's flanked by the same banks of foxglove on one side and hollyhocks on the other with masses of marigolds and pink roses climbing the pergola. The rendering of foxglove and hollyhocks in the Cochrane and Dooley windows suggest that Northrop may also have provided a series of designs for Cyrus McCormick when he commissioned Tiffany studios to design windows in 1922 in memory of his wife for St. Mary's By the Sea in Carmel, California. This second drawing labeled, "scheme #7" indicates that there must have been at least seven different versions drawn from which Mr. McCormick made his final selection. Similar subjects appear on two garden windows that Tiffany installed at Lauralton Hall during the mid teens when he was embellishing his country estate with a collection of windows from his studios that he considered among the very best, further testament to Tiffany's high regard for Northrop's work. These sadly destroyed when Lauralton Hall burned to the ground in 1957. Agnes Northrop therefore, in her extraordinary five decade-long career at Tiffany studios broke new barriers in a field dominated by men in establishing herself as one of the leading designers of stained glass windows. In connecting the worlds of landscapes and gardens with painting and stained-glass Northrop created illusionistic garden pictures, visions of light and color. Works that are at once intimate and complex, that are perennial manifestations of the artistic environmental movement's of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Thank you very much. I like to entertain questions, if anybody has one. There are microphones here, in the auditorium. If you feel reluctant to go to a microphone I'm happy to repeat your question. Good evening. Thank you so much for coming to Washington, D.C. this evening. Could you talk a little bit about your research process, for example how you found Agnes' photographs and her watercolors? Are these things that are already in the MET archives, or how do you go about finding the things that you do? Well, good question. As Betsy eluted, I've been in this world for a little while, and have talked to many, many, many people and collectors. It's interesting that the, sort of, the memoir came from a long, long, long time Tiffany collector, who was extremely closed about it. For many years, wouldn't let me even see it. Then, you know, I hate to say it, but finally and when he died his son actually knew of my interest in this and finally made it available to me. How he acquired it, I really don't know. The photographs, there was a group of her effects that turned up and that Lillian Nassau, that sort of Diane of dealing in Tiffany works of art had acquired early, early on. There's no history about how they got it, there is a whole chest of it. Many of the personal photographs, for example, of Agnes Northrop came from that, as did the wonderful photograph of the Vermont mountains. They have happily, very generously given those to the MET, so those are in the MET's collection. The wonderful photographs of flowers and the like is part of a group of photographs that came to light on their own by a private collector in California. It's a needle in a haystack kind of research I hate to say. Yes. Just to repeat the question for those who didn't hear it, the question was that I had referred to the last years of Northrop's life were at the Gramercy Park Hotel in New York. There is a Gramercy Park, sort of, surrounded by buildings, and did that have any impact, did she mention that in her memoirs? She was 94 when she moved into the Gramercy Park Hotel, or maybe 93, so by then she was very much winding down her work in designing windows. I don't think it had any influence on it, but you are absolutely right that only residence in buildings around Gramercy Park are given a key to that private park. Thank you, such a visual feast to see your pictures today, and interesting I was at the Dooley Mansion just a couple weekends ago, so it was nice to hear about that. I'm curious about the process of staining glass, and I don't know if this would go a little bit beyond your area, specifically. I'm just intrigued by how detailed the, like you're pointing out that passion flower, and how this was the little lines in the there and just the the wide range of colors within one piece of glass. Could you comment on that a little bit? I could give another lecture on that topic. I would be happy to do. It's a very involved process, and many people were involved in it. I got you essentially to the design and then the large full-size cartoon with thick lines to allow for the leading which is needed to join the individual pieces of glass together. Tiffany revolutionized how glass pieces were actually held together as well with a completely new novel technique which enabled these very tiny, in your regular shape, glass pieces to be fitted together. Then he established his own glassmaking studios in Corona also in Queens where he brought over chemists and scientists from England and he directed them in the making of many, many, many different kinds of glass. Available in the studios was a virtual library which you could go through stacks of myriad kinds of green, and they were striated, they were textured, they were you know had a directional quality. These women, these wonderful Tiffany girls, were the ones, and he deemed they were particularly sensitive to color and also were more dexterous, frankly. It was up to them once you have this cartoon, and a small watercolor to work with that collection of glass to identify the piece with the exact same color you want for that particular pedal, for example, or leaf. They would then cut it out and then it sort of it would be fastened to a great big sheet of glass essentially. Replacing all the little individual pieces, which are now paper from the cartoon, to form this great big mosaic which would be the window. All the while, Tiffany was coming by particularly for the most important windows some of these and would give his opinion and say, "no too much of that" or "too little of that." There are layers of glass that were applied on the back and even the front might be just one additional layer of glass to alter the color just in a very minute way. There was acid etching, there was some cold painting on some of the glass, but by and large most of it is just done with the glass itself. It's a whole topic in and of itself. Okay, maybe one more, hold on, two more. Oh, you want the microphone? Okay, I'm not sure I see that. Oh, there you are. I wanted to thank you for giving me an appreciation of my hometown that I never had because I grew up in Queens and our view was always, MET was my home away from home. I loved hanging out particularly in the stained glass and so we were always looking across the East River. I never knew all of this about Flushing and the botanical history, the nursery history of my hometown. So thank you. I don't think too many people do, but it was really important. More recently having lived in New Jersey for 20 years Frelinghuysen Arboretum and so I appreciate your familial connections with the botanical, as well. I wanted to know, especially with this history of Flushing, is there, are a lot of these churches of the places around New York available to the public to view? Absolutely, I mean, some churches are locked and you might have to wait for a Sunday or a day when there's somebody in the office, but never hesitate, I do it all the time. That wonderful the church, the Bowne Street Church in Flushing, is definitely there with all of its windows. They are actually looking to do some work to make sure they're in the best of condition. They're very proud of what they have there. There are churches here, everywhere, let me tell you. It's the landscaping garden windows that are harder to find. Yes. Thank you. She was, yes, her grave is there. Great. I think one last question and then we'll adjourn upstairs. Two of the windows I showed are at the MET. The autumn landscape window is in the Charles Engelhard Court just as you enter the American wing, and the magnolias and iris window is in the Deedee Wigmore Gallery devoted to the art of Louis C. Tiffany on the first floor just off the courtyard. Yeah, thank you so very much.

Contents

Early life

Frothingham was born in Jamaica Plain on July 13, 1871. He attended the public schools and Adams Academy. He graduated from Harvard University in 1893 (where he was a member of the Porcellian) and from Harvard Law School in 1896. He was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Boston. He served as second lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps in the Spanish–American War.

Political career

Frothingham was elected a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives, and served as Speaker from 1904 to 1905. He was the Republican nominee in the 1905 Boston mayoral election after narrowly defeating former Judge Henry S. Dewey. He lost the general election to Democrat John F. Fitzgerald 48% to 39%.[3][4] He served as the 41st Lieutenant Governor 1909–1911, but was an unsuccessful candidate for Governor in 1911. He was lecturer at Harvard. He then moved to North Easton and continued the practice of law. He was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1916.

On May 9, 1916, Frothingham married Mary Shreve Ames in North Easton, Massachusetts.[5] Mary Shreve Ames was a member of the wealthy and prominent Ames family of Easton, Massachusetts, she was the daughter of Frederick Lothrop Ames the great niece of Congressman Oakes Ames, and the first cousin, once removed of Oliver Ames who was Lieutenant Governor and Governor of Massachusetts.

Frothingham served as a major in the United States Army during World War I. He was a member of the commission to visit the soldiers and sailors from Massachusetts in France. He served as first vice commander of the Massachusetts branch of the American Legion in 1919. He was overseer of Harvard University for eighteen years.

Frothingham was elected as a Republican to the Sixty-seventh and to the three succeeding Congresses and served from March 4, 1921, until his death on board the yacht Winsome in North Haven, Maine on August 23, 1928. His interment was in Village Cemetery in North Easton.

See also

References

  • United States Congress. "Louis A. Frothingham (id: F000395)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.

Bibliography

  • Who's Who in State Politics, 1911 Practical Politics (1911) pp. 6–7.
  • Sherburne, John H. Battery A: Field Artillery M. V. M., 1895–1905, (1908) pp. 14, 18, 184–185.
  • Bridgman, Arthur Milnor. A Souvenir of Massachusetts Legislators (1901) p. 179.

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Sherburne, John H. (1908), Battery A: Field Artillery M. V. M., 1895–1905, Boston, MA: Battery A: Field Artillery M. V. M., pp. 14, 18
  2. ^ Sherburne, John H. (1908), Battery A: Field Artillery M. V. M., 1895–1905, Boston, MA: Battery A: Field Artillery M. V. M., pp. 184–185
  3. ^ "Annual Report of the Board of Election Commissioners". City of Boston. 1905. p. 138. Retrieved March 18, 2018 – via archive.org.
  4. ^ "Annual Report of the Board of Election Commissioners". City of Boston. 1905. p. 171. Retrieved March 18, 2018 – via archive.org.
  5. ^ Castle, William Richards (September 1916), The Harvard Graduates' Magazine, XXV (XCVII), Boston, MA: The Harvard Graduates' Magazine Association, pp. 184–185

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