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259.1 ± 0.5 – 251.902 ± 0.024 Ma
Name formalityFormal
Synonym(s)Late/Upper Permian
Usage information
Celestial bodyEarth
Regional usageGlobal (ICS)
Time scale(s) usedICS Time Scale
Chronological unitEpoch
Stratigraphic unitSeries
Time span formalityFormal
Lower boundary definitionFAD of the Conodont Clarkina postbitteri postbitteri
Lower boundary GSSPPenglaitan Section, Laibin, Guangxi, China
23°41′43″N 109°19′16″E / 23.6953°N 109.3211°E / 23.6953; 109.3211
GSSP ratified2004[2]
Upper boundary definitionFAD of the Conodont Hindeodus parvus.
Upper boundary GSSPMeishan, Zhejiang, China
31°04′47″N 119°42′21″E / 31.0798°N 119.7058°E / 31.0798; 119.7058
GSSP ratified2001[3]

The Lopingian is the uppermost series/last epoch of the Permian.[4] It is the last epoch of the Paleozoic. The Lopingian was preceded by the Guadalupian and followed by the Early Triassic.

The Lopingian is often synonymous with the informal terms late Permian or upper Permian.

The name was introduced by Amadeus William Grabau in 1931 and derives from Leping, Jiangxi in China.[5] It consists of two stages/ages. The earlier is the Wuchiapingian and the later is the Changhsingian.[6]

The International Chronostratigraphic Chart (v2018/07)[4] provides a numerical age of 259.1 ±0.5 Ma. If a Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) has been approved, the lower boundary of the earliest stage determines numerical age of an epoch. The GSSP for the Wuchiapingian has a numerical age of 259.8 ± 0.4 Ma.[7][8]

The Lopingian ended with the Permian–Triassic extinction event.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • Permian Period Part-2 | Geologic Time Scale |Geology | Mass Extinction | UPSC | GATE | CSIR NET| GSI
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See also


  1. ^ "Chart/Time Scale". International Commission on Stratigraphy.
  2. ^ Jin, Yugan; Shen, Shuzhong; Henderson, Charles; Wang, Xiangdong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yue; Cao, Changqun; Shang, Qinghua (December 2006). "The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the boundary between the Capitanian and Wuchiapingian Stage (Permian)" (PDF). Episodes. 29 (4): 253–262. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2006/v29i4/003. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
  3. ^ Hongfu, Yin; Kexin, Zhang; Jinnan, Tong; Zunyi, Yang; Shunbao, Wu (June 2001). "The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Permian-Triassic Boundary" (PDF). Episodes. 24 (2): 102–114. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2001/v24i2/004. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  4. ^ a b International Commission on Stratigraphy. "Chart". Retrieved 10 July 2018.
  5. ^ Zhang, Shouxin (2009). Geological Formation Names of China (1866–2000). Beijing/Dordrecht: Higher Education Press/Springer. p. 681. ISBN 978-7-040-25475-4.
  6. ^ Allaby, Michael (2015). A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780199653065.001.0001. ISBN 9780199653065.
  7. ^ International Commission on Stratigraphy. "GSSPs". Retrieved 10 July 2018.
  8. ^ Gradstein, Felix M.; Ogg, James G.; Smith, Alan G. (2004). A Geologic Time Scale 2004. ISBN 9780521786737.

This page was last edited on 23 May 2021, at 15:18
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