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Lockheed F-104 Starfighter

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

F-104 Starfighter
Lockheed XF-104 (modified).jpg
The XF-104 Starfighter prototype
Role Interceptor aircraft, fighter-bomber
National origin United States
Manufacturer Lockheed
First flight 17 February 1956 (YF-104A)
Introduction 20 February 1958
Retired 31 October 2004 (Italy)
Status Retired from military service; in use with civilian operators as warbirds
Primary users United States Air Force
German Air Force
Japan Air Self-Defense Force
Turkish Air Force
Number built 2,578
Unit cost
US$1.42 million (F-104G)[1]
Developed from Lockheed XF-104
Variants Lockheed NF-104A
Canadair CF-104
Aeritalia F-104S
Developed into Lockheed CL-1200/X-27
Lockheed CL-288

The Lockheed F-104 Starfighter is a single-engine, supersonic interceptor aircraft which later became widely used as an attack aircraft. It was originally developed by Lockheed for the United States Air Force (USAF), but was later produced by several other nations, seeing widespread service outside the United States. One of the Century Series of fighter aircraft, it was operated by the air forces of more than a dozen nations from 1958 to 2004. Its design team was led by Kelly Johnson, who contributed to the development of the Lockheed P-38 Lightning, Lockheed U-2, Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird and other Lockheed aircraft.[2]

The F-104 set numerous world records, including both airspeed and altitude records. Its success was marred by the Lockheed bribery scandals, in which Lockheed had given bribes to a considerable number of political and military figures in various nations to influence their judgment and secure several purchase contracts; this caused considerable political controversy in Europe and Japan.

The poor safety record of the Starfighter also brought the aircraft into the public eye, especially in German Air Force service. Fighter ace Erich Hartmann was forced to retire from the Luftwaffe due to his outspoken opposition to selection of the F-104.

The final production version of the fighter model was the F-104S, an all-weather interceptor designed by Aeritalia for the Italian Air Force, and equipped with radar-guided AIM-7 Sparrow missiles. An advanced F-104 with a high-mounted wing, known as the CL-1200 Lancer, was considered, but did not proceed past the mock-up stage.

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Transcription

Capable of flying faster and higher than any other aircraft of its time are two characteristics that define the F-104 Starfighter, also known as missile with a man. The Starfighter was the first American production jet to reach Mach 2 and was also the first aircraft to simultaneously hold both the speed and altitude records, reaching at times altitudes over 100,000 feet. Despite being designed for use only in the American military, the F-104 was operated by 14 other countries and was an important interceptor and fighter-bomber in middle of the cold war. This aircraft is now being featured on the second episode of the Know Your Plane series but before we get started just a quick word what I will be covering in this video. Given that I have found an incredible amount of information on the Starfighter and that I didn’t want this video to be too long I will be covering the following aspects of the Starfighter: Its design, specifications, armament, development, production and some trivia. Other aspects of the F-104 such as operational and combat history will be covered in later videos. Also I would like to thank the International F-104 Society for helping me out in this episode with pictures, videos and more information on about the Starfighter. With that said let’s get this started. Design The first thing people notice about the F-104 is that its wings are very thin and short, the first test pilot even asked where the wings were when he saw the plane for the first time. The wings of the F-104 are so thin that this plane is believed to hold the record of the thinnest wings ever built, they were so thin and sharp some people who worked with the F-104 even got cut by the leading edge of the wing, thus some of its operators even equipped the plane with wing covers. The reason behind the thickness and size of the wings was an attempt to minimize drag during high speed flight, however this configuration was the cause of some problems including lack of space for fuel tanks inside the wings and poor handling of the aircraft at low speeds. Another noticeable design feature was the unique T-tail of the F-104, which again was chosen to minimize drag and provide the best possible stability and control in the high speed and high altitude envelope that the F-104 was supposed to be operated. Also, because of the large vertical fin at the tail section, which was very effective in stabilizing the aircraft during a roll, the Lockheed engineers added an anhedral configuration to the wings, which means that the wing tip is lower than the wing root, in order to make the aircraft more agile and maneuverable therefore offsetting all that stability coming from the tail fin. Now like I’ve mentioned before, the F-104 didn’t have a good handling at low speeds, this created a problem of relatively high approach speeds when the plane came in for landing. While this was something that couldn’t be magically solved since the plane was designed for high speed, Lockheed did create a system to improve low speed handling: the boundary layer control which was automatically activated when the pilot put the flaps on the landing position. The boundary layer control basically utilises bleed air from the engine and sends it to the wings via a duct located inside the flaps, upon reaching the flaps the air is expelled over the wing as you can see in this diagram and this helps the aircraft gain some extra lift at low airspeeds by using air that came from the engine, therefore reducing the speed of the aircraft during the approach phase by about 30 knots. Another important feature of the F-104 was its inlets, which again were designed primarily for speeds over Mach 1.5. The inlets featured a fixed-geometry inlet scoop and conical ramp arrangement which would slow down the incoming air to lower supersonic speeds by creating shockwaves thus improving performance and keeping the engine from choking. Another capability of the inlet is that it allowed extra air, which wasn’t needed by the engine, to just pass through the system around the engine to help cool down the system. One unique aspect of the F-104 was that at first it featured a downward firing ejection seat, namely the STANLEY C1 as you can see in the picture. This approach may seen unorthodox but there’s a reason for its implementation, at the time there was the belief that the ejection seats weren’t powerful enough to eject and clear the pilot from the high T-tail had he ejected upwards, thus in the early days of the Starfighter the pilots would escape the plane going downwards. In order to eject, pilots would first depressurize the aircraft and activate the ejection mechanism, with the system activated the control column would be retracted, the pilot would pull his legs back against the seat and he would be ejected downward from the aircraft. This approach to the ejection seat wasn’t well received by the pilots and nobody liked the idea of ejecting at low altitudes because pilots would end up hitting the ground at high speeds, so because of this when pilots had to eject at low altitudes they were instructed to roll the airplane inverted and then eject. This technique increased the risk of damage to the pilots’ back due to the negative g-forces but in the end it’s better to get a back injury than to slam into the ground after ejection. Eventually though Lockheed produced and equipped upward firing ejection seats to its Starfighters with the C2 ejection seat and some of the newer versions of the Starfighters were equipped with the Martin Baker GQ-7A which was a zero-zero ejection seat, that is capable of safely ejecting the pilot from ground level with a zero forward speed. With that said I also want to talk about something that isn’t too mentioned when people talk about the characteristics of an airplane, and that is the design of the aircraft from a maintenance perspective. At a time when aircraft are becoming come complex and maintenance costs were rising quickly, the F-104 went against this trend. The radar system could be removed in 10 minutes, the gun in 30 minutes via a single panel on the fuselage, and there was one access door for the mechanics to reach the engine which means that in most cases the engine didn’t have to be removed which greatly reduced aircraft's downtime. There was also a compartiment located just behind the cockpit that housed all the electronic equipment of the plane and again could be accessed by one single door, a compartiment that was compatible with jeep cans. Jeep cans are packaged boxes with the same height and depth that contain the electronic systems and because they have the same dimensions they can be replaced very quickly and their shape is conveniently enough that the electronics can be checked during pre-flight. And by the way the name “jeep cans” comes from the fuel cans of the jeeps during WWII since they had a particular shape and were easy to fit in. Lastly, some Starfighters also had a drag chute and an arresting hook added, of course the Starfighter wasn’t supposed to land on carriers but these two elements were added in order to shorten the landing roll in case of the chute and provide an additional layer of safety if the plane was about to exit the runway in case of the hook. The chute and hook were not present in all Starfighter models though. Specifications As you have seen in the design section, pretty much everything on the aircraft was focused on getting a high speed and high climb rate so now let’s take a look at some numbers for the F-104A, the first production model of the Starfighter. Maximum operational speed of the F-104 was Mach 2, however the aircraft could go up to Mach 2.26 in cold weather or for a short period of time due to temperature limitations on the engine. And in regard to cruise speed a clean Starfigher could cruise at slightly supersonic speeds. The engine on most models of the Starfigher was the General Electric J79, that had a 12 to 1 compression ratio and could achieve a maximum thrust of 14,800 pounds on afterburner. As for altitude, the F-104 could reach an altitude of 64,000 feet on a normal climb or by using a zoom maneuver the Starfighter could reach altitudes of over 100,000 feet. Perhaps more impressive was the climb rate which could reach values of over 60,000 feet per minute. In regards to weight, the F-104 was relatively light at 13,384 pounds empty and 25,840 pounds for maximum take off weight. Range for the F-104 was rather short, in a clean configuration the F-104 had a range of 730 nautical miles by using the internal 896 US gallons tank, but range could be almost doubled to 1,400 miles with the addition of tip tanks and a pylon tank that could carry some extra 852 gallons of fuel. Armament The F-104 was the first operational aircraft to be equipped with the General Electric M61 Vulcan six-barrel rotary cannon, also known as the Gatling Gun, which was being developed together with the Starfighter and it was the aircraft’s main armament. This gun, which was 72 inches long and weighed 300 pounds, could fire at a rate of 6,000 rounds per minute and at the time was considered the fastest gun in the world, although for the F-104 the fire rate had been decreased to 4,000 rounds per minute. Its ammunition box with 725 rounds was placed directly behind the cockpit and during its operation it would store the used cases internally while ejecting the links downward - and I will mention why they did this in development section of the video. One advantage of the gun port placement, under and behind the cockpit, is that the pilot wouldn’t be blinded by the muzzle flash while firing and also this was a very convenient location for the mechanics to work on the gun. Other than the cannon, the F-104 was intended to carry the GAR-8 (later the AIM-9B) sidewinder missiles as requested by the Pentagon for use against distant and non-maneuverable targets such as bombers. For these missiles to work the F-104 had to position itself behind the target and fire the missile with a load factor under 2-Gs, the missile would also have to hit the target without being attracted by another heat source such as the sun, ground heat or even clouds - as such was the early missile technology. Besides the missiles, the F-104 could carry the following: One 1,000-pound load on each wing or a 2,000-pound load on the center pylon, this includes: two general purpose bombs, two fire bombs carrying napalm, two rocket launchers with 19 70mm rockets each, or the Mk 28 or Mk 43 nuclear bombs. On minor note, some countries like Japan and the Netherlands also had additional hardpoints and they carried missiles under the fuselage. Italian Starfighters were also unique in the point that they had additional hardpoints under the fuselage, but this is because they operated a different variant. If you want to know more about the F-104 variants, how they differ and how you can visually distinguish them I’ll have a video on that topic. Development Unlike most aircraft, development on the F-104 didn’t start with a requirement by the air force or another branch of the US military, it all started with a trip of Lockheed employees to Korea during the Korean war in order to ask American fighter pilots firsthand what was their experience in combat during the conflict. Although the American pilots, who flew first the F-80s, F-84s and later the F-86s, had a positive kill rate against the Mig-15s they reported that they wanted to achieve a more clear superiority against the Soviet-made aircraft, more specifically the American pilots wanted an increase in speed and rate of climb. Amongst the Lockheed employees was Kelly Johnson, the famous designer responsible for the P-38 during the Second World War and the P-80 Shooting Star, the first operational American jet fighter. Once the Lockheed team was back in the states, Kelly Johnson started working on a design that would later become the F-104. The approach to the Starfighter’s design was a rather minimalist one, something against the trend in the US Air Force, where Johnson focused on a simple, small and lightweight aircraft that could achieve high speeds. Because this happened in the mid-50s, there wasn’t much knowledge about supersonic flights and aerodynamics so extensive tests had to be carried out on the Starfighter project which at this stage was completed funded by Lockheed. The engineers working on the program ended up creating over 100 preliminary designs, testing different wing shapes, the thickness of the wings, the shape and location of air inlets and many other things to achieve a speed of Mach 2. In December of 1952, after finding the ideal shape and expected performance of the future F-104 some members of Lockheed went to an air force base to showcase their design and theoretical specifications of a Mach 2 fighter/interceptor to some air force generals. At that time there was no requirement for the F-104 but because the air force liked so much the idea and performance some members of the Air Force improvised and wrote up a document of less than two full pages listing some of the requirements for a future air force jet on that day. In January of 1953 the air force approved the design of the plane and in March of the same year Lockheed got a contract to build two prototypes for the USAF. Progress on the two prototypes designated as XF-104 was incredibly quick and the first prototype had its first flight in March of 1954, less than an year after getting the contract from the air force. One notable thing about the two XF-104s was that they were equipped with the Wright J65 engines while they were waiting for the more powerful General Electric J79. As a result top speed of the prototypes was of Mach 1.79, still not Mach 2 but a promising result for a prototype. One thing I should also mention is that the XF-104 prototypes didn’t include the traditional inlets of the F-104 and that this was also the shortest version of the Starfighter. After flight test with the two prototypes, the US government ordered 17 pre-production aircraft that were later designated YF-104A. The pre-production model was 5.6 feet longer than the prototypes and came already equipped with the more powerful General Electric J79 engine. This model was also the first to introduce the conical inlets which would be present in all other subsequent models. First flight of the YF-104A was on February of 1956 and in the same year this aircraft became the first US production fighter jet to go double sonic. 1956 was also a special year for the F-104 program because it was by then that the program became public, two years after the first flight of the prototype. These pictures are from when the F-104 was unveiled to the American public in 1956 but note that the inlets are still covered, the reason why they were covered is because experts in aerodynamics would be able to judge the maximum speed of the Starfighter by the shape of the inlets, an information that at the time was still classified. The development of the F-104 program was rather fast, however that does not mean it was easy, there were several problems but probably the most important issues are those related to the gun. As mentioned before the M61 Vulcan, which is still in service as of today in aircraft such as the F-15, F-18 and F-22, was being developed at the same time as the F-104 and many problems with the gun were resolved during test flights with the XF-104. One notable incident was experienced by test pilot Herman Salmon in 1955 where gun firing caused impact on airframe and hatch, causing the pilot to lose control of the second prototype aircraft which crashed after a safe ejection of the pilot. Because of the impacts from the empty cases, Lockheed decided to store the used rounds internally and just eject the ammunition links. After an extensive flight test program was completed, the first F-104A entered in service in the United States Air Force in January of 1958. One thing to note about the late 50s is that by then it was believed that the Soviet Union was ahead of the United States when it came to its bomber force, the Americans even believed that the USSR had nuclear powered bombers around the year of 1958, therefore the USAF was very pleased with the speed of the F-104 since it could intercept the so feared bombers very quickly and therefore avoid the incursion of the enemy into American airspace. However despite its fast speeds and impressive climb rate the Starfighter wasn’t seen as long-term asset to the American air defense, in the eyes of the air force, particularly Air Defense Command, the Starfighter was only seen as temporary fix while the US military waited for the larger Convair F-106 Delta Dart to become the primary interceptor in the American military. The F-104 also had its critics among the US air force, the airplane was criticized for its lack of all-weather capabilities, endurance and its short range. If a target was coming at 45,000 feet the F-104 would only be able to intercept it up to a distance of 150 nautical miles out from its base by using its internal fuel, or an even shorter distance if the target was at a higher altitude, however one advantage that the Starfighter had is that it could perform the interception faster than current aircraft such as the F-101 Voodoo or F-102 Delta Dagger. But this wasn’t enough to keep the Starfighter flying for in American air force for long, the original orders were greatly reduced and service in the American air force was rather short, by 1969 all surviving USAF F-104s had been transferred to the Air National Guard, however American F-104 units did participate or saw action during the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis of 1958, the Berlin Crisis, the Cuban Missile Crisis and the Vietnam War. With many Starfighter’s orders cancelled by the US military, Lockheed entered a financial nightmare. The high costs allocated to the development of the F-104 became a heavy burden to the company and adding to the low sales of the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar airliner in the civilian market, Lockheed was in a tough spot. So in order to turn debt into profit Lockheed began to market the Starfighter internationally, something that resulted in great success for the company and was even called by some “the deal of the century”. In addition to the United States, 14 other countries acquired the F-104 Starfighter, namely: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, West Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Jordan, the Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Spain, Taiwan and Turkey. And below each flag you can see how many F-104 were acquired, although numbers for Taiwan and Turkey are a bit hard to get since they received many used Starfighters from other countries. Amongst these countries, the most notable Starfighter operator is West Germany, the largest of them and responsible for the F-104G variant also known as Super Starfighter. Germany purchased about a third of the total Starfighters produced but at the same time it had the worst safety record for them. Italy was also another important operator because the Italian air force had the most modern F-104 version and was the last country to retire its F-104s in the year of 2004. Amongst the best selling points for the F-104 we have its high speed, nuclear capability and the models that were designed for these many countries. Also note that the majority of these countries are of small size, thus range wasn’t a very important important factor for them, instead was all a matter of quickly climbing and intercepting or bombing a target. However not all of these sales are attributed to the advantages of the Starfighter, later it was found out that Lockheed spent a total of $22 million in bribes to officials and representatives of West Germany, Italy, Japan and the Netherlands so that these countries would purchase the Starfighters. On the bright side, one really good reason for some of these nations to buy the F-104 was the production deal that Lockheed offered, which really helped in recovering the aviation industry of these countries after World War 2. Production One of the reasons why the F-104 became so popular in the Western hemisphere, especially amongst European countries, was that the production of a total of 2,579 Starfighter happened in 7 different countries: The United States, where the planes were manufactured of course by Lockheed. (741 aircraft) Canada, with production under license by Canadair. (340 aircraft) Japan, with production under license by Mitsubishi and the Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, the later which was responsible for a modified engine. (207) And finally by the European consortium which produced by far the largest quantity of Starfighters: a total 1,291 of them. The European consortium was made up by manufacturers from Belgium, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands including classic companies such as Fokker, Messerschmitt, Heinkel, Macchi and the many others that you can see in the video. This deal was extremely well received by the European countries who could finally put their aircraft manufacturers into action of the long break since World War 2, although some of these companies did go bankrupt in the mid to late 60s. I don’t want to get too much in detail on what the differences are between all F-104 variants, but with this table you should notice that the F-104G, also known as Super Starfighter, was the most popular model of the F-104 and was operated by the majority of the countries mentioned previously. One thing to be noted about the F-104 production is that it was also very decentralized, different sections of the aircraft could be produced pretty much anywhere and they were put together on a modular assembly, reason why there were so many companies that worked on the project. Trivia As I’ve mentioned before the F-104 was the first aircraft to hold both the speed and altitude records simultaneously back in the late 50s. The highest altitude that the F-104 has achieved was 120,800 feet during an unofficial world record. This happened on the 6th of December of 1963 with Major Robert Smith at the controls of the NF-104, a modified version of the F-104 equipped with a 6,000 pounds of thrust rocket engine. This altitude record was achieved by a zoom climb in which the NF-104 would normally start accelerating at 35,000 feet and then do a 3.5 G pull-up at Mach 2.15. The General Electric J79 would be shut down at around 70,000 to 80,000 feet, when it was reaching its temperature limitations, and with the aid of the rocket engine the plane would achieve altitudes over 100,000. From there the pilot had to use the Reaction Control System to put the nose of the airplane down and then descent to about 75,000 feet, where he would restart the plane’s main engine. The speed of the F-104 was also one of its key characteristics, the Starfighter broke the world’s speed record in its first operational year of 1958 by going at 2.259 km/h (1.404 mph). And the same can be said about its climb speed, going from the ground to 3,000 meters in just under 42 seconds (41.85) or from the ground to 25,000 meters (82,000 ft) in under 4 minutes and 30 seconds (4 mins 26.03 secs). Speed was also a determining factor in the aircraft’s nicknames, in the United States it was called Zip-4 and later Zipper. Other countries had some other nicknames for the Starfighter such as Germany which called it the Flying Coffin, Widowmaker, or Ground Nail due to the high number of accidents that took place there. And if you want to know why Germany chose and had so many accidents with the Starfighter you can check my video on the topic right here. This brings me to the end of this episode and I would like to thank again the International F-104 Society for their help in this video and congratulate them on the amazing work they are doing to preserve the history of the Starfighter. Sources and extra information are available in the description, hope you have enjoyed this video and see you guys next time!

Contents

Development

Background and early development

Clarence "Kelly" Johnson, the chief engineer at Lockheed's Skunk Works, visited Korea in December 1951 and spoke with fighter pilots about what sort of aircraft they wanted. At the time, the U.S. pilots were confronting the MiG-15 with North American F-86 Sabres, and many felt that the MiGs were superior to the larger and more complex American design. The pilots requested a small and simple aircraft with excellent performance.[3] Armed with this information, Johnson immediately started the design of such an aircraft on his return to the United States. In March, his team was assembled; they studied several aircraft designs, ranging from small designs at 8,000 lb (3,600 kg), to fairly large ones at 50,000 lb (23,000 kg). To achieve the desired performance, Lockheed chose a minimalist approach - a design that would achieve high performance by wrapping the lightest, most aerodynamically efficient airframe possible around a single powerful engine. The engine chosen was the new General Electric J79 turbojet, an engine of dramatically improved performance in comparison with contemporary designs. The small L-246 design powered by a single J79 remained essentially identical to the L-083 Starfighter as eventually delivered.[3]

The design was presented to the Air Force in November 1952, and they were interested enough to create a General Operating Requirement for a lightweight fighter to replace the North American F-100. Three additional companies replied to the requirement: Republic Aviation with the AP-55, an improved version of its prototype XF-91 Thunderceptor; North American Aviation with the NA-212, which eventually evolved into the F-107; and Northrop Corporation with the N-102 Fang, another J79-powered design. Although all were interesting, Lockheed had what proved to be an insurmountable lead, and was granted a development contract in March 1953 for two prototypes; these were given the designation "XF-104".[4]

Work progressed quickly, with a mock-up ready for inspection at the end of April, and work starting on two prototypes late in May. Meanwhile, the J79 engine was not ready; both prototypes were instead designed to use the Wright J65 engine, a licensed-built version of the Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire. The first prototype was completed by early 1954 and first flew on 4 March at Edwards AFB. The total time from contract to first flight was less than a year.[5]

When the USAF revealed the existence of the XF-104, they only gave a vague description of it. A drawing in the August 1954 edition of Popular Mechanics was very close to the actual design.[6]

The prototype had hopped into the air on 18 February, but that was not counted as a first flight. On the first official flight, it experienced landing gear retraction problems. The second prototype was destroyed a few weeks later during gun-firing trials, but in November 1955, the XF-104 was accepted by the USAF.

Further development

Based on the XF-104 testing and evaluations, the next variant, the YF-104A, was lengthened and fitted with a General Electric J79 engine, modified landing gear, and modified air intakes.[7]

The first YF-104A flew on 17 February 1956, and with the other 16 trial aircraft, were soon carrying out aircraft and equipment evaluation and tests. Modifications were made to the aircraft including airframe strengthening and adding a ventral fin. Problems were encountered with the J79 afterburner; further delays were caused by the need to add AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles. On 28 January 1958, the first F-104A to enter service was delivered to the 83rd Fighter Intercepter Wing.[8]

A total of 2,578 F-104s was produced by Lockheed and under license by various foreign manufacturers.[9]

Design

Airframe

The F-104 featured a radical wing design. Most jet fighters of the period used a swept-wing or delta-wing design, which provided a reasonable balance between aerodynamic performance, lift, and internal space for fuel and equipment. The Lockheed tests, however, determined that the most efficient shape for high-speed supersonic flight was a very small, straight, mid-mounted, trapezoidal wing.

Lockheed F-104A
Lockheed F-104A

The new wing design was extremely thin, with a thickness-to-chord ratio of only 3.36% and an aspect ratio of 2.45. The wing's leading edges were so thin (.016 in, 0.41 mm) that they presented a cut hazard to ground crews: protective guards had to be installed on the edges during ground operations maintenance.[10] The thinness of the wings required fuel tanks and landing gear to be placed in the fuselage, and the hydraulic cylinders driving the ailerons were limited to 1-inch (25 mm) thickness to fit.

The small, highly loaded wing resulted in an unacceptably high landing speed, even with both leading- and trailing-edge flaps installed. As a result, the aircraft designers developed a boundary layer control system (BLCS) of blown-flap bleed air over the trailing-edge flaps to help lower landing speeds, making landings safer.[10] The system proved to be a maintenance problem in service, however, and landing without the BLCS engaged could be a harrowing experience.[11]

The stabilator (horizontal tail surface) was mounted atop the fin to reduce inertia coupling. Because the vertical fin was only slightly shorter than the length of each wing and nearly as aerodynamically effective, it could act as a wing on rudder application, rolling the aircraft in the opposite direction of rudder input. To offset this effect, the wings were canted downward, giving 10° anhedral.[11]

The fuselage had a high fineness ratio, i.e. slender, tapered towards the sharp nose, and a small frontal area. The tightly packed fuselage contained the radar, cockpit, cannon, fuel, landing gear, and engine. The fuselage and wing combination provided low drag except at high angle of attack (alpha), at which point induced drag became very high. The F-104 had good acceleration, rate of climb, and potential top speed, but its sustained turn performance was poor.

Engine

Detail of F-104G's J79 turbojet exhaust (the red coloring has been added by the museum)
Detail of F-104G's J79 turbojet exhaust (the red coloring has been added by the museum)

The F-104 was designed to use the General Electric J79 turbojet engine,[12]fed by side-mounted intakes with fixed inlet cones optimized for supersonic speeds. Unlike some supersonic aircraft, the F-104 did not have variable-geometry inlets, instead at high mach numbers excess air is bypassed around the engine. This bypass air also helps cool the engine. The F-104 had an excellent thrust-to-drag ratio, allowing a maximum speed well in excess of Mach 2.[13]

Ejection seat

Early Starfighters used a downward-firing ejection seat (the Stanley C-1), out of concern over the ability of an upward-firing seat to clear the "T-tail" empennage. This presented obvious problems in low-altitude escapes, and 21 USAF pilots, including test pilot Capt. Iven Carl Kincheloe Jr., failed to escape from their stricken aircraft in low-level emergencies because of it. The downward-firing seat was replaced by the Lockheed C-2 upward-firing seat, which was capable of clearing the tail, but still had a minimum speed limitation of 104 mph (167 km/h). Many export Starfighters were later retrofitted with Martin-Baker Mk.7 "zero-zero" (zero altitude and zero airspeed) ejection seats.[14]

Avionics

NASARR radar on F-104
NASARR radar on F-104

The initial USAF Starfighters had a basic AN/ASG-14T ranging radar, tactical air navigation system (TACAN), and an AN/ARC-34 UHF radio.

In the late 1960s, Lockheed developed a more advanced version of the Starfighter, the F-104S, for use by the Italian Air Force as an all-weather interceptor. The F-104S received a NASARR R21-G with a moving target indication and a continuous-wave radar illuminator for semi-active radar homing missiles, including the AIM-7 Sparrow and Selenia Aspide. The missile-guidance avionics forced the deletion of the Starfighter's internal cannon. In the mid-1980s, surviving F-104S aircraft were updated to ASA standard (Aggiornamento Sistemi d'Arma, or Weapon Systems Update), with a much improved, more compact FIAR R21G/M1 radar.

Armament

M61 cannon installation of a German Navy F-104G
M61 cannon installation of a German Navy F-104G

The basic armament of the F-104 was the 20 mm (0.79 in) M61 Vulcan autocannon. As the first aircraft to carry the weapon, testing of the Starfighter revealed issues with the initial version of the M61: the Gatling-mechanism cannon suffered problems with its linked ammunition, being prone to misfeed and presenting a foreign object damage (FOD) hazard with discarded links. A linkless ammunition feed system was developed for the upgraded M61A1 installed in the F-104C; the M61A1 has subsequently been used by a wide variety of American combat aircraft.[15]

The cannon, mounted in the lower part of the port fuselage, was fed by a 725-round drum behind the pilot's seat. With its firing rate of 6,000 rounds per minute, the cannon would empty the drum after just over 7 seconds of continuous fire.[16] The cannon was omitted in all the two-seat models and some single-seat versions, including reconnaissance aircraft and the early Italian F-104S, with the gun bay and ammunition tank typically replaced by additional fuel tanks.[17] The gun's location was advantageous as gun-flash was not in the pilot's line of sight, therefore not robbing him of night-adjusted vision.

Two AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles could be carried on the wingtip stations, which could also be used for fuel tanks. The F-104C and later models added a centerline pylon and two underwing pylons for bombs, rocket pods, or fuel tanks; the centerline pylon could carry a nuclear weapon.[16] A "catamaran" launcher for two additional Sidewinders could be fitted under the forward fuselage, although the installation had minimal ground clearance and rendered the seeker heads of the missiles vulnerable to ground debris. The F-104S models added a pair of fuselage pylons beneath the intakes available for conventional bomb carriage and an additional pylon under each wing, for a total of nine.[18]

Operational history

83d FIS F-104As at Taoyuan Air Base, Taiwan, during the 1958 Quemoy Crisis.
83d FIS F-104As at Taoyuan Air Base, Taiwan, during the 1958 Quemoy Crisis.

U.S. Air Force

F-104 test firing an AIM-9 Sidewinder against a QF-80 target drone.
F-104 test firing an AIM-9 Sidewinder against a QF-80 target drone.

The F-104A initially served briefly with the USAF Air Defense Command (ADC) as an interceptor, although neither its range nor armament were well-suited for that role. The first unit to become operational with the F-104A was the 83rd Fighter Interceptor Squadron on 20 February 1958, at Hamilton AFB, California. After just three months of service, the unit was grounded after a series of engine-related accidents. The aircraft were then fitted with the J79-3B engine and another three ADC units equipped with the F-104A. The USAF reduced their orders from 722 Starfighters to 155.[19] After only one year of service these aircraft were handed over to ADC-gained units of the Air National Guard; the F-104 was intended as an interim solution while the ADC waited for delivery of the Convair F-106 Delta Dart.[20]

During the Berlin Crisis of 1961, President John F. Kennedy ordered 148,000 United States National Guard and reserve personnel to active duty on 30 August 1961, in response to Soviet moves to cut off Allied access to Berlin. 21,067 individuals were from the Air National Guard (ANG), forming 18 fighter squadrons, four reconnaissance squadrons, six transport squadrons, and a tactical control group. On 1 November 1961, the USAF mobilized three more ANG fighter interceptor squadrons. In late October and early November, eight of the tactical fighter units flew to Europe with their 216 aircraft in "Operation Stair Step". Because of their short range, 60 F-104As were airlifted to Europe in late November, among them the 151st FIS and 157th FIS. The crisis ended in the summer of 1962, and the personnel returned to the United States.[21]

The subsequent F-104C entered service with USAF Tactical Air Command (TAC) as a multi-role fighter and fighter-bomber. The 479th Tactical Fighter Wing at George AFB, California, was the first unit to equip with the type in September 1958. Although not an optimum platform for the theater, the F-104 did see limited service in the Vietnam War. In 1967, these TAC aircraft were transferred to the Air National Guard.

Vietnam War

479th TFW F-104Cs at Da Nang, 1965
479th TFW F-104Cs at Da Nang, 1965

Starfighter squadrons made two deployments to Vietnam. Commencing with Operation Rolling Thunder, the Starfighter was used both in the air-superiority role and in the air support mission, and although it saw little aerial combat and scored no air-to-air kills, F-104s were successful in deterring MiG interceptors.[22] During the first F-104 deployment from April to October 1965, Starfighters flew a total of 2,937 combat sorties. These sorties resulted in the loss of five aircraft: the 476th Tactical Fighter Squadron deployed from April to July 1965, losing one Starfighter, and the 436th Tactical Fighter Squadron deployed from July through October 1965, losing four.[23] Two Starfighters were shot down by ground fire, one was shot down by a Shenyang J-6 when Capt. Philip E. Smith strayed into Chinese airspace, and two were lost to a mid-air collision while searching for Smith's missing jet.[24][25][26]

Starfighters returned to Vietnam when the 435th Tactical Fighter Squadron deployed from June 1966 until July 1967. During this time F-104s flew a further 2,269 combat sorties, for a total of 5,206. F-104s operating in Vietnam were upgraded in service with APR-25/26 radar warning receiver equipment, with one example on display in the Air Zoo in Kalamazoo, Michigan.[27][page needed] During the second deployment, an additional nine aircraft were lost for a total of 14 F-104s lost to all causes in Vietnam. In July 1967, the Starfighter units transitioned to the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II.[28][29]

USAF F-104 Starfighters losses during the Vietnam War 1965–1967
Date F-104 model Unit Cause of loss/remarks
6-29-1965 F-104C 476th TFS Shot down by enemy ground fire while providing close air support (CAS).[30]
7-22-1965 F-104C 436th TFS Downed by ground fire while on a CAS mission.[31]
9-20-1965 F-104C 435th TFS Downed by PLAAF MiG-19 (J-6) 30mm cannon fire while on a MIGCAP mission.[32]
9-20-1965 (2) F-104C 436th TFS Mid air collision while conducting air search for earlier PLAAF downed F-104C.[32]
8-01-1966 (2) F-104C 435th TFS (2) F-104Cs downed by SA-2 surface to air missiles while on MIGCAP mission.[33]
9-01-1966 F-104C 435th TFS Downed by anti-aircraft artillery fire (AAA) while on reconnaissance mission.[34]
10-02-1966 F-104C 435th TFS Downed by SA-2 SAM at 10,000 feet while on reconnaissance mission.[35]
10-20-1966 F-104C 435th TFS Downed by ground fire during reconnaissance mission.[36]
01-12-1967 F-104C 435th TFS Operational loss; crashed while landing.[37]
01-16-1967 F-104C 435th TFS Operational loss; engine failure.[38]
01-28-1967 F-104C 435th TFS Operational loss; engine failure.[39]
5-14-1967 F-104C 435th TFS Operational Loss; engine failure.[40]

Stateside service

A German TF-104G at Luke AFB, 1982
A German TF-104G at Luke AFB, 1982

The U.S. Air Force was less than satisfied with the Starfighter, and procured only 296 examples in single-seat and two-seat versions. At the time, USAF doctrine placed little importance on air superiority (fighter-to-fighter), and the Starfighter was deemed inadequate for either the interceptor (fighter-to-bomber) or tactical fighter-bomber role, lacking both payload capability and endurance in comparison with other USAF aircraft. The F-104's U.S. service was quickly wound down after 1965. The last USAF Starfighters left regular Air Force service in 1969. The aircraft continued in use with the Puerto Rico Air National Guard until 1975 when it was replaced in that organization by the A-7 Corsair II.[27]

The last use of the F-104 Starfighter in U.S. markings was training pilots for the West German Air Force, with a wing of TF-104Gs and F-104Gs based at Luke Air Force Base, Arizona. Although operated in USAF markings, these aircraft (which included German-built aircraft) were owned by West Germany. They continued in use until 1983.[41]

India–Pakistan Wars

At dawn on 6 September 1965, Flight Lieutenant Aftab Alam Khan of Pakistan claimed an Indian Dassault Mystère IV over West Pakistan and damaged another, marking the start of aerial combat in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. It is claimed as the first combat kill by any Mach 2 aircraft, and the first missile kill for the Pakistan Air Force (PAF). Indian sources dispute this claim.[42][page needed] The Starfighter was also instrumental in intercepting an Indian Folland Gnat on 3 September 1965. F-104s were vectored to intercept the Gnat flying over Pakistan, which was returning to its home base. The F-104s, closing in at supersonic speed, caused the Gnat pilot to land at a nearby disused Pakistani airfield and surrender. The Indian Air Force (IAF) disputed PAF's claim of forced landing and stated that the landing was an error of the pilot, who made an emergency landing thinking it to be an Indian airstrip. The IAF Gnat is now displayed at the PAF Museum, Karachi.[43][44]

The first direct air-to-air combat engagements between the F-104 and the MiG-21 took place during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. MiGs flown by the IAF shot down four PAF Starfighters without sustaining any losses.[45] The first loss occurred on 12 December 1971, when MiG-21FLs of the IAF's No. 47 Squadron shot down a PAF F-104 flown by Wing Commander Mervyn Middlecoat over the Gulf of Kutch. The next three PAF F-104s were all shot down five days later on 17 December, two by IAF MiG-21FLs of No. 29 Squadron over Uttarlai, Rajasthan, and the third by another MiG-21FL of the same squadron later the same day.[46]

Post-war sanctions forced an early retirement of F-104s from the PAF due to lack of maintenance support.[47]

1967 Taiwan Strait Conflict

On 13 January 1967, four Republic of China (Taiwan) Air Force F-104G aircraft engaged a formation of 8 MiG-19s of the People's Liberation Army Air Force over the disputed island of Kinmen. Major Hu Shih-lin and Captain Shih Bei-puo each shot down one MiG-19. This marked the first uncontested F-104 combat victory in the world. One F-104 did not return to base and its pilot was listed as MIA.[48]

Other international service

F-104Gs from Marinefliegergeschwader 1, 1965
F-104Gs from Marinefliegergeschwader 1, 1965

At the same time that the F-104 was falling out of U.S. favor, the German Air Force was looking for a multi-role combat aircraft to operate in support of a missile defense system.[49] In response, Lockheed reworked the Starfighter from a fair-weather fighter into an all-weather ground-attack, reconnaissance, and interceptor aircraft, and presented it as the F-104G. The redesigned aircraft was chosen over the English Electric Lightning, Grumman F11F Super Tiger, and Northrop N-156.[50][not in citation given] The Starfighter found a new market with other NATO countries as well, and eventually a total of 2,578 of all variants of the F-104 were built in the U.S. and abroad for various nations. Several countries received their aircraft under the U.S. government-funded Military Aid Program (MAP). The American engine was retained but built under license in Europe, Canada, and Japan. The Lockheed ejector seats were retained initially but were replaced later in some countries by the safer Martin-Baker seat.

The so-called "Deal of the Century" produced substantial income for Lockheed but the resulting bribery scandals caused considerable political controversy in Europe and Japan. In Germany, Minister of Defence Franz Josef Strauss was accused of having received at least US$10 million for West Germany's purchase of the F-104 Starfighter in 1961.[51] Prince-consort Bernhard of the Netherlands was forced to resign as Inspector-General of the Dutch Armed Forces after being accused of having received more than US$1 million in bribes.[citation needed]

The international service of the F-104 began to wind down in the late 1970s, being replaced in many cases by the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, but it remained in service with some air forces for another two decades. The last operational Starfighters served with the Italian Air Force, which retired them on 31 October 2004.[52]

Use as space launch platform

In 2011, 4Frontiers Corporation and Starfighters Inc (a private F-104 operator) began working together on a project to launch suborbital sounding rockets from F-104s flying out of Kennedy Space Center. First launches were expected to occur in 2012.[53][54] As of 16 July 2017, both the 4Frontiers Corporation and Star Lab suborbital websites were unresponsive, and there appeared to be no mention of 4Frontiers or the joint project on the Starfighters Inc website.

In early 2016, another venture, CubeCab, was working on a rocket system that would launch CubeSats from F-104s.[55][56][57] The company said it planned to begin providing launch services "around 2018".[58]

Flying characteristics

The Starfighter was the first combat aircraft capable of sustained Mach 2 flight, and its speed and climb performance remain impressive even by modern standards. Equipped with razor-edge thin-blade supersonic wings (visible from the cockpit only in the mirrors), it was designed for optimum performance at Mach 1.4. If used appropriately, with high-speed surprise attacks and good use of its exceptional thrust-to-weight ratio, it could be a formidable opponent. It was exceptionally stable at high speed, i.e., 600+ knots (1,100+ km/h; 690+ mph) at very low level, making it a potent tactical nuclear strike-fighter. However, when lured into a low-speed turning contest with conventional subsonic opponents (as Pakistani pilots were with Indian Hunters in 1965), the outcome of dogfights was always in doubt. The F-104's large turn radius was due to the high speeds required for maneuvering, and its high-alpha stalling and pitch-up behavior was known to command respect.[59] In reference to the F-104's low-speed turn performance, a humorous colloquialism was coined by a Canadian pilot and referred to by F-104 pilots the world over: "Banking with intent to turn."

Chuck Yeager in the cockpit of an NF-104, 4 December 1963.
Chuck Yeager in the cockpit of an NF-104, 4 December 1963.

Takeoff speeds were in the region of 219 mph (352 km/h), with the pilot needing to swiftly raise the landing gear to avoid exceeding the limit speed of 299 mph (481 km/h). Climb and cruise performance were outstanding; occasionally a "slow" light would illuminate on the instrument panel at around Mach 2 to indicate that the engine compressor was nearing its limiting temperature and the pilot needed to throttle back. Returning to the circuit, the downwind leg could be flown at 242 mph (389 km/h) with "land" flap selected, while long flat final approaches were typically flown at speeds around 207 mph (333 km/h) depending on the weight of fuel remaining. High engine power had to be maintained on the final approach to ensure adequate airflow for the boundary layer control system; consequently pilots were warned not to cut the throttle until the aircraft was actually on the ground. A drag chute and effective brakes shortened the Starfighter's landing roll.[60]

General characteristics

F-104A flight envelope
F-104A flight envelope

The F-104 series all had a very high wing loading (made even higher when carrying external stores). The high angle of attack area of flight was protected by a stick shaker system to warn the pilot of an approaching stall, and if this was ignored, a stick pusher system would pitch the aircraft's nose down to a safer angle of attack; this was often overridden by the pilot despite flight manual warnings against this practice. At extremely high angles of attack the F-104 was known to "pitch-up" and enter a spin, from which in most cases it was impossible to recover. Unlike the twin-engined McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II for example, the F-104 with its single engine lacked the safety margin in the case of an engine failure, and had a poor glide ratio without thrust.[citation needed]

Early problems

The J79 was a brand-new engine, with development continuing throughout the YF-104A test phase and during service with the F-104A. The engine featured variable incidence compressor stator blades, a design feature that altered the angle of the stator blades automatically with altitude and temperature. A condition known as "T-2 reset", a normal function that made large stator blade angle changes, caused several engine failures on takeoff. It was discovered that large and sudden temperature changes (e.g., from being parked in the sun prior to becoming airborne) were falsely causing the engine stator blades to close and choke the compressor. The dangers presented by these engine failures were compounded by the downward ejection seat, which gave the pilot little chance of a safe exit at low level. The engine systems were subsequently modified and the ejection seat changed to the more conventional upward type. Uncontrolled tip-tank oscillations sheared one wing off of an F-104B; this problem was apparent during testing of the XF-104 prototype and was eventually resolved by filling the tank compartments in a specific order.[61]

Later problems

A further engine problem was that of uncommanded opening of the variable thrust nozzle (usually through loss of engine oil pressure, as the nozzles were actuated using engine oil as hydraulic fluid); although the engine would be running normally at high power, the opening of the nozzle resulted in a drastic loss of thrust. A modification program installed a manual nozzle closure control which reduced the problem. The engine was also known to suffer from afterburner blowout on takeoff, or even non-ignition, resulting in a major loss of thrust that could be detected by the pilot—the recommended action was to abandon the takeoff. The first fatal accident in German service was caused by this phenomenon. Some aircrews experienced uncommanded "stick kicker" activation at low level when flying straight and level, so F-104 crews often flew with the system deactivated. Asymmetric flap deployment was another common cause of accidents, as was a persistent problem with severe nose wheel "shimmy" on landing that usually resulted in the aircraft leaving the runway and in some cases even flipping over onto its back.[62][page needed]

German service

The introduction of a highly technical aircraft type to a newly reformed air force was fraught with problems. Many pilots and ground crew had settled into civilian jobs after World War II and had not kept pace with developments, with pilots being sent on short "refresher" courses in slow and benign-handling first-generation jet aircraft. Ground crew were similarly employed with minimal training and experience, which was one consequence of a conscripted military with high turnover of service personnel. Operating in poor northwest European weather conditions (vastly unlike the fair weather training conditions at Luke AFB in Arizona) and flying low at high speed over hilly terrain, a great many accidents were attributed to controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). German Air Force and Navy losses totaled 110 pilots, around half of them naval officers.[63]

One contributing factor to this was the operational assignment of the F-104 in German service: it was mainly used as a fighter-bomber, as opposed to the original design of a high-speed, high-altitude fighter/interceptor. In addition to the much lower-level mission profiles, the installation of additional avionic equipment in the F-104G version, such as the inertial navigation system, added far more distraction to the pilot and additional weight that further hampered the flying abilities of the plane. In contemporary German magazine articles highlighting the Starfighter safety problems, the aircraft was portrayed as "overburdened" with technology, which was considered a latent overstrain on the aircrews.[64]

In 1966 Johannes Steinhoff took over command of the Luftwaffe and grounded the entire Luftwaffe and Bundesmarine F-104 fleet until he was satisfied that problems had been resolved or at least reduced. In later years, the German safety record improved, although a new problem of structural failure of the wings emerged. Original fatigue calculations had not taken into account the high number of g-force loading cycles that the German F-104 fleet was experiencing, and many airframes were returned to the depot for wing replacement or outright retirement. Towards the end of Luftwaffe service, some aircraft were modified to carry a flight data recorder or "black box" which could give an indication of the probable cause of an accident.[65] Erich Hartmann, the world's top-scoring fighter ace, commanded one of Germany's first (post-war) jet fighter-equipped squadrons[66] and deemed the F-104 to be an unsafe aircraft with poor handling characteristics for aerial combat. In Navy service it lacked the safety margin of a twin engine design like the Blackburn Buccaneer. To the dismay of his superiors, Hartmann judged the fighter unfit for Luftwaffe use even before its introduction.[67]

Normal operating hazards

A German F-104F in 1960. In 1962 this aircraft crashed along with three others after a pilot error.
A German F-104F in 1960. In 1962 this aircraft crashed along with three others after a pilot error.

The causes of a large number of aircraft losses were the same as for any other similar type. They included: bird strikes (particularly to the engine), lightning strikes, pilot spatial disorientation, and mid-air collisions with other aircraft. A particularly notable accident occurred on 19 June 1962 when a formation of four F-104F aircraft, practicing for the type's introduction-into-service ceremony, crashed together after descending through a cloud bank. Three Germans and one American pilot were killed, and the four aircraft destroyed. This accident was explained as probable spatial disorientation of one of the (trainee) wingmen,[68][verification needed] and formation aerobatic teams were consequently banned by the Luftwaffe from that day on.[69]

Safety record

The safety record of the F-104 Starfighter became high-profile news in the mid-1960s, especially in Germany. The Federal German Republic initially ordered 700 (instead of the French Mirage), and later another 216, a total of 916 aircraft.[70] Deliveries started in January 1962 and before the end of the month, the first of no fewer than 262 German F-104s had crashed. In June 1962 four F-104s crashed on the same day. 116 German pilots died[70] during peacetime between 25 January 1962 and 11 December 1984. Grieving widows sued Lockheed from 1969, and by 1975 more than thirty of them had received 3 million DMs each.[71] Hence the F-104 became known as Witwenmacher ("The Widowmaker") in West Germany. Some operators lost a large proportion of their aircraft through accidents, although the accident rate varied widely depending on the user and operating conditions; the German Air Force and Federal German Navy lost about 30% of aircraft in accidents over its operating career,[72] and Canada lost 46% of its F-104s (110 of 235).[73] The Spanish Air Force, however, lost none.[74][75]

The Class A mishap rate (write off) of the F-104 in USAF service was 26.7 accidents per 100,000 flight hours as of June 1977 [76] (30.63 through the end of 2007[77]), the highest accident rate of any USAF Century Series fighter. By comparison, the mishap rate of the Convair F-102 Delta Dagger was 14.2/100,000[76] (13.69 through 2007[77]), and the mishap rate for the North American F-100 Super Sabre was 16.25/100,000.[78]

The second XB-70 Valkyrie prototype flying in a formation with F‑104 (plane with red tail, starboard of the XB‑70), 8 June 1966. Shortly after this photograph was taken the F‑104 and XB‑70 collided, killing the F‑104 pilot Joe Walker and the co‑pilot of the XB‑70.
The second XB-70 Valkyrie prototype flying in a formation with F‑104 (plane with red tail, starboard of the XB‑70), 8 June 1966. Shortly after this photograph was taken the F‑104 and XB‑70 collided, killing the F‑104 pilot Joe Walker and the co‑pilot of the XB‑70.

Notable U.S. Air Force pilots who lost their lives in F-104 accidents include Maj. Robert H. Lawrence Jr. and Capt. Iven Kincheloe. Civilian (former USAAF) pilot Joe Walker died in a midair collision with an XB-70 Valkyrie while flying an F-104. Chuck Yeager was nearly killed in December 1963 when he lost control of an NF-104A during a high-altitude record-breaking attempt; he lost the tips of two fingers and was hospitalized for a long period with severe burns after ejecting from the aircraft.[79]

On 2 November 1959, an F-104 crashed into a house in suburban Dayton, Ohio, killing two young girls and critically burning their mother; the pilot had ejected to safety a half-mile away from the crash site.[80]

World records

The F-104 was the first aircraft to simultaneously hold the world speed and altitude records. On 7 May 1958, U.S. Air Force Maj. Howard C. Johnson, flying YF-104A 55-2957, broke the world altitude record by flying to 91,243 feet (27,811 m) at Edwards AFB.[81] On 16 May 1958, U.S. Air Force Capt. Walter W. Irwin, flying YF-104A 55-2969, set a world speed record of 1,404.19 miles per hour (2,259.82 km/h) over a course 15 miles (24 km) long at Edwards AFB.[81] Flying F-104A 56-0762 over NAS Point Mugu, California, U.S. Air Force Lt. William T. Smith and Lt. Einar Enevoldson set several time-to-climb records on 13 and 14 December 1958:[81]

  • 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) in 41.85 seconds
  • 6,000 metres (19,700 ft) in 58.41 seconds
  • 9,000 metres (29,500 ft) in 81.14 seconds
  • 12,000 metres (39,400 ft) in 99.90 seconds
  • 15,000 metres (49,200 ft) in 131.1 seconds
  • 20,000 metres (65,600 ft) in 222.99 seconds
  • 25,000 metres (82,000 ft) in 266.03 seconds

On 14 December 1959, U.S. Air Force Captain "Joe" B. Jordan, flying F-104C AF Ser. No. 56-0885 at Edwards AFB, set a new world altitude record of 103,389 feet (31,513 m), in the process becoming the first aircraft to cross the 100,000-foot threshold. He also set a 30,000-metre (98,400 ft) time-to-climb record of 904.92 seconds.[81] (The lower-altitude records were surpassed in February 1962 by the Northrop T-38 Talon, and soon after all of the time-to-climb records were broken by the F-4 Phantom.[82]) U.S. Air Force Maj. Robert W. Smith, flying NF-104A 56-0756, set an unofficial world altitude record of 118,860 feet (36,230 m) on 15 November 1963, and on 6 December 1963 he flew the same aircraft to another unofficial altitude record of 120,800 feet (36,800 m).[81]

Jacqueline Cochran flew TF-104G N104L to set three women's world's speed records: On 11 May 1964, she averaged 1,429.3 miles per hour (2,300.2 km/h) over a 15–25 km (9.3–15.5 mi) course, on 1 June she flew at an average speed of 1,303.18 miles per hour (2,097.26 km/h) over a 100 km (62 mi) closed-circuit course, and on 3 June she recorded an average speed of 1,127.4 miles per hour (1,814.4 km/h) over a 500 km (310 mi) closed-circuit course.[81]

Lockheed test pilot Darryl Greenamyer built an F-104 out of parts he had collected. The aircraft, N104RB, first flew in 1976. On 2 October of that year, trying to set a new low-altitude 3 km (1.9 mi) speed record, Greenamyer averaged 1,010 miles per hour (1,630 km/h) at Mud Lake near Tonopah, Nevada. A tracking camera malfunction eliminated the necessary proof for the official record. On 24 October 1977, Greenamyer flew a 3 km (1.9 mi) official FAI record flight of 988.26 miles per hour (1,590.45 km/h).[83]

On 26 February 1978, Greenamyer made a practice run for a world altitude record attempt. After the attempt, he was unable to get a lock light on the left wheel; after multiple touch-and-go tests at an Edwards Air Force Base runway, he determined that it was not safe to land. He ejected, and the N104RB crashed in the desert.[84]

Variants

YF-104A, AF ser. no. 55-2961, NASA aircraft number 818 was flown by NASA from 27 August 1956 to 26 August 1975 for 1,439 flights flown.
YF-104A, AF ser. no. 55-2961, NASA aircraft number 818 was flown by NASA from 27 August 1956 to 26 August 1975 for 1,439 flights flown.
Side view of NASA YF-104A showing thinness of wing and sharpness of leading edge
Side view of NASA YF-104A showing thinness of wing and sharpness of leading edge
XF-104
Two prototype aircraft equipped with Wright J65 engines (the J79 was not yet ready); one aircraft equipped with the M61 cannon as an armament test bed. Both aircraft were destroyed in crashes.[85]
YF-104A
17 pre-production aircraft used for engine, equipment, and flight testing.[7]
F-104A
A total of 153 initial production versions were built.[12] The F-104A was in USAF service from 1958 through 1960, then transferred to the Air National Guard until 1963. At that time they were recalled by the USAF Air Defense Command for the 319th and 331st Fighter Interceptor Squadrons. Some were released for export to Jordan, Pakistan, and Taiwan, each of whom used it in combat. The 319th F-104As and Bs were re-engined in 1967 with the J79-GE-19, which provided 17,900 lbf (79.6 kN) of thrust in afterburner; service ceiling with this engine was in excess of 73,000 ft (22,000 m). In 1969, all the F-104A/Bs in ADC service were retired. On 18 May 1958, an F-104A set a world speed record of 1,404.19 mph (2,259.82 km/h).[86]
NF-104
Three demilitarized versions with an additional 6,000 lbf (27 kN) Rocketdyne LR121/AR-2-NA-1 rocket engine, used for astronaut training at altitudes up to 120,800 ft (36,800 m).[87]
QF-104A
A total of 22 F-104As converted into radio-controlled drones and test aircraft.
F-104B
Tandem two-seat, dual-control trainer version of F-104A.[12] A total of 26 built, the F-104B had an enlarged rudder and ventral fin, no cannon, and reduced internal fuel, but otherwise combat-capable. A few were supplied to Jordan, Pakistan, and Taiwan.
F-104C
Fighter-bomber version for USAF Tactical Air Command, with improved fire-control radar (AN/ASG-14T-2), one centerline and two wing pylons (for a total of five), and ability to carry one Mk 28 or Mk 43 nuclear weapon on the centerline pylon. The F-104C also had in-flight refuelling capability. On 14 December 1959, an F-104C set a world altitude record of 103,395 ft (31,515 m) (31,515 m). 77 built.
F-104D
Dual-control trainer version of the F-104C. 21 built.[12]
F-104DJ
Dual-control trainer version of the F-104J for the Japanese Air Self-Defense Force. 20 built by Lockheed and assembled by Mitsubishi. After their retirement in Japan, the U.S. delivered some F-104J/DJs to the Taiwanese Air Force.
F-104F
Dual-control trainers based on F-104D, but using the upgraded engine of the F-104G. No radar, and not combat-capable. Produced as interim trainers for the German Air Force. All 30 F-104F aircraft were retired by 1971.
A German RF-104G in flight with a 66th TRW RF-101C.
A German RF-104G in flight with a 66th TRW RF-101C.
F-104G
1,122 aircraft of the main version produced as multi-role fighter-bombers. Manufactured by Lockheed, and under license by Canadair and a consortium of European companies that included Messerschmitt/MBB, Dornier, Fiat, Fokker, and SABCA. The type featured strengthened fuselage and wing structure, increased internal fuel capacity, an enlarged vertical fin, strengthened landing gear with larger tires, and revised flaps for improved combat maneuvering. Upgraded avionics included a new Autonetics NASARR F15A-41B radar with air-to-air and ground mapping modes, the Litton LN-3 Inertial Navigation System (the first on a production fighter), and an infrared sight.
RF-104G
189 tactical reconnaissance models based on the F-104G,[12] usually with three KS-67A cameras mounted in the forward fuselage in place of the internal cannon.
TF-104G
220 combat-capable trainer versions of the F-104G;[12] no cannon or centerline pylon, and reduced internal fuel. One aircraft was used by Lockheed as a demonstrator with the civil registration number N104L, and was flown by Jackie Cochran to set three women’s world speed records in 1964. This aircraft later served in the Netherlands. A pair of two-seat TF-104Gs and a single-seat F-104G joined the NASA Dryden inventory in June 1975.
F-104H
Projected export version based on the F-104G with simplified equipment and optical gunsight. Cancelled prior to construction.
F-104J
Specialized interceptor version of the F-104G for the Japanese ASDF, built under license by Mitsubishi for the air-superiority role, armed with cannon and four Sidewinders; no strike capability. Some were converted to UF-104J radio-controlled target drones and destroyed. A total of 210 were built, three by Lockheed, 29 by Mitsubishi from Lockheed-sourced components, and 178 by Mitsubishi.[12][88] After retired in Japan, U.S. delivered some 104J/DJs to the airforce of Taiwan.
F-104N
Three F-104Gs were delivered to NASA in 1963 for use as high-speed chase aircraft. One, piloted by Joe Walker, collided with an XB-70 on 8 June 1966.
Italian Air Force F-104S in original camouflage scheme with Sparrow missiles mounted under the wings, c. 1969
Italian Air Force F-104S in original camouflage scheme with Sparrow missiles mounted under the wings, c. 1969
F-104S
246 Italian versions were produced by FIAT (one aircraft crashed prior to delivery and is often not included in the total number built). Forty aircraft were delivered to the Turkish Air Force and the rest to the Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana).[89] The F-104S was upgraded for the interception role, adding the NASARR R-21G/H radar with moving-target indicator and continuous-wave illuminator for semi-active radar homing missiles (initially the AIM-7 Sparrow), two additional wing and two underbelly hardpoints (increasing the total to nine), the more powerful J79-GE-19 engine, and two additional ventral fins to increase stability. The M61 cannon was sacrificed to make room for the missile avionics in the interceptor version, but retained for the fighter-bomber variants. Typically two Sparrow and two (and sometimes four or six) Sidewinder missiles were carried on all the hardpoints except the central (underbelly), or up to seven 750 lb (340 kg) bombs (normally two to four 500–750 lb [230–340 kg]). The F-104S was cleared for a higher maximum takeoff weight, allowing it to carry up to 7,500 lb (3,400 kg) of stores; other Starfighters had a maximum external load of 4,000 lb (1,800 kg). Range was up to 780 mi (1,260 km) with four tanks.[90]
F-104S-ASA (Aggiornamento Sistemi d'Arma – "Weapon Systems Update")
150 upgraded F-104Ss equipped with the Fiat R21G/M1 radar with frequency hopping and look-down/shoot-down capability, new IFF system and weapon delivery computer, and provision for the AIM-9L all-aspect Sidewinder and Selenia Aspide missiles. It was first flown in 1985.[12]
F-104S-ASA/M (Aggiornamento Sistemi d'Arma/Modificato – "Weapon Systems Update/Modified")
49 airframes upgraded in 1998 to ASA/M standard with GPS, new TACAN and Litton LN-30A2 INS, refurbished airframe, and improved cockpit displays. All strike-related equipment was removed. The last Starfighters in combat service, the F-104S-ASA/M was withdrawn in December 2004 and temporarily replaced by the F-16 Fighting Falcon, while awaiting Eurofighter Typhoon deliveries.
CF-104
200 Canadian-built versions, built under license by Canadair.[12] Optimized for both nuclear strike and 2-stage-to-orbit payload delivery, the CF-104 had NASARR R-24A radar with air-to-air modes, cannon deleted (restored after 1972), additional internal fuel cell, and Canadian J79-OEL-7 engines with 10,000 lbf (44 kN)/15,800 lbf (70 kN) thrust.
CF-104D
38 dual-control trainer versions of CF-104, built by Lockheed, but with Canadian J79-OEL-7 engines.[12] Some were later transferred to Denmark, Norway, and Turkey.

Production summary table and costs

Production summary[91]
Type Lockheed Multi-
national
Canadair Fiat Fokker MBB[a] Messer-
schmitt[a]
Mitsubishi SABCA Total
XF-104 2 2
YF-104A 17 17
F-104A 153 153
F-104B 26 26
F-104C 77 77
F-104D 21 21
F-104DJ 20 20
CF-104 200 200
CF-104D 38 38
F-104F 30 30
F-104G 139 140 164 231 50 210 188[b] 1122
RF-104G 40 35 119 194
TF-104G (583C to F) 172 27 199
TF-104G (583G and H) 21 21
F-104J 3 207 210
F-104S 245[b] 245
Total by manufacturer 738 48 340 444 350 50 210 207 188 2575
  1. ^ a b Messerschmitt merged later to Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) later a part of EADS.
  2. ^ a b One aircraft crashed on test flight and is not included.
F-104 costs (US dollars, 1960)[1]
F-104A F-104B F-104C F-104D F-104G TF-104G
Unit R&D cost 189,473 189,473
Airframe 1,026,859 1,756,388 863,235 873,952
Engine 624,727 336,015 473,729 271,148 169,000
Electronics 3,419 13,258 5,219 16,210
Armament 19,706 231,996 91,535 269,014
Ordnance 29,517 59,473 44,684 70,067
Flyaway cost 1.7 million 2.4 million 1.5 million 1.5 million 1.42 million 1.26 million
Modification costs by 1973 198,348 196,396
Cost per flying hour 655
Maintenance cost per flying hour 395 544 395 395

Operators

Former Lockheed F-104 Starfighter operators
Former Lockheed F-104 Starfighter operators

According to the FAA there are 10 privately owned F-104s in the U.S.[92] Starfighters Inc, a civilian demonstration team in Florida, operates three ex-Canadian Military CF-104 Starfighters (1 CF-104D and 2 CF-104s).[93] Another, 5303 (104633), civil registry: N104JR is owned and operated by a private collector in Arizona.[94]


The F-104 was operated by the militaries of the following nations:

Aircraft on display

F-104 gate guardian for the Georgia Air National Guard's 165th Air Support Operations Squadron and 224th Joint Communications Support Squadron in Brunswick, Georgia
F-104 gate guardian for the Georgia Air National Guard's 165th Air Support Operations Squadron and 224th Joint Communications Support Squadron in Brunswick, Georgia

Since being withdrawn from service, the Starfighter has been preserved in museums and is a popular gate guardian.

Specifications (F-104G)

External image
Lockheed F-104 Starfighter Cutaway
Lockheed F-104 Starfighter Cutaway from Flightglobal.com

Data from Quest for Performance[95]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 54 ft 8 in (16.66 m)
  • Wingspan: 21 ft 9 in (6.63 m)
  • Height: 13 ft 6 in (4.11 m)
  • Wing area: 196.1 sq ft (18.22 m2)
  • Airfoil: Biconvex 3.36% root and tip
  • Empty weight: 14,000 lb (6,350 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 29,027 lb (13,166 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × General Electric J79 afterburning turbojet, 10,000 lbf (44 kN) thrust dry, 15,600 lbf (69 kN) with afterburner

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 1,528 mph; 2,459 km/h (1,328 kn)
  • Maximum speed: Mach 2
  • Combat range: 420 mi (365 nmi; 676 km)
  • Ferry range: 1,630 mi (1,416 nmi; 2,623 km)
  • Service ceiling: 50,000 ft (15,000 m)
  • Rate of climb: 48,000 ft/min (240 m/s) Initially
  • Lift-to-drag: 9.2
  • Wing loading: 105 lb/sq ft (510 kg/m2)
  • Thrust/weight: 0.54 with max. takeoff weight (0.76 loaded)

Armament

Notable appearances in media

Nicknames

The Starfighter was called the "missile with a man in it", a name swiftly trademarked by Lockheed for marketing purposes, and the press coined the F-104 the Widowmaker due to its high accident rate, but neither were used in service. The term Super Starfighter was used by Lockheed to describe the F-104G in marketing campaigns, but fell into disuse.

In service, it earned a host of nicknames among its users:

  • American pilots called it the Zipper or Zip-104 because of its prodigious speed.
  • The Japan Air Self-Defense Force called it Eiko (Kanji: 栄光, "Glory").
  • In Germany it earned several less-charitable names due to its high accident rate, a common name being Fliegender Sarg ("Flying Coffin"). It was also called Witwenmacher ("Widowmaker"), or Erdnagel ("ground nail"), the official military term for a tent peg.[96]
  • The Pakistani Air Force called it Badmash ("Hooligan").
  • Among Italian pilots its spiky design earned it the nickname Spillone ("Hatpin"), along with Bara volante ("Flying Coffin").
  • Among the Norwegian public and Royal Norwegian Air Force it was affectionately known as Vestfjordoksen ("the Vestfjord bull"), due to the immense roar of the aircraft based in Bodø, at the southern end of Vestfjorden.[97]
  • In the Canadian Forces, the aircraft were sometimes referred to as the Lawn Dart and the Aluminium Death Tube due to the high operational losses of 40% of airframes, and Flying Phallus due to its shape. It was affectionally called the Silver Sliver, the Zipper, or Zip, but normally the Starfighter or simply the 104 (one-oh-four).[98]
  • NASA's F-104B Starfighter N819NA acquired the nickname Howling Howland due to the unique howling sound of its engine at certain throttle settings.[96]

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b Knaack 1978.
  2. ^ Blackbirds, Leland R. Haynes, Webmaster, SR-71. "Clarence L. Kelly Johnson Biography".
  3. ^ a b Bowman 2000, p. 26.
  4. ^ Bowman 2000, p. 32.
  5. ^ "Sixty years of the Lockheed F-104 Starfighter".
  6. ^ "Air Force Puts Supersonic XF-104 Through Its Paces." Popular Mechanics, August 1954, p. 104.
  7. ^ a b Cacutt 1988, p. 159.
  8. ^ "United States Army and Air Force Fighter 1916–1961" produced by D.A. Russell, Harleyford Publications Limited, Letchworth 1961, Library of Congress Card No.61-16739(United States) page 132
  9. ^ Matricardi 2006, p. 129.
  10. ^ a b "Lockheed F-104 Starfighter: The Zipper".
  11. ^ a b Bowman 2000, p. 28.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Donald, David, ed. "Lockheed F-104 Starfighter". The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. New York: Barnes & Nobel Books, 1997. ISBN 0-7607-0592-5.
  13. ^ Glenn L. Reaves (March 1961). "Test Pilots Notebook" (PDF). 916-starfighter.de. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  14. ^ "Ejection seats of the F-104." ejectionsite.com. Retrieved: 6 February 2008
  15. ^ "M61A1 GAU 4 20-MM Vulcan Cannon". Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  16. ^ a b "Lockheed F-104 Starfighter Single-Seat High-Speed Fighter / Interceptor Aircraft". 18 June 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  17. ^ "F-104 Starfighter". 2 August 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  18. ^ "Italian F-104 versions explained". 21 April 2009. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  19. ^ Käsmann 1994, p. 84.
  20. ^ Bowman 2000, p. 39.
  21. ^ "ANG Heritage: Missions, Wars and Operations." Archived 26 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ang.af.mil. Retrieved: 8 August 2010.
  22. ^ Thompson 2004, p. 155.
  23. ^ Thompson 2004, p. 157.
  24. ^ Smith and Herz p. 29-35, 67, 68
  25. ^ Windle and Bowman p. 38, 39
  26. ^ Hobson 2001, p. 23 (photo).
  27. ^ a b Hobson 2001
  28. ^ Hobson 2001, p. 269.
  29. ^ "F-104C "60910" 479th TFW USAF based at Udorn RTAFB, Thailand heads into Vietnam 1966, loaded with 2 M-117750 lbs (340 kg) iron bombs, the maximum load at that time." 916-starfighter.de. Retrieved: 6 February 2008.
  30. ^ Hobson 2001, p. 24.
  31. ^ Hobson 2001, p. 25.
  32. ^ a b Hobson 2001, p. 32.
  33. ^ Hobson 2001, p. 69.
  34. ^ Hobson 2001, p. 72.
  35. ^ Hobson p. 75
  36. ^ Hobson 2001, p. 78.
  37. ^ Hobson 2001, p. 85.
  38. ^ Hobson 2001, p. 86.
  39. ^ Hobson 2001, p. 87.
  40. ^ Hobson 2001, p. 100.
  41. ^ Fricker and Jackson 1996, p. 74.
  42. ^ Jagan and Chopra, 2006.
  43. ^ Mohan, Jagan P V S; Chopra, Samir. "3". The India-Pakistan Air War of 1965. ISBN 81-7304-641-7. Archived from the original on 6 July 2013. Retrieved 9 January 2015..
  44. ^ Tufail, Air Commodore M. Kaiser. "Run… It’s a 104." Archived 19 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Jang News. Retrieved: 9 April 2012.
  45. ^ Coggins 2000, p. 21.
  46. ^ Simha, Rakesh Krishnan."The MiG that forced an Army's Surrender". Retrieved: 11 January 2015.
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  48. ^ Bowman 2000, p. 165.
  49. ^ "Wingless Deterrent." Flight 14 February 1958, p. 95, via flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 27 June 2010.
  50. ^ "a Special Correspondent" (17 January 1958), "First Things First: On Not seeing the Sales Trees for the Reorganization Woods." (pdf), Flight, 73 (2556), p. 72, retrieved 27 June 2010.
  51. ^ "The Lockheed Mystery." Time, 13 September 1976. Retrieved: 6 February 2008.
  52. ^ Cenciotti, David. "The last ever operative flight of the legendary F-104 Starfighter, 12 years ago today". The Aviationist. The Aviationist. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  53. ^ "Star Lab suborbital launch vehicle: Official unveilong and flight test, October 27, 2011." Archived 29 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Star Lab suborbital launch vehicle. Retrieved: 10 August 2013.
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  55. ^ Boucher, Marc (2015-10-15). "Bloostar and other SmallSat Launchers Look to Fill a Need". spaceref.com. SpaceRef. Retrieved 2016-03-15.
  56. ^ Technologies, CubeCab Company Website, Retrieved 15 Feb 2016
  57. ^ Dowling, Stephen. "The 1950s jet launching tiny satellites".
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  60. ^ Bowman 2000, pp. 40, 43.
  61. ^ Drendel 1976, p. 22.
  62. ^ Bowman 2000
  63. ^ "Too gung-ho." New Scientist, Vol. 199, No. 2666, 26 July 2008, p. 17.
  64. ^ "Trost vom General." Der Spiegel, 13 October 1965.
  65. ^ Reed 1981, p. 46.
  66. ^ Weal 1995, p. 164.
  67. ^ Toliver and Constable 1985, pp. 285–286.
  68. ^ Colonel Bruce Jones, USAF (retired)
  69. ^ Kropf 2002, Ch. 10.
  70. ^ a b Germany, SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg. "50 Jahre Starfighter-Kauf: Witwenmacher mit Stummelflügeln – SPIEGEL ONLINE – einestages".
  71. ^ The partly fictional German film "Starfighter – Sie wollten den Himmel erobern", between the end of the film and the casting credentials, stated as facts. All the 116 dead pilots, with names and dates of death, were listed on the screen. The film was aired on Danish DR 2, Sunday 23 October 2016
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  77. ^ a b USAF Safety & Inspection Center
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  79. ^ Yeager 1985, pp. 278–284.
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  90. ^ Sgarlato 2004
  91. ^ Bowman, Lockheed F-104 Starfighter Bowman 2000, Appendix II.
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External links

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