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Heathrow Airport

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Logo 2013.svg
London - Heathrow (LHR - EGLL) AN1572653.jpg
Summary
Airport typePublic
OwnerHeathrow Airport Holdings
OperatorHeathrow Airport Limited
ServesLondon, England
LocationNear Longford in Hillingdon borough, London
Hub forBritish Airways
Focus city forVirgin Atlantic
Elevation AMSL83 ft / 25 m
Coordinates51°28′39″N 000°27′41″W / 51.47750°N 0.46139°W / 51.47750; -0.46139
Websitewww.heathrow.com
Map
LHR is located in Greater London
LHR
LHR
LHR is located in the United Kingdom
LHR
LHR
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
09L/27R 3,902 12,802 Grooved asphalt
09R/27L 3,660 12,008 Grooved asphalt
Statistics (2018)
Passengers80,102,017
Passenger change 17–18Increase2.7%
Aircraft movements477,604
Movements change 17–18Increase1.0%
Sources:
Statistics from the UK Civil Aviation Authority[1]

Heathrow Airport, also known as London Heathrow[2] (IATA: LHR, ICAO: EGLL), is a major international airport in London, United Kingdom. Heathrow is the second busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic, as well as the busiest airport in Europe by passenger traffic, and the seventh busiest airport in the world by total passenger traffic. It is one of six international airports serving Greater London. In 2018, it handled a record 80.1 million passengers, a 2.7% increase from 2017 as well as 477,604 aircraft movements, an increase of 1,821 from 2017.[1] The airport facility is owned and operated by Heathrow Airport Holdings.

Heathrow lies 14 miles (23 km) west of Central London,[2] and has two parallel east–west runways along with four operational terminals on a site that covers 12.27 square kilometres (4.74 sq mi). The airport is the primary hub for British Airways and the primary operating base for Virgin Atlantic.

In September 2012, the Government of the United Kingdom established the Airports Commission, an independent commission chaired by Sir Howard Davies to examine various options for increasing capacity at UK airports. In July 2015, the commission backed a third runway at Heathrow, which the government approved in October 2016.[3][4][5]

Location

A Qantas Boeing 747-400 on approach to London Heathrow runway 27L[6]
A Qantas Boeing 747-400 on approach to London Heathrow runway 27L[6]

Heathrow is 14 mi (23 km) west of central London,[2] near the south end of the London Borough of Hillingdon on a parcel of land that is designated part of the Metropolitan Green Belt. The airport is surrounded by the villages of Harlington, Harmondsworth, and Longford to the north and by Hounslow, Cranford and Hatton to the east. To the south lie Feltham, Bedfont and Stanwell while to the west Heathrow is separated from Wraysbury, Horton and Windsor in Berkshire by the M25 motorway. Heathrow falls entirely under the Twickenham postcode area, with the postcode TW6. The airport is located within the Hayes and Harlington parliamentary constituency.

As the airport is located west of London and as its runways run east-west, an airliner's landing approach is usually directly over the conurbation of London when the wind is from the west, which is most of the time.

Along with Gatwick, Stansted, Luton, Southend and London City, Heathrow is one of six airports with scheduled services serving the London area.

History

Aerial photo of Heathrow Airport from the 1950s, before the terminals were built
Aerial photo of Heathrow Airport from the 1950s, before the terminals were built

Heathrow Airport originated in 1929 as a small airfield (Great West Aerodrome) on land south-east of the hamlet of Heathrow from which the airport takes its name. At that time there were farms, market gardens and orchards there: there was a "Heathrow Farm" about where the old Terminal 1 was and where Terminal 2 is, a "Heathrow Hall" and a "Heathrow House." This hamlet was largely along a country lane (Heathrow Road), which ran roughly along the east and south edges of the present central terminals area.

Development of the whole Heathrow area as a very much larger airport began in 1944. It was stated to be for long-distance military aircraft bound for the Far East. But by the time the airfield was nearing completion, World War II had ended. The government continued to develop the airport as a civil airport. The airport was opened on 25 March 1946 as London Airport and was renamed Heathrow Airport in 1966. The layout for the airport was designed by Sir Frederick Gibberd, who designed the original terminals and central area buildings, including the original control tower and the multi-faith chapel of St George's.

Operations

Facilities

Central waiting area in Terminal 5
Central waiting area in Terminal 5
Concorde G-BOAB in storage at Heathrow
Concorde G-BOAB in storage at Heathrow
Four aircraft on the approach to Heathrow runway 09L
Four aircraft on the approach to Heathrow runway 09L
Heathrow's control tower
Heathrow's control tower
British Airways aircraft at Terminal 5C
British Airways aircraft at Terminal 5C

Heathrow Airport is used by over 80 airlines flying to 185 destinations in 84 countries. The airport is the primary hub of British Airways and is a base for Virgin Atlantic. It has four passenger terminals (numbered 2 to 5) and a cargo terminal. Of Heathrow's 78 million passengers in 2017, 94% were international travellers; the remaining 6% were bound for (or arriving from) places in the UK.[7] The busiest single destination in passenger numbers is New York, with over 3 million passengers flying between Heathrow and JFK Airport in 2013.[8]

In the 1950s, Heathrow had six runways, arranged in three pairs at different angles in the shape of a hexagram with the permanent passenger terminal in the middle and the older terminal along the north edge of the field; two of its runways would always be within 30° of the wind direction. As the required length for runways has grown, Heathrow now has only two parallel runways running east-west. These are extended versions of the two east-west runways from the original hexagram. From the air, almost all of the original runways can still be seen, incorporated into the present system of taxiways. North of the northern runway and the former taxiway and aprons, now the site of extensive car parks, is the entrance to the access tunnel and the site of Heathrow's unofficial "gate guardian". For many years the home of a 40% scale model of a British Airways Concorde, G-CONC, the site has been occupied by a model of an Emirates Airbus A380 since 2008.[9]

Heathrow Airport has Anglican, Catholic, Free Church, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim and Sikh chaplains. There is a multi-faith prayer room and counselling room in each terminal, in addition to St. George's Interdenominational Chapel in an underground vault adjacent to the old control tower, where Christian services take place. The chaplains organize and lead prayers at certain times in the prayer room.[10]

The airport has its own resident press corps, consisting of six photographers and one TV crew, serving all the major newspapers and television stations around the world.[11]

Most of Heathrow's internal roads are initial letter coded by area: N in the north (e.g. Newall Road), E in the east (e.g. Elmdon Road), S in the south (e.g. Stratford Road), W in the west (e.g. Walrus Road), C in the centre (e.g. Camborne Road).

Flight movements

Aircraft destined for Heathrow are usually routed to one of four holding points.

Air traffic controllers at Heathrow Approach Control (based in Swanwick, Hampshire) then guide the aircraft to their final approach, merging aircraft from the four holds into a single stream of traffic, sometimes as close as 2.5 nautical miles (4.6 km; 2.9 mi) apart. Considerable use is made of continuous descent approach techniques to minimize the environmental effects of incoming aircraft, particularly at night.[12] Once an aircraft is established on its final approach, control is handed over to Heathrow Tower.

When runway alternation was introduced, aircraft generated significantly more noise on departure than when landing, so a preference for westerly operations during daylight was introduced, which continues to this day.[13] In this mode, aircraft take off towards the west and land from the east over London, thereby minimizing the impact of noise on the most densely populated areas. Heathrow's two runways generally operate in segregated mode, whereby landings are allocated to one runway and takeoffs to the other. To further reduce noise nuisance to people beneath the approach and departure routes, the use of runways 27R and 27L is swapped at 15:00 each day if the wind is from the west. When landings are easterly there is no alternation; 09L remains the landing runway and 09R the takeoff runway due to the legacy of the now rescinded Cranford Agreement, pending taxiway works to allow the roles to be reversed. Occasionally, landings are allowed on the nominated departure runway, to help reduce airborne delays and to position landing aircraft closer to their terminal, reducing taxi times.

Night-time flights at Heathrow are subject to restrictions. Between 23:00 and 04:00, the noisiest aircraft (rated QC/8 and QC/16) cannot be scheduled for operation. Also, during the night quota period (23:30–06:00) there are four limits:

  • A limit on the number of flights allowed;
  • A Quota Count system which limits the total amount of noise permitted, but allows operators to choose to operate fewer noisy aircraft or a greater number of quieter planes;[14]
  • QC/4 aircraft cannot be scheduled for operation.
  • A voluntary agreement with the airlines that no early morning arrivals will be scheduled to land before 04:30.

A trial of "noise relief zones" ran from December 2012 to March 2013, which concentrated approach flight paths into defined areas compared with the existing paths which were spread out. The zones used alternated weekly, meaning residents in the "no-fly" areas received respite from aircraft noise for set periods.[15] However, it was concluded that some residents in other areas experienced a significant disbenefit as a result of the trial and that it should therefore not be taken forward in its current form. Heathrow received more than 25,000 noise complaints in just three months over the summer of 2016, but around half were made by the same ten people.[16]

Regulation

Until it was required to sell Gatwick and Stansted Airports, Heathrow Airport Holdings held a dominant position in the London aviation market and has been heavily regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) as to how much it can charge airlines to land. The annual increase in landing charge per passenger was capped at inflation minus 3% until 1 April 2003. From 2003 to 2007 charges increased by inflation plus 6.5% per year, taking the fee to £9.28 per passenger in 2007. In March 2008, the CAA announced that the charge would be allowed to increase by 23.5% to £12.80 from 1 April 2008 and by inflation plus 7.5% for each of the following four years.[17] In April 2013, the CAA announced a proposal for Heathrow to charge fees calculated by inflation minus 1.3%, continuing until 2019.[18] Whilst the cost of landing at Heathrow is determined by the CAA and Heathrow Airport Holdings, the allocation of landing slots to airlines is carried out by Airport Co-ordination Limited (ACL).[19]

Until 2008, air traffic between Heathrow and the United States was strictly governed by the countries' bilateral Bermuda II treaty. The treaty originally allowed only British Airways, Pan Am and TWA to fly from Heathrow to the US. In 1991, Pan Am and TWA sold their rights to United Airlines and American Airlines respectively, while Virgin Atlantic was added to the list of airlines allowed to operate on these routes. The Bermuda bilateral agreement conflicted with the Right of Establishment of the United Kingdom concerning its EU membership, and as a consequence, the UK was ordered to drop the agreement in 2004. A new "open skies" agreement was signed by the United States and the European Union on 30 April 2007 and came into effect on 30 March 2008. Shortly afterward, additional US airlines, including Northwest Airlines, Continental Airlines, US Airways and Delta Air Lines started services to Heathrow.

The airport has been criticised in recent years for overcrowding and delays;[20] according to Heathrow Airport Holdings, Heathrow's facilities were originally designed to accommodate 55 million passengers annually. The number of passengers using the airport reached a record 70 million in 2012.[21] In 2007 the airport was voted the world's least favourite, alongside Chicago O'Hare, in a TripAdvisor survey.[22] However, the opening of Terminal 5 in 2008 has relieved some pressure on terminal facilities, increasing the airport's terminal capacity to 90 million passengers per year. A tie-up is also in place with McLaren Applied Technologies to optimize the general procedure, reducing delays and pollution.[23]

With only two runways, operating at over 98% of their capacity, Heathrow has little room for more flights, although the increasing use of larger aircraft such as the Airbus A380 will allow some increase in passenger numbers. It is difficult for existing airlines to obtain landing slots to enable them to increase their services from the airport, or for new airlines to start operations.[24] To increase the number of flights, Heathrow Airport Holdings has proposed using the existing two runways in 'mixed mode' whereby aircraft would be allowed to take off and land on the same runway. This would increase the airport's capacity from its current 480,000 movements per year to as many as 550,000 according to British Airways CEO Willie Walsh.[25] Heathrow Airport Holdings has also proposed building a third runway to the north of the airport, which would significantly increase traffic capacity (see Future expansion below).[26]

Security

Policing of the airport is the responsibility of the aviation security unit of the Metropolitan Police, although the army, including armoured vehicles of the Household Cavalry, has occasionally been deployed at the airport during periods of heightened security.

Full body scanners are now used at the airport, and passengers who object to their use after being selected are required to submit to a hand search in a private room.[27] The scanners display passengers' bodies as a cartoon-style figure, with indicators showing where concealed items may be.[27] The new imagery was introduced initially as a trial in September 2011 following complaints over privacy.[28]

Since 2019 the Aaronia AARTOS C-UAS drone detection system is installed[29]

Terminals

Current terminals

Terminal 2

Terminal 2 central departures area
Terminal 2 central departures area

The airport's newest terminal, officially known as the Queen's Terminal, was opened on 4 June 2014.[30][31] Designed by Spanish architect Luis Vidal, it was built on the site that had been occupied by the original Terminal 2 and the Queens Building.[32][33] The main complex was completed in November 2013 and underwent six months of testing before opening to passengers. It includes a satellite pier (T2B), a 1,340-space car park, an energy center[clarification needed] and a cooling station to generate chilled water. There are 52 shops and 17 bars and restaurants.[34]

Terminal 2 is used by all Star Alliance members which fly from Heathrow (consolidating the airlines under Star Alliance's co-location policy "Move Under One Roof"). Aer Lingus, Eurowings, Flybe and Icelandair also operate from the terminal. Tianjin Airlines is a possible new member at Terminal 2. The airlines moved from their original locations over six months, with only 10% of flights operating from there in the first six weeks (United Airlines' transatlantic flights) to avoid the opening problems seen at Terminal 5. On 4 June 2014, United Airlines became the first airline to move into Terminal 2 from Terminals 1 and 4 followed by All Nippon Airways, Air Canada and Air China from Terminal 3. Air New Zealand, Asiana Airlines, Croatia Airlines, LOT Polish Airlines, South African Airways, and TAP Air Portugal were the last airlines to move in on 22 October 2014 from Terminal 1.[35]

The original Terminal 2 opened as the Europa Building in 1955 and was the airport's oldest terminal. It had an area of 49,654 m2 (534,470 sq ft) and was designed to handle around 1.2 million passengers annually. In its final years, it accommodated up to 8 million. A total of 316 million passengers passed through the terminal in its lifetime. The building was demolished in 2010, along with the Queens Building which had housed airline company offices.[36]

Terminal 3

Terminal 3 opened as the Oceanic Terminal on 13 November 1961 to handle flight departures for long-haul routes for foreign carriers to the United States, Asia and other Far Eastern destinations.[37] At this time the airport had a direct helicopter service to Central London from the gardens on the roof of the terminal building. Renamed Terminal 3 in 1968, it was expanded in 1970 with the addition of an arrivals building. Other facilities added included the UK's first moving walkways. In 2006, the new £105 million Pier 6 was completed[38] to accommodate the Airbus A380 superjumbo; Emirates and Qantas operate regular flights from Terminal 3 using the Airbus A380.

Redevelopment of Terminal 3's forecourt by the addition of a new four-lane drop-off area and a large pedestrianised plaza, complete with canopy to the front of the terminal building, was completed in 2007. These improvements were intended to improve passengers' experience, reduce traffic congestion and improve security.[39] As part of this project, Virgin Atlantic was assigned its own dedicated check-in area, known as 'Zone A', which features a large sculpture and atrium.

As of 2013, Terminal 3 has an area of 98,962 m2 (1,065,220 sq ft) and in 2011 it handled 19.8 million passengers on 104,100 flights.[40] Terminal 3 is home to Oneworld members (with the exception of Iberia, which uses Terminal 5, and Malaysia Airlines and Qatar Airways, both of which use Terminal 4), SkyTeam members Delta Air Lines and Middle East Airlines, all new airlines, and a few unaffiliated carriers.

Terminal 4

Terminal 4 bird's-eye view
Terminal 4 bird's-eye view

Opened in 1986, Terminal 4 is situated to the south of the southern runway next to the cargo terminal and is connected to Terminals 2 and 3 by the Heathrow Cargo Tunnel. The terminal has an area of 105,481 m2 (1,135,390 sq ft) and is now home to the SkyTeam alliance, with the exception of Delta Air Lines and Middle East Airlines, which use Terminal 3, Oneworld carriers Malaysia Airlines and Qatar Airways, and to most unaffiliated carriers. It has undergone a £200m upgrade to enable it to accommodate 45 airlines with an upgraded forecourt to reduce traffic congestion and improve security. Most flights that go to Terminal 4 are flights coming from Asia and North Africa, as well as a few flights to Europe. An extended check-in area with renovated piers and departure lounges and a new baggage system were installed, and two new stands were built to accommodate the Airbus A380; Etihad Airways, Korean Air, Malaysia Airlines and Qatar Airways operate regular A380 flights.[41] EL AL operates some regular Boeing 747 flights.

Terminal 5

Terminal 5 bird's-eye view
Terminal 5 bird's-eye view

Terminal 5 lies between the northern and southern runways at the western end of the Heathrow site and was opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 14 March 2008,[42] some 19 years after its inception. It opened to the public on 27 March 2008, and British Airways and its partner company Iberia have exclusive use of this terminal. The first passenger to enter Terminal 5 was a UK ex-pat from Kenya who passed through security at 04:30 on the day. He was presented with a boarding pass by the British Airways CEO Willie Walsh for the first departing flight, BA302 to Paris. During the two weeks after its opening, operations were disrupted by problems with the terminal's IT systems, coupled with insufficient testing and staff training, which caused over 500 flights to be cancelled.[43] Until March 2012, Terminal 5 was exclusively used by British Airways as its global hub; however, because of the merger, on 25 March Iberia's operations at Heathrow were moved to the terminal, making it the home of International Airlines Group.[44]

Built at £4.3 billion, the terminal consists of a four-story main terminal building (Concourse A) and two satellite buildings linked to the main terminal by an underground people mover transit system. The second satellite (Concourse C), includes dedicated aircraft stands for the Airbus A380. It became fully operational on 1 June 2011. Terminal 5 was voted Skytrax World's Best Airport Terminal 2014 in the Annual World Airport Awards.[45]

The main terminal building (Concourse A) has an area of 300,000 square metres (3,200,000 sq ft) while Concourse B covers 60,000 square metres (650,000 sq ft).[46] It has 60 aircraft stands and capacity for 30 million passengers annually as well as more than 100 shops and restaurants.[47] It is also home to British Airways' Flagship lounge, the Concorde Room, alongside four further British Airways branded lounges.[48]

A further building, designated Concourse D and of similar size to Concourse C, may yet be built to the east of the existing site, providing up to another 16 stands. Following British Airways' merger with Iberia, this may become a priority since the combined business will require accommodation at Heathrow under one roof to maximise the cost savings envisaged under the deal. A proposal for Concourse D featured in Heathrow's most recent capital investment plan.

The transport network around the airport has been extended to cope with the increase in passenger numbers. New branches of both the Heathrow Express and the Underground's Piccadilly line serve a new shared Heathrow Terminal 5 station. A dedicated motorway spur links the terminal to the M25 (between junctions 14 and 15). The terminal has a 3,800 space multi-storey car park. A more distant long-stay car park for business passengers is connected to the terminal by a personal rapid transit system, the Heathrow Pod, which became operational in the spring of 2011.[49] Within the terminal complex, an automated people mover (APM) system, known as the Transit, is used to transport passengers between the satellite buildings.[50]

Terminal assignments

As of July 2019, Heathrow's four passenger terminals are assigned as follows:[51]

Terminal Airlines and alliances
Terminal 2 Star Alliance and few non-aligned airlines
Terminal 3 Oneworld (except Iberia, Malaysia Airlines, Qatar Airways, and most British Airways destinations), Virgin Atlantic, Delta Air Lines, Middle East Airlines and several non-aligned airlines
Terminal 4 SkyTeam (except Delta Air Lines and Middle East Airlines), Malaysia Airlines, Qatar Airways and most non-aligned airlines
Terminal 5 British Airways (most destinations, except those at Terminal 3) and Iberia

Following the opening of Terminal 5 in March 2008, a complex programme of terminal moves was implemented. This saw many airlines move to be grouped in terminals by airline alliance as far as possible.[52]

Following the opening of Phase 1 of the new Terminal 2 in June 2014, all Star Alliance member airlines[53] (with the exception of new member Air India which moved in early 2017) along with Aer Lingus and Germanwings relocated to Terminal 2 in a phased process completed on 22 October 2014. Additionally, by 30 June 2015 all airlines left Terminal 1 in preparation for its demolition to make room for the construction of Phase 2 of Terminal 2.[54] Some other airlines made further minor moves at a later point, e.g. Air India moving from Terminal 4 to the other Star Alliance carriers in Terminal 2[55] or Delta Air Lines merging all departures in Terminal 3 instead of a split between Terminals 3 and 4.[56]

Former terminals

Terminal 1

Terminal 1 opened in 1968 and was inaugurated by Queen Elizabeth II in April 1969.[57][58] Terminal 1 was the Heathrow base for British Airways' (BA) domestic and European network and a few of its long haul routes before Terminal 5 opened. The acquisition of British Midland International (BMI) in 2012 by BA's owner International Airlines Group meant British Airways took over BMI's short-haul and medium-haul destinations from the terminal.[59] Terminal 1 was also the main base for most Star Alliance members though some were also based at Terminal 3.

Terminal 1 closed at the end of June 2015, the site is now being used to extend Terminal 2[60] which opened in June 2014. A number of the newer gates used by Terminal 1 were built as part of the Terminal 2 development and are being retained.[61][62] The last tenants along with British Airways were El Al, Icelandair (moved to Terminal 2 25 March 2015) and LATAM Brasil (the third to move in to Terminal 3 on 27 May 2015). British Airways was the last operator in Terminal 1. Two flights of this carrier, one departing to Hanover and one arriving from Baku, marked the terminal closure on 29 June 2015. British Airways operations have been relocated to Terminals 3 and 5.[63]

Airlines and destinations

Passenger

The following airlines operate regular scheduled passenger flights at London Heathrow Airport:[64]

AirlinesDestinations
Aegean Airlines Athens
Aer Lingus Belfast–City, Cork, Dublin, Shannon
Aeroflot Moscow–Sheremetyevo
Aeroméxico Mexico City
Air Algérie Algiers
Air Astana Nur-Sultan
Air Canada Calgary, Halifax (suspended),[65] Montréal–Trudeau, Ottawa, St. John's (suspended),[65] Toronto–Pearson, Vancouver
Air China Beijing–Capital, Chengdu
Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle
Air India Ahmedabad, Bengaluru, Delhi, Mumbai
Air Malta Malta
Air Mauritius Mauritius
Air New Zealand Auckland,[66] Los Angeles (both end 24 October 2020)[66]
Air Serbia Belgrade
Alitalia Milan–Linate, Rome–Fiumicino
All Nippon Airways Tokyo–Haneda
American Airlines Boston (resumes 29 March 2020),[67] Charlotte, Chicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Miami, New York–JFK, Philadelphia, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Raleigh/Durham
Asiana Airlines Seoul–Incheon
Austrian Airlines Vienna
Avianca Bogotá
Azerbaijan Airlines Baku
Beijing Capital Airlines Qingdao
Biman Bangladesh Airlines Dhaka, Sylhet
British Airways Aberdeen, Abu Dhabi, Abuja, Accra, Amman–Queen Alia, Amsterdam, Athens, Atlanta, Austin, Bahrain, Baltimore, Bengaluru, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Barcelona, Basel/Mulhouse/Freiburg, Beijing–Daxing, Beirut, Belfast–City, Berlin–Tegel, Billund, Bologna, Boston, Brussels, Bucharest, Budapest, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Cairo, Cape Town, Chennai, Chicago–O'Hare, Copenhagen, Dallas/Fort Worth, Dammam [68] Delhi, Denver, Doha, Dubai–International, Dublin, Durban, Düsseldorf, Edinburgh, Frankfurt, Geneva, Gibraltar, Glasgow, Gothenburg, Grand Cayman, Hamburg, Hanover, Helsinki, Hong Kong, Houston–Intercontinental, Hyderabad, Innsbruck, Inverness, Islamabad, Istanbul, Jeddah, Johannesburg–O.R. Tambo, Kraków, Kuala Lumpur–International, Kuwait City, Lagos, Larnaca, Las Vegas, Leeds/Bradford, Lisbon, Los Angeles, Luxembourg, Lyon, Madrid, Mahé, Málaga, Manchester, Marseille, Mexico City, Miami, Milan–Linate, Milan–Malpensa, Montréal–Trudeau, Moscow–Domodedovo, Moscow–Sheremetyevo, Mumbai, Munich, Nairobi–Jomo Kenyatta, Nashville, Nassau, New Orleans, New York–JFK, Newark, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nice, Osaka–Kansai, Oslo–Gardermoen, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Philadelphia, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Pisa, Pittsburgh, Prague, Reykjavík–Keflavík, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Riyadh, Rome–Fiumicino, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), Santiago de Chile, São Paulo–Guarulhos, Seattle/Tacoma, Seoul–Incheon, Shanghai–Pudong, Singapore, Sofia, Stockholm–Arlanda, Stuttgart, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Tenerife-South, Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita, Toronto–Pearson, Toulouse, Valencia, Vancouver, Venice, Vienna, Warsaw–Chopin, Washington–Dulles, Zagreb, Zurich
Seasonal: Bastia, Brindisi, Calgary, Chania, Charleston, Corfu, Faro, Figari, Grenoble, Ibiza, Kalamata, Kefalonia, Ljubljana, Marrakesh, Montpellier, Muscat, Mykonos, Nantes, Olbia, Palermo, Palma de Mallorca, Preveza/Lefkada, Pula, Salzburg, Santorini, Split, Zakynthos
Brussels Airlines Brussels
Bulgaria Air Sofia
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong
China Eastern Airlines Shanghai–Pudong
China Southern Airlines Guangzhou, Sanya, Wuhan, Zhengzhou
Croatia Airlines Zagreb
Seasonal: Split
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York–JFK, Salt Lake City
Seasonal: Portland (OR)
EgyptAir Cairo
Seasonal: Luxor
El Al Tel Aviv
Emirates Dubai–International
Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi
Eurowings Cologne/Bonn, Düsseldorf, Hamburg, Stuttgart
EVA Air Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Taipei–Taoyuan
Finnair Helsinki
Flybe Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Guernsey, Newquay
Garuda Indonesia Denpasar, Medan
Gulf Air Bahrain
Hainan Airlines Changsha
Iberia Madrid
Icelandair Reykjavík–Keflavík
Iran Air Tehran–Imam Khomeini
Japan Airlines Tokyo–Haneda
Kenya Airways Nairobi–Kenyatta
KLM Amsterdam
Korean Air Seoul–Incheon
Kuwait Airways Kuwait City
LATAM Brasil São Paulo–Guarulhos
LOT Polish Airlines Warsaw–Chopin
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich
Malaysia Airlines Kuala Lumpur–International
Middle East Airlines Beirut
Oman Air Muscat
Pakistan International Airlines Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Sialkot
Philippine Airlines Manila
Qantas Melbourne, Perth, Singapore, Sydney
Qatar Airways Doha
Royal Air Maroc Casablanca, Rabat
Royal Brunei Airlines Bandar Seri Begawan
Royal Jordanian Amman–Queen Alia
Saudia Jeddah, Riyadh
Seasonal: Medina
Scandinavian Airlines Copenhagen, Oslo–Gardermoen, Stavanger, Stockholm–Arlanda
Seasonal: Sälen-Trysil (begins 28 December 2019)[69]
Shenzhen Airlines Shenzhen
Singapore Airlines Singapore
South African Airways Johannesburg–O.R. Tambo
SriLankan Airlines Colombo–Bandaranaike
Swiss International Air Lines Geneva, Zurich
Seasonal: Sion
TAP Air Portugal Lisbon
TAROM Bucharest
Thai Airways Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi
Tianjin Airlines Chongqing, Tianjin, Xi'an
Tunisair Tunis
Turkish Airlines Istanbul
United Airlines Chicago–O'Hare, Denver, Houston–Intercontinental, Los Angeles, Newark, San Francisco, Washington–Dulles
Uzbekistan Airways Tashkent
Vietnam Airlines Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City
Virgin Atlantic Atlanta, Boston, Delhi, Havana (begins 9 June 2020),[70] Hong Kong, Johannesburg–O.R. Tambo, Lagos, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, Mumbai, New York–JFK, Newark, San Francisco, São Paulo–Guarulhos (begins 29 March 2020),[71] Seattle/Tacoma, Shanghai–Pudong, Tel Aviv, Washington–Dulles
Seasonal: Barbados
Vueling A Coruña (ends 28 March 2020)[72]

Cargo

AirlinesDestinations
AirBridgeCargoLeipzig/Halle[73]
Cathay Pacific Cargo Hong Kong,[74] Paris–Charles de Gaulle[74]
DHL Aviation[citation needed]Amsterdam, Brussels, East Midlands, Frankfurt, Leipzig/Halle, Madrid–Barajas, Milan-Malpensa, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Porto, Stockholm-Arlanda
Emirates SkyCargoDubai–Al Maktoum[75]
Korean Air CargoSeoul–Incheon[76]
Qatar Airways CargoBasel/Mulhouse,[77] Doha[77]
Singapore Airlines CargoAmsterdam,[78] Sharjah,[78] Singapore[78]

Traffic and statistics

Overview

Development of passenger numbers, aircraft movements and air freight between 1986 and 2014
Development of passenger numbers, aircraft movements and air freight between 1986 and 2014

When ranked by passenger traffic, Heathrow is the sixth busiest internationally, behind Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Beijing Capital International Airport, Dubai International Airport, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport, and Tokyo Haneda Airport, for the 12 months ending December 2015.[79]

In 2015, Heathrow was the busiest airport in Europe in total passenger traffic, with 14% more passengers than Paris–Charles de Gaulle Airport[80] and 22% more than Istanbul Atatürk Airport.[81] Heathrow was the fourth busiest European airport by cargo traffic in 2013, after Frankfurt Airport, Paris Charles de Gaulle and Amsterdam Airport Schiphol.[82]

Annual traffic statistics

Traffic statistics at Heathrow[1]
Year Passengers
handled[a]
Passenger
% Change
Cargo
(tonnes)
Cargo
% Change
Aircraft
movements
Aircraft
% Change
1986 31,675,779 Steady 537,131 Steady 315,753 Steady
1987 35,079,755 Increase10.7 574,116 Increase6.9 329,977 Increase 4.3
1988 37,840,503 Increase7.9 642,147 Increase11.8 351,592 Increase 6.1
1989 39,881,922 Increase5.4 686,170 Increase6.9 368,429 Increase 4.6
1990 42,950,512 Increase7.7 695,347 Increase1.3 390,372 Increase 5.6
1991 40,494,575 Decrease5.7 654,625 Decrease5.9 381,724 Decrease 2.3
1992 45,242,591 Increase11.7 754,770 Increase15.3 406,481 Increase 6.1
1993 47,899,081 Increase5.9 846,486 Increase12.2 411,173 Increase 1.1
1994 51,713,366 Increase8.0 962,738 Increase13.7 424,557 Increase 3.2
1995 54,461,597 Increase5.3 1,031,639 Increase7.2 434,525 Increase 2.3
1996 56,049,706 Increase2.9 1,040,486 Increase0.9 440,343 Increase 1.3
1997 58,185,398 Increase3.8 1,156,104 Increase11.1 440,631 Increase 0.1
1998 60,683,988 Increase4.3 1,208,893 Increase4.6 451,382 Increase 2.4
1999 62,268,292 Increase2.6 1,265,495 Increase4.7 458,300 Increase 1.5
2000 64,618,254 Increase3.8 1,306,905 Increase3.3 466,799 Increase 1.8
2001 60,764,924 Decrease6.0 1,180,306 Decrease9.6 463,567 Decrease 0.7
2002 63,362,097 Increase4.3 1,234,940 Increase4.6 466,545 Increase 0.6
2003 63,495,367 Increase0.2 1,223,439 Decrease0.9 463,650 Decrease 0.6
2004 67,342,743 Increase6.1 1,325,173 Increase8.3 476,001 Increase 2.6
2005 67,913,153 Increase0.8 1,305,686 Decrease1.5 477,887 Increase 0.4
2006 67,527,923 Decrease0.6 1,264,129 Decrease3.2 477,048 Decrease 0.2
2007 68,066,028 Increase0.8 1,310,987 Increase3.7 481,476 Increase 0.9
2008 67,054,745 Decrease1.5 1,397,054 Increase6.6 478,693 Decrease 0.6
2009 66,036,957 Decrease1.5 1,277,650 Decrease8.5 466,393 Decrease 2.6
2010 65,881,660 Decrease0.2 1,472,988 Increase15.3 454,823 Decrease 2.5
2011 69,433,230 Increase5.4 1,484,351 Increase0.8 480,906 Increase 5.4
2012 70,037,417 Increase0.9 1,464,390 Decrease1.3 475,176 Decrease 1.2
2013 72,367,054 Increase3.3 1,422,939 Decrease2.8 471,936 Decrease 0.7
2014 73,374,825 Increase1.4 1,498,906 Increase5.3 472,802 Increase 0.2
2015 74,959,058 Increase2.2 1,496,551 Decrease0.2 473,087 Increase 2.7
2016 75,676,223 Increase1.0 1,541,029 Increase3.0 473,231 Increase 0.2
2017 77,988,752 Increase3.1 1,698,455 Increase9.3 474,033 Increase 0.6
2018 80,102,017 Increase2.7 1,788,815 Increase5.3 477,604 Increase 1.0

Busiest routes

Heathrow Airport processed 80,102,017 passengers in 2018.[1] New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport was the most popular route with 3,034,155 passengers.[83] The table below shows the 40 busiest international routes at the airport in 2018.

Busiest international routes to and from Heathrow (2018)[83]
Rank Airport Total
passengers
Change
2017 / 18
1 United States New York–JFK 3,034,155 Increase 3.0%
2 United Arab Emirates Dubai–International 2,610,784 Decrease 9.1%
3 Republic of Ireland Dublin 1,809,396 Increase 0.3%
4 Netherlands Amsterdam 1,746,528 Increase 3.3%
5 United States Los Angeles 1,657,737 Increase 3.6%
6 Hong Kong Hong Kong 1,572,021 Decrease 1.0%
7 Germany Frankfurt 1,559,218 Increase 3.9%
8 Singapore Singapore 1,421,105 Increase 15.1%
9 Spain Madrid 1,417,554 Increase 2.5%
10 France Paris–Charles de Gaulle 1,250,771 Increase 3.5%
11 Germany Munich 1,242,063 Increase 4.3%
12 Qatar Doha 1,181,541 Decrease 8.2%
13 Switzerland Zurich 1,167,980 Increase 2.5%
14 United States Chicago–O'Hare 1,158,537 Increase 9.1%
15 India Mumbai 1,121,997 Increase 16.4%
16 Canada Toronto–Pearson 1,091,315 Increase 4.1%
17 United States Newark 1,084,275 Increase 6.2%
18 Italy Rome–Fiumicino 1,076,489 Increase 10.3%
19 Turkey Istanbul–Atatürk 1,074,397 Increase 5.2%
20 Switzerland Geneva 1,056,453 Decrease 0.0%
21 United States San Francisco 1,055,976 Increase 4.6%
22 United States Miami 1,029,366 Increase 4.5%
23 India New Delhi 1,021,351 Decrease 0.2%
24 Denmark Copenhagen 1,012,730 Increase 3.0%
25 United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi 1,010,388 Increase 0.6%
26 Sweden Stockholm–Arlanda 970,622 Decrease 4.2%
27 South Africa Johannesburg–Tambo 933,357 Decrease 2.2%
28 Portugal Lisbon 853,048 Decrease 1.4%
29 United States Boston 849,443 Increase 4.3%
30 Austria Vienna 840,882 Increase 4.1%
31 United States Washington–Dulles 838,389 Decrease 0.9%
32 Thailand Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi 828,432 Decrease 2.6%
33 Germany Berlin–Tegel 817,252 Increase 4.9%
34 Finland Helsinki 774,505 Increase 8.4%
35 Spain Barcelona 764,204 Increase 11.8%
36 Greece Athens 753,589 Decrease 1.0%
37 Germany Düsseldorf 737,313 Decrease 0.6%
38 United States Dallas/Fort Worth 710,461 Increase 4.9%
39 Italy Milan Linate 672,959 Increase 2.4%
40 Belgium Brussels 672,319 Increase 3.3%
Busiest domestic routes to and from Heathrow (2018)[83]
Rank Airport Total
passengers
Change
2017 / 18
1 Edinburgh 1,198,848 Increase 1.6%
2 Glasgow 911,191 Increase 0.2%
3 Aberdeen 675,816 Increase 8.6%
4 Belfast-City 655,288 Decrease 5.2%
5 Manchester 654,071 Decrease 1.7%
6 Newcastle 496,193 Increase 0.9%
7 Leeds Bradford 103,706 Decrease 36.0%
8 Inverness 97,591 Increase 23.4%

Other facilities

The Compass Centre, the head office of Heathrow Airport Holdings
The Compass Centre, the head office of Heathrow Airport Holdings

The head office of Heathrow Airport Holdings (formerly BAA Limited) is located in the Compass Centre by Heathrow's northern runway, a building that previously served as a British Airways flight crew centre.[84] The World Business Centre Heathrow consists of three buildings. 1 World Business Centre houses offices of Heathrow Airport Holdings, Heathrow Airport itself, and Scandinavian Airlines.[85] Previously International Airlines Group had its head office in 2 World Business Centre.[86][87]

At one time the British Airways head office was located within Heathrow Airport at Speedbird House[88] before the completion of Waterside, the current BA head office in Harmondsworth, in June 1998.[89]

To the north of the airfield lies the Northern Perimeter Road, along which most of Heathrow's car rental agencies are based, and Bath Road, which runs parallel to it, but outside the airport campus. This is nicknamed "The Strip" by locals, because of its continuous line of airport hotels.

Access

Public transport

Heathrow Airport tube and rail stations
Heathrow Airport tube and rail stations

Train

Bus and coach

Many buses and coaches operate from the large Heathrow Central bus station serving Terminals 2 and 3, and also from bus stations at Terminals 4 and 5.

Inter-terminal transport

All terminals lie within the Heathrow Free Travel Zone with free travel between the terminals. Terminals 2 and 3 are within walking distance of each other. Transfers from Terminals 2 and 3 to Terminal 4 and 5 are provided by Heathrow Express trains and the London Underground Piccadilly line.[92] Direct transfer between Terminals 4 and 5 is provided by London Buses routes 482 and 490.[93]

Transit passengers remaining airside are provided with free dedicated transfer buses between terminals.

The Heathrow Pod personal rapid transit system shuttles passengers between Terminal 5 and the business car park using 21 small, driverless transportation pods. The pods are battery-powered and run on-demand on a four-kilometre track, each able to carry up to four adults, two children, and their luggage.[94] Plans exist to extend the Pod system to connect Terminals 2 and 3 to remote car parks.[95]

Terminal 5 airside Transit System
Terminal 5 airside Transit System

An underground automated people mover system known as the Transit operates within Terminal 5, linking the main terminal with the satellite Terminals 5B and 5C. The Transit operates entirely airside using Bombardier Innovia APM 200 people mover vehicles.[96][97]

Hotel access

The Hotel Hoppa bus network connects all terminals to major hotels in the area.[98]

Taxi

Taxis are available at all terminals.[99]

Car

Entrance at the southern end of the M4 Motorway spur, showing a scale model of Concorde, replaced since 2008 by the Emirates A380 scale model.[100]
Entrance at the southern end of the M4 Motorway spur, showing a scale model of Concorde, replaced since 2008 by the Emirates A380 scale model.[100]

Heathrow is accessible via the nearby M4 motorway or A4 road (Terminals 2–3), the M25 motorway (Terminals 4 and 5) and the A30 road (Terminal 4). There are drop-off and pick-up areas at all terminals and short-[101][102] and long-stay[103] multi-storey car parks. All the Heathrow forecourts are drop-off only.[104] There are further car parks, not run by Heathrow Airport Holdings, just outside the airport: the most recognisable is the National Car Parks facility, although there are many other options; these car parks are connected to the terminals by shuttle buses.

Four parallel tunnels under the northern runway connect the M4 Heathrow spur and the A4 road to Terminals 2–3. The two larger tunnels are each two lanes wide and are used for motorised traffic. The two smaller tunnels were originally reserved for pedestrians and bicycles; to increase traffic capacity the cycle lanes have been modified to each take a single lane of cars, although bicycles still have priority over cars. Pedestrian access to the smaller tunnels has been discontinued, with the free bus services being used instead.

Bicycle

There are (mainly off-road) bicycle routes to some of the terminals.[105] Free bicycle parking places are available in car parks 1 and 1A, at Terminal 4, and to the North and South of Terminal 5's Interchange Plaza. Cycling is not currently allowed through the main tunnel to access Terminals 2 and 3 (Terminal 1 closed in 2015).[106]

Incidents and accidents

  • On 3 March 1948, Sabena Douglas DC3 OO-AWH crashed in fog. Three crew and 19 of the 22 passengers on board died.[107]
  • On 31 October 1950, BEA Vickers Viking G-AHPN crashed at Heathrow after hitting the runway during a go-around. Three crew and 25 passengers died.[108]
  • On 16 January 1955, a BEA Vickers Viscount (registered as G-AMOK) crashed into barriers whilst taking off in fog from a disused runway strip parallel to the desired runway. There were 2 injuries.[109]
  • On 22 June 1955, a BOAC de Havilland Dove (registration: G-ALTM) crashed just short of the runway during a filming flight when the pilot shut-down the incorrect engine. There were no casualties.[110]
  • On 1 October 1956, XA897, an Avro Vulcan strategic bomber of the Royal Air Force, crashed at Heathrow after an approach in bad weather. The Vulcan was the first to be delivered to the RAF and was returning from a demonstration flight to Australia and New Zealand. The pilot and co-pilot ejected and survived, but the four other occupants were killed.[111]
  • On 7 January 1960, Vickers Viscount G-AOHU of BEA was damaged beyond economic repair when the nose wheel collapsed on landing. A fire then developed and burnt out the fuselage. There were no casualties among the 59 people on board.[112]
  • On 27 October 1965, BEA Vickers Vanguard G-APEE, flying from Edinburgh, crashed on Runway 28R while attempting to land in poor visibility. All 30 passengers and six crew on board died.[113][114]
  • On 8 April 1968, BOAC Flight 712 Boeing 707 G-ARWE, departing for Australia via Singapore, suffered an engine fire just after take-off. The engine fell from the wing into a nearby gravel pit in Staines, before the plane managed to perform an emergency landing with the wing on fire. However, the plane was consumed by fire once on the ground. Five people – four passengers and a flight attendant – died, while 122 survived. The flight attendant, Barbara Harrison, who helped with the evacuation, was posthumously awarded the George Cross.[115]
  • On 3 July 1968, the port flap operating rod of G-AMAD, an Airspeed Ambassador operated by BKS Air Transport failed due to fatigue, thereby allowing the port flaps to retract. This resulted in a rolling movement to port which could not be controlled during the approach, causing the aircraft to contact the grass and swerve towards the terminal building. It hit two parked British European Airways Hawker Siddeley Trident aircraft, burst into flames and came to rest against the ground floor of the terminal building. Six of the eight crew died, as did eight horses on board. Trident G-ARPT was written off,[116] and Trident G-ARPI was badly damaged, but subsequently repaired, only to be lost in the Staines crash in 1972.
  • On 18 June 1972, Trident G-ARPI, operating as BEA548, crashed in a field close to the Crooked Billet Public House, Staines, two minutes after taking off. All 118 passengers and crew on board died.[117]
  • On 5 November 1997, an Airbus 340-300 (G-VSKY) operated by Virgin Atlantic made an emergency landing from Los Angeles after trying to shake free the main landing gear. It failed to do so. The plane landed but undersides of engines 1, 2 and 4 were damaged. The plane broke runway lights as well as causing damage to the runway and the right landing gear was torn off the plane. 7 people sustained minor injuries in the evacuation but no more injuries were reported.
    British Airways Flight 38 which crash-landed just short of the runway on 17 January 2008
    British Airways Flight 38 which crash-landed just short of the runway on 17 January 2008
  • On 17 January 2008, a British Airways Boeing 777-236ER, G-YMMM, operating flight BA038 from Beijing, crash-landed at Heathrow. The aircraft landed on grass short of the south runway, then slid to the edge of the runway and stopped on the threshold, leading to 18 minor injuries. The aircraft was later found to have suffered a loss of thrust caused by fuel icing.[118]

Terrorism and security incidents

  • On 8 June 1968, James Earl Ray, the man convicted of 4 April 1968 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., was captured and arrested at Heathrow Airport while attempting to leave the United Kingdom on a false Canadian passport.[119]
  • On 6 September 1970, El Al Flight 219 experienced an attempted hijack by two PFLP members. One hijacker was killed and the other was subdued as the plane made an emergency landing at Heathrow Airport.
  • On 19 May 1974, the IRA planted a series of bombs in the Terminal 1 car park. Two people were injured by the explosions.[120]
  • On 26 November 1983, the Brink's-Mat robbery occurred, in which 6,800 gold bars worth nearly £26 million were taken from a vault near Heathrow. Only a small amount of the gold was recovered, and only two men were convicted of the crime.[121]
  • On 17 April 1986, semtex explosives were found in the bag of a pregnant Irishwoman attempting to board an El Al flight. The explosives had been given to her by her Jordanian boyfriend and father of her unborn child Nizar Hindawi. The incident became known as the Hindawi Affair.[122]
  • On 21 December 1988, Pan Am Flight 103 from Heathrow to New York JFK was blown up over Lockerbie, Scotland, killing all 259 on board and 11 other people on the ground. This also still remains the deadliest attack on a US aircraft.[123]
  • In 1994, over a six-day period, Heathrow was targeted three times (8, 10, and 13 March) by the IRA, which fired 12 mortars. Heathrow was a symbolic target due to its importance to the UK economy, and much disruption was caused when areas of the airport were closed over the period. The gravity of the incident was heightened by the fact that the Queen was being flown back to Heathrow by the RAF on 10 March.[124]
  • In March 2002, thieves stole US$3 million that had arrived on a South African Airways flight.[125]
  • In February 2003, the British Army was deployed to Heathrow along with 1,000 police officers in response to intelligence reports suggesting that al-Qaeda terrorists might launch surface-to-air missile attacks at British or American airliners.[126]
  • On 17 May 2004, Scotland Yard's Flying Squad foiled an attempt by seven men to steal £40 million in gold bullion and a similar quantity of cash from the Swissport warehouse at Heathrow.[127]
  • On 25 February 2008, Greenpeace activists protesting against the planned third runway managed to cross the tarmac and climb atop a British Airways Airbus A320, which had just arrived from Manchester Airport. At about 09:45 GMT the protesters unveiled a "Climate Emergency – No Third Runway" banner over the aircraft's tailfin. By 11:00 GMT four arrests had been made.[128]
  • On 13 March 2008, a man with a rucksack scaled the perimeter fence onto runway 27R, and ran across the grounds, resulting in his subsequent arrest. A controlled explosion of his bag took place, although nothing suspicious was found, and the Metropolitan Police later said that the incident had not been terrorism related.[129]
  • On 13 July 2015, thirteen activists belonging to the climate change protest group Plane Stupid managed to break through the perimeter fence and get onto the northern runway. They chained themselves together in protest, disrupting hundreds of flights. All were eventually arrested.[130][131]

Other incidents

  • On 18 December 2010, 'heavy' (9 cm, according to the Heathrow Winter Resilience Enquiry)[132] snowfall caused the closure of the entire airport, causing one of the largest incidents at Heathrow of all time. 4,000 flights were cancelled over five days and 9,500 passengers spent the night at Heathrow on 18 December following the initial snowfall.[133] The problems were caused not only by snow on the runways, but also by snow and ice on the 198 parking stands which were all occupied by aircraft.[134]
  • On 12 July 2013, the ELT on an Ethiopian Airlines Boeing 787 Dreamliner parked at Heathrow airport caught fire due to a short circuit.[135] There were no passengers aboard and no injuries.[136][137]
  • From 12 September 2019, the climate change campaign group, Heathrow Pause attempted to disrupt flights into and out of Heathrow Airport in London by flying drones in the airport's exclusion zone. The action was unsuccessful at disrupting flights and nineteen people were arrested.[138]

Future expansion and plans

Runway and terminal expansion

British Airways aircraft queuing for take-off
British Airways aircraft queuing for take-off

There is a long history of expansion proposals for Heathrow since it was first designated as a civil airport. Following the cancellation of the Maplin project in 1974, a fourth terminal was proposed but expansion beyond this ruled out. However, the Airports Inquiries of 1981-83 and the 1985 Airports Policy White Paper considered further expansion and, following a four-year-long public inquiry in 1995-99, Terminal 5 was approved. In 2003, after many studies and consultations, the Future of Air Transport White Paper was published which proposed a third runway at Heathrow, as well as a second runway at Stansted Airport.[139] In January 2009, the Transport Secretary at the time, Geoff Hoon announced that the British government supported the expansion of Heathrow by building a third 2,200-metre (7,200 ft) runway and a sixth terminal building.[140] This decision followed the 2003 white paper on the future of air transport in the UK,[141] and a public consultation in November 2007.[142] This was a controversial decision which met with widespread opposition because of the expected greenhouse gas emissions, impact on local communities, as well as noise and air pollution concerns.[143]

Before the 2010 general election, the Conservative and Liberal Democrat parties announced that they would prevent the construction of any third runway or further material expansion of the airport's operating capacity. The Mayor of London, then Boris Johnson, took the position that London needs more airport capacity, favouring the construction of an entirely new airport in the Thames Estuary rather than expanding Heathrow.[144] After the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition took power, it was announced that the third runway expansion was cancelled.[145] Two years later, leading Conservatives were reported to have changed their minds on the subject.[146]

Another proposal for expanding Heathrow's capacity was the Heathrow Hub, which aims to extend both runways to a total length of about 7,000 metres and divide them into four so that they each provide two, full length runways, allowing simultaneous take-offs and landings while decreasing noise levels.[147][148]

In July 2013, the airport submitted three new proposals for expansion to the Airports Commission, which was established to review airport capacity in the southeast of England. The Airports Commission was chaired by Sir Howard Davies who, at the time of his appointment was in the employ of GIC Private Limited (formerly known as Government Investment Corporation of Singapore) and a member of its International Advisory Board. GIC Private Limited was then (2012), as it remains today, one of Heathrow's principal owners. Sir Howard Davies resigned these positions upon confirmation of his appointment to lead the Airports Commission, although it has been observed that he failed to identify these interests when invited to complete the Airports Commission's register of interests. Each of the three proposals that were to be considered by Sir Howard Davies's commission involved the construction of a third runway, either to the north, northwest or southwest of the airport.[149]

The commission released its interim report in December 2013, shortlisting three options: the north-west third runway option at Heathrow, extending an existing runway at Heathrow, and a second runway at Gatwick Airport. After this report was published, the government confirmed that no options had been ruled out for airport expansion in the South-east and that a new runway would not be built at Heathrow before 2015.[150] The full report was published on 1 July 2015, and backed a third, north-west, runway at Heathrow.[151] Reaction to the report was generally negative, particularly from London Mayor Boris Johnson. One senior Conservative told Channel 4: "Howard Davies has dumped an utter steaming pile of poo on the Prime Minister's desk."[152] On 25 October 2016, the government confirmed that Heathrow would be allowed to build a third runway; however, a final decision would not be taken until winter of 2017/18, after consultations and government votes. The earliest opening year would be 2025. On 5 June 2018, the UK Cabinet approved the third runway, with a full vote planned for Parliament.[153] On 25 June 2018, the House of Commons voted, 415–119, in favour of the third runway.[154] The bill received support from most MPs in the Conservative and Labour parties.[155] A judicial review against the decision is being launched by four London local authorities affected by the expansion—Wandsworth, Richmond, Hillingdon and Hammersmith and Fulham—in partnership with Greenpeace and London mayor Sadiq Khan.[156] Khan previously stated he would take legal action if it were passed by Parliament.[157]

New transport proposals

One of the transport projects being considered is the Western Rail Approach to Heathrow
One of the transport projects being considered is the Western Rail Approach to Heathrow

Currently, all rail connections with Heathrow airport run along an east-west alignment to and from central London, and a number of schemes have been proposed over the years to develop new rail transport links with other parts of London and with stations outside the city.[158] This mainline rail service is due to be extended to central London and Essex when the Elizabeth line, currently under construction, opens.[159]

A 2009 proposal to create a southern link with London Waterloo via the Waterloo–Reading line was abandoned in 2011 due to lack of funding and difficulties with a high number of level crossings on the route into London,[160][161] and a plan to link Heathrow to the planned High Speed 2 (HS2) railway line (with a new station, Heathrow Hub) was also dropped from the HS2 plans in March 2015.[162][163][164]

Among other schemes that have been considered is a rapid transport link between Heathrow and Gatwick Airports, known as Heathwick, which would allow the airports to operate jointly as an airline hub;[165][166] In 2018, the Department for Transport began to invite proposals for privately funded rail links to Heathrow Airport.[167] Projects being considered under this initiative include:

Heathrow City

The Mayor of London's office and Transport for London commissioned plans in the event of Heathrow's closure—to replace it by a large built-up area.[171][172][173][174] Some of the plans seem to show terminal 5, or part of it, kept as a shopping centre.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Number of passengers including domestic, international and transit

References

Citations

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  13. ^ During periods of westerly operation, aircraft continue to fly in a westerly direction with an easterly tailwind component of up to 5 knots (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph), if the runway is dry and there is no significant crosswind.
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  • Sherwood, Philip. (2012) Around Heathrow Through Time. Amberley Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4456-0846-4
  • Sherwood, Tim. (1999) Coming in to Land: A Short History of Hounslow, Hanworth and Heston Aerodromes 1911–1946. Heritage Publications (Hounslow Library) ISBN 1-899144-30-7
  • Smith, Graham. (2003) Taking to the Skies: the Story of British Aviation 1903–1939. Countryside ISBN 1-85306-815-2
  • Smith, Ron. (2002) British Built Aircraft Vol.1. Greater London: Tempus ISBN 0-7524-2770-9
  • Sturtivant, Ray. (1995) Fairey Aircraft: in Old Photographs. Alan Sutton ISBN 0-7509-1135-2
  • Taylor, H.A. (1974) Fairey Aircraft since 1915. Putnam ISBN 0-370-00065-X.
  • Taylor, John WR. (1997) Fairey Aviation: Archive Photographs. Chalford ISBN 0-7524-0684-1

External links

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