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Living root bridges

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Living root bridges
Double living root bridge in East Khasi Hills
Double living root bridge in East Khasi Hills
Crosses Creeks
Characteristics
Material Living trees roots
Trough construction Rocks
Total length over 50 meters
Width over 1.5 meters
Load limit up to 500 people
Design life up to 500 years
History
Architect Meghalayan
 A living root bridge near the village of Kongthong undergoing repairs. The local War Khasis in the photo are using the young, pliable aerial roots of a fig tree to create a new railing for the bridge.
A living root bridge near the village of Kongthong undergoing repairs. The local War Khasis in the photo are using the young, pliable aerial roots of a fig tree to create a new railing for the bridge.

Living root bridges are a form of tree shaping common in the southern part of the Northeast Indian state of Meghalaya. They are handmade from the aerial roots of Rubber Fig Trees (Ficus elastica[1][2]) by the Khasi and Jaintia[3] peoples of the mountainous terrain along the southern part of the Shillong Plateau. Root bridges have also been observed in the Indian state of Nagaland[4]

Living Root bridges have also been created in Indonesia at Jembatan akar on the island of Sumatra, and in the banten provence of Java , by the Baduy people.[5]

Methods of creating living root bridges

A living root bridge is formed by guiding the pliable roots of the ficus elastica tree across a stream or river, and then allowing the roots to grow and strengthen over time until they can hold the weight of a human being. The young roots are sometimes tied or twisted together, and are often encouraged to combine with one another via the process of Inosculation. As the ficus elastica tree is well suited to anchoring itself to steep slopes and rocky surfaces, it is not difficult to encourage its roots to take hold on the opposite sides of river banks. As they are made from living, growing, organisms, the useful lifespan of any given living root bridge is variable. It is thought that, under ideal conditions, a root bridge can last for many hundreds of years. As long as the tree it is formed from remains healthy, the bridge will naturally self-renew and self-strengthen as its component roots grow thicker.[6][7]

There are several different ways in which a root bridge can be made.

Root bridge generation by hand

Some living root bridges are created entirely by manipulating the roots of the ficus elastica tree by hand, and without the aid of a scaffolding or any other natural or man made materials.[8]

 A root bridge in Burma Village, East Khasi Hills, being developed without the aid of a scaffold.
A root bridge in Burma Village, East Khasi Hills, being developed without the aid of a scaffold.

Often, locals using root bridges will make small alterations to them, manipulating young roots as the opportunity presents itself. Because of this, one can say that the development of a living root bridge is very much a social endeavor, and that the structures are perpetual works in progress.

Root bridge generation using a wood or bamboo scaffold

Root bridges are also commonly formed by training young ficus elastica roots over scaffolds made from wood or bamboo, materials which are abundant in Northeast India. In these instances, the roots are wrapped around the outside of the perishable material. The scaffolds may be replaced many times over the years as the root bridge becomes stronger.[8]

 A root bridge being grown using a wood and bamboo scaffold. Rangthylliang, East Khasi Hills.
A root bridge being grown using a wood and bamboo scaffold. Rangthylliang, East Khasi Hills.

Root bridge generation using Areca Palm trunks

Some living root bridges are grown by training young ficus elastica roots through the hollowed-out trunks of Areca nut palms. The pliable tree roots are made to grow through betel tree trunks[9] which have been placed across rivers and streams until the figs' roots attach themselves to the other side. The trunks serve to guide the roots, to protect them, and to provide them with nutrients as they decay.[8]Sticks, stones, and other objects are used to stabilize the growing bridge[1] This process can take up to 15 years to complete.[10] This means of creating living root bridges can best be observed near the tourist friendly village of Nongriat.

 Here, a living root bridge is being developed with ficus elastica strands being guided along a halved Areca Palm trunk.
Here, a living root bridge is being developed with ficus elastica strands being guided along a halved Areca Palm trunk.

Root bridge generation using conventional structures as scaffolding

Root bridges can also be trained by guiding the young roots of ficus elastica trees across conventional structures, such as already existing steel wire suspension bridges.[8] As the structure being used as a scaffold is already functional, the problem of the length of time it takes for a root bridge to become functional is here essentially bypassed; the conventional structure can be used until the more sustainable root bridge is sufficiently strong.[8]

 Here, ficus elastica roots have been trained across a pre-existing steel bridge, in the hope that eventually, as the steel elements fail, the roots will form into a usable living root bridge.
Here, ficus elastica roots have been trained across a pre-existing steel bridge, in the hope that eventually, as the steel elements fail, the roots will form into a usable living root bridge.

Locations

Living root bridges are known to occur in the West Jaintia Hills district and East Khasi Hills district.[3][11] In the Jaintia Hills, examples of Living Root Bridges can be found in and around the villages of Shnongpdeng, Nongbareh, Khonglah, Padu, and Kudeng Rim.[3] In the East Khasi Hills, living root bridges nearby Cherrapunji are known to exist in and around the villages of Tynrong,[12] Mynteng, Nongriat, Nongthymmai, and around Laitkynsew.[13] East of Cherrapunji, examples of living root bridges are known to exist in the Khatarshnong region, in and around the villages of Nongpriang, Sohkynduh, Rymmai, Mawshuit, and Kongthong.[14] Many more can be found near Pynursla[11] and around the village of Mawlynnong.

History

The local Khasi people do not know when or how the tradition of living root bridges started. The earliest written record of Cherrapunji's living root bridges is by Lieutenant H Yule, who expressed astonishment about them in the 1844 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.[1]

 This living root bridge is the longest known example.
This living root bridge is the longest known example.

Examples

At over 50 meters in length, the longest known example of a living root bridge[11] is near the small Khasi town of Pynursla, India. It can be accessed from either of the villages of Mawkyrnot or Rangthylliang.

There are several examples of double living root bridges, the most famous being the "Double Decker" root bridge of Nongriat Village, pictured above.

There are three known examples of double bridges with two parallel or nearly parallel spans. Two are in the West Jaintia Hills near the villages of Padu and Nongbareh,[3] and one is in Burma Village, in the East Khasi Hills.[3] There is also a "Double Decker" (or possibly even "Triple Decker") near the village of Rangthylliang, close to Pynursla.[11]

 The double living root bridge of Padu Village.[15]
The double living root bridge of Padu Village.[15]

Other examples of living root architecture in Meghalaya

 A living root ladder near the village of Pongtung in the East Khasi Hills.
A living root ladder near the village of Pongtung in the East Khasi Hills.

The War Khasis and War Jaintias also make several other kinds of structures out of the aerial roots of rubber trees. These include ladders and platforms.[16] For example, in the village of Kudeng Rim in the West Jaintia Hills, a rubber tree situated next to a football field has been modified so that its branches can serve as "Living Root Bleachers." Aerial roots of the tree have been interwoven in the spaces between several branches so that platforms have been created from which villagers can watch football games.[16]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Lewin, Brent (November 2012), "India's living Bridges", Reader's Digest Australia, pp. 82–89, archived from the original on 2012-11-16 
  2. ^ "Living Root Bridge in Laitkynsew India". www.india9.com. Retrieved 2010-02-22. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Rogers, Patrick A. (2015-09-02). "evenfewergoats: The Undiscovered Living Root Bridges of Meghalaya Part 1: Bridges of The Umngot River Basin". evenfewergoats. Retrieved 2015-10-04. 
  4. ^ "Living Root Bridges of Nagaland India – Nyahnyu Village Mon District | Guy Shachar". guyshachar.com. Retrieved 2017-09-07. 
  5. ^ py6unova (2015-12-13). "Baduy Tribe". Ruby Mangunsong. Retrieved 2017-09-07. 
  6. ^ "Cherrapunjee.com: A Dream Place". Cherrapunjee Holiday Resort. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  7. ^ "Living Root Bridge". Online Highways LLC. 2005-10-21. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  8. ^ a b c d e "How are Living Root Bridges Made?". The Living Root Bridge Project. 2017-05-05. Retrieved 2017-09-04. 
  9. ^ Vallangi, Neelima. "Indias amazing living root bridges". BBC. Retrieved 27 August 2015. 
  10. ^ Baker, Russ. "Our Environment," Business Insider, Oct. 6, 2011[dead link]
  11. ^ a b c d Rogers, Patrick A. (2015-09-14). "evenfewergoats: The Undiscovered Living Root Bridges of Meghalaya Part 2: Bridges Near Pynursla". evenfewergoats. Retrieved 2015-10-04. 
  12. ^ Rogers, Patrick A. (2014-01-26). "evenfewergoats: An Unknown Living Root Bridge". evenfewergoats. Retrieved 2015-10-04. 
  13. ^ "Cherrapunjee". Cherrapunjee. Retrieved 2015-10-04. 
  14. ^ Rogers, Patrick A. (2015-09-24). "evenfewergoats: The Undiscovered Living Root Bridges of Meghalaya Part 3: Bridges of the 12 Villages". evenfewergoats. Retrieved 2015-10-04. 
  15. ^ Rogers, Patrick A. (2015-09-02). "evenfewergoats: The Undiscovered Living Root Bridges of Meghalaya Part 1: Bridges of The Umngot River Basin". evenfewergoats. Retrieved 2015-10-08. 
  16. ^ a b Rogers, Patrick A. (2015-10-01). "evenfewergoats: The Undiscovered Living Root Bridges of Meghalaya Part 4: Living Root Ladders and other uses for living root architecture". evenfewergoats. Retrieved 2015-10-04. 

External links

This page was last edited on 30 October 2017, at 16:12.
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