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List of victims and survivors of Auschwitz

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is the fragmentary list of all of the victims and survivors of Auschwitz concentration camp. This list represents only a sample portion of the 1.1 million victims and some survivors of the Auschwitz death camp and is not intended to be viewed as a representative count by any means.

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Transcription

Contents

Victims

The following victims who were male are signified by the  Pale Turquoise  background. The female victims are marked by the  Light Pink  background.

Name Born Died Age Ethnicity Notability
July 1, 1913 December 22, 1998 86 Hungarian Jewish International Dancer for Paramount Pictures, California, Stage name, "Ari Ana", wife of Fernando Melendez del Valle, grandmother of tenor, Fernando del Valle. Mother Iren Bischitz- Schwarcz murdered in Auschwitz.
Estella Agsteribbe[1] April 6, 1909 September 17, 1943 34 Jewish Gymnast. Member of the Gold medal winning Dutch gymnastics team at the 1928 Summer Olympics.
Heinz Alt[2] 1922 January 6, 1945 22 or 23 Jewish Composer. Deported from Theresienstadt concentration camp to the camp on September 28, 1944.
Jan Ančerl February 28, 1943 c. October 15, 1944 1 Jewish Son of Karel Ančerl and Valy Ančerl. Born while parents were in Theresienstadt concentration camp.
Valy Ančerl c. October 15, 1944 Jewish Wife of Karel Ančerl
Count Andreas Pius Cyrill of Zoltowski-Romanus|Andreas Pius|Cyrill of Zoltow 1881 or 2018 September 4, 1941 59 Polish Noble.
Norbert Barlicki June 6, 1880 September 27, 1941 61 Polish Lawyer, Publicist, Politician.
Count Bernard of Łubieński February 23, 1894 October 10, 1941 47 Polish Noble. Was a member of the Polish Ministry of Commerce and Industrial Affairs before war broke out. Belonged to the first group of people to organise the underground fight.
René Blum[3] March 13, 1878 c. September 1942 64 Jewish Choreographer, founder of the Ballet de l'Opéra; brother of Léon Blum. Transferred to the camp on September 23, 1942.
Hana Brady[4] May 16, 1931 October 23, 1944 13 Jewish Arrived at the camp on October 23, 1944, and was gassed immediately.
Rudolf Brumlík December 14, 1899 May 14, 1944 44 Czechoslovakian Businessman from Prague.[5]
Rosette Wolczak March 19, 1928 November 23, 1943 15 French Jewish Deported from Switzerland for "immorality".
Bronisław Czech July 25, 1908 June 4, 1944 35 Polish Skier – 24 times Polish champion, and participant of Winter Olympics of 1928, 1932 and 1936; soldier of Armia Krajowa.
Lea Deutsch[6][7] March 18, 1927 May 1943 16 Jewish Child actress. Born Jewish, converted to Roman Catholicism with her family on June 1941 as an attempt by her father to save the family from certain death, but still considered Jewish by Nazi racial laws. Died in the cattle wagon routed to Auschwitz.
Hertha Feiner[8][9] 1896 March 12, 1943 47 Jewish Among last Jewish employees to leave Berlin. Put on train to Auschwitz on March 12, 1943; poisoned herself in transit.
Benjamin Fondane[10] November 14, 1898 October 2, 1944 45 Jewish Poet, critic, existentialist philosopher and author.
Lina Fondane Jewish Sister of Benjamin Fondane.
Miroslav Šalom Freiberger[11][12] January 9, 1903 May 8, 1943 40 Jewish Head Rabbi of Jewish Municipality of Zagreb, catechist, translator, writer and spiritual leader, educated in law and theology science. On last transport of Jews from Croatia. Killed at camp entrance when he protested against the inhumane procedure that was implemented against the members of his community.
Kurt Gerron May 11, 1897 October 28, 1944 47 Jewish Actor and film director; was either persuaded or coerced[13] by the Nazis to make a propaganda film showing how humane the conditions were at Theresienstadt concentration camp. After filming finished, he was deported on the final transport ever to Auschwitz, on October 28, 1944, and was gassed immediately.
Dora Gerson[14] March 23, 1899 February 14, 1943 43 Jewish Cabaret singer and silent-film actress.
Petr Ginz February 1, 1928 September 28, 1944 16 Jewish Writer. Esperantist.
Ala Gertner[15][16] March 12, 1912 January 5, 1945 32 Jewish Smuggled gunpowder into the camp to help the Sonderkommando blow up Crematorium IV during an October 7, 1944 revolt. Tortured and eventually executed by hanging along with her three conspirators, the last public hanging at Auschwitz.
Roza Robota[15][17] 1921 January 5, 1945 23 Jewish Smuggled gunpowder into the camp to help the Sonderkommando blow up Crematorium IV during an October 7, 1944 revolt. Tortured and eventually executed by hanging along with her three conspirators, the last public hanging at Auschwitz.
Regina Safirsztajn[15][17] 1915 January 5, 1945 30 Smuggled gunpowder into the camp to help the Sonderkommando blow up Crematorium IV during an October 7, 1944 revolt. Tortured and eventually executed by hanging along with her three conspirators, the last public hanging at Auschwitz.
Pavel Haas[18] June 21, 1899 October 17, 1944 45 Jewish Composer. After arrival at the camp, Josef Mengele was about to send Karel Ančerl to the gas chamber, but weakened Haas, who stood next to him, began to cough and the death sentence was therefore chosen for him instead.
Jane Haining June 6, 1897 August 16, 1944 47 Scottish Scottish missionary working in Hungary since 1932. Arrested by the Nazis in 1944 on charges of espionage and working among Jews while trying to save young Jewish girls. Arrested and sent to prisons in Fő utca and Buda, and then sent to Auschwitz in May 1944, where she was tattooed as prisoner 79467.
Ivana Hirschmann[19][20] May 5, 1866 May 8, 1943 77 Jewish Croatian first female professor of gymnastics.
Hans Krása November 30, 1899 October 17, 1944 44 Jewish Composer; helped to organize cultural life in Theresienstadt concentration camp.
Viktor Ullmann January 1, 1898 October 18, 1944 46 Jewish Composer, conductor, pianist, teacher, music critic, active in Prague. Deported to Theresienstadt concentration camp on September 8, 1942, where he helped to organize cultural life. Transferred to Auschwitz on October 16, 1944.
Rafael Schächter May 25, 1905 January 1945 39 Jewish Composer, pianist and conductor. Helped to organize cultural life in Theresienstadt concentration camp. Died on the death march.
Etty Hillesum January 15, 1914 November 30, 1943 29 Jewish Diarist and writer.
Lilli Jahn March 5, 1900 c. June 19, 1944 44 Jewish Doctor who gained international fame posthumously following the publication of her letters to her five children which she wrote during her imprisonment in the labor camp Breitenau.
Regina Jonas August 3, 1902 October 12 or
December 12, 1944
42 Jewish First ordained female rabbi in Germany, rabbi at Neue Synagoge in Berlin, killed two months after entering the camp.
Itzhak Katzenelson July 1, 1886 May 1, 1944 57 Jewish Teacher, poet, dramatist; his son Zvi Katzenelson was on the same transport and was killed the same day as Itzhak.
Peter Kien January 1, 1919 c. October 16, 1944 25 Jewish Artist, poet and librettist active in Theresienstadt concentration camp (Terezin), died from infectious disease soon after arrival to Auschwitz on October 16. Wife and parents were on same transport and were killed.
Bereck Kofman October 10, 1900 1943 42 Jewish Hasidic orthodox rabbi, deported to Auschwitz from Drancy internment camp on Convoy No. 12 on July 29, 1942. According to survivor, he was at the camp for one year before his murder by a Kapo on a Shabbat because he refused to work. He was beaten up with a pickax and buried alive. Father of French philosopher Sarah Kofman.[21]
Saint Maximilian Kolbe January 8, 1894 August 14, 1941 47 Polish Saint. Conventual Franciscan friar who volunteered to die in place of Polish Army Sergeant Franciszek Gajowniczek, who was a stranger to him.
Gertrud Kolmar December 10, 1894 March 1943 48 Jewish Writer, used the pen name of Gertrud Kolmar (born Gertrud Käthe Chodziesner).
Egon Kunerwalder[22] First husband of Stephanie Helbrun (married 1942). Deported to the camp with his wife in December 1943. Threw himself on the electric wire surrounding the camp in 1944.
Rutka Laskier 1929 1943 14 Jewish Teenager who wrote a diary. Her writings were posthumously published. Dubbed the "Polish Anne Frank".
Henri Lévy June 7, 1883 August 13, 1942 59 Jewish Rabbi. He was deported on Convoy No. 8 to the camp on July 20, 1942.
Rudolf Levy July 15, 1875 January 1944 68 Jewish Painter and student of Henri Matisse.
Count Mauritz of Potocki 1942 Polish Noble.
Donat Makijonek May 19, 1890 June 18, 1941[23] 51 Polish World War I ace; KZ Number 16301.
Bernard Natan July 14, 1886 October 1942 56 Jewish Film director and actor and former head of Pathé Film Studios. Arrived at the camp on September 25, 1942 and was killed several weeks later.
Irène Némirovsky[24][25] February 11, 1903 August 17, 1942 39 Jewish Novelist. She was classified as a Jew under the Nazi racial laws, which did not take into account her conversion to Roman Catholicism.[24][25]
Michel Epstein[26] November 6, 1942 Husband of Irène Némirovsky. Arrived on November 6, 1942, and was gassed immediately.
Józef Noji September 8, 1909 February 15, 1943 33 Polish Track and field athlete and participant of the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. Murdered by the camp's SS guard, allegedly for trying to smuggle a letter.
Felix Nussbaum December 11, 1904 August 9, 1944 39 Jewish Painter (surrealist). Entire family was eventually killed at the camp at different times, with the exception of one brother, who died from exhaustion at Stutthof in December 1944.
Karl Pärsimägi May 11, 1902 July 27, 1942 40 Estonian Painter (Fauvist). Unknown circumstances as to why he was sent to Auschwitz. It may have been his sexuality, or possibly because he was aiding the Resistance, or helping hide Jewish friends.[27]
Saint Grigol Peradze September 13, 1899 December 6, 1942 43 Georgian Saint. Priest, ecclesiastic figure, theologian, historian, Archimandrite, PhD of History, professor.
Roman Rybarski July 3, 1887 March 6, 1942 54 Polish Economist, historian and politician connected with the right-wing National Democracy political camp. Executed by shooting for organizing the resistance movement in the camp.[28]
Erich Salomon April 28, 1886 July 7, 1944 58 Jewish Photographer (news).
Malva Schalek February 18, 1882 March 24, 1945 63 Jewish Painter. Was transported to the camp on May 18, 1944 and was killed soon afterwards.
Mommie Schwarz July 28, 1876 November 19, 1942 66 Jewish Painter. Killed with his wife Else Berg.
Otto Selz February 14, 1881 August 27, 1943 62 Jewish Psychologist and professor, formulated the first nonassociationist theory of thinking, in 1913.[29][30][31] Was transported to the camp on August 24, 1943.[31]
Lavoslav Singer 1866 1942 76 Jewish Known Bjelovar industrialist.[32][33][34]
Saint Edith Stein October 12, 1891 August 9, 1942 50 German Saint. Philosopher and nun. Born into a Jewish family, considered a "Catholic Jew" (of Jewish heritage, but baptized and practiced Catholicism, considered Jewish by Nazi racial laws).[35]
Chaim Rumkowski[36] February 27, 1877 August 28, 1944 67 Jewish Nazi-appointed head of the Judenrat while he lived in the Łódź Ghetto in Poland. He was known to abuse his power, such as by molesting young Jewish women within the ghetto.[36] Family was also killed at the camp.
Carlo Taube[37] July 4, 1897 October 1, 1944 47 Jewish Composer, conductor and pianist. From Galicia, active in Prague. Taube, his wife Erika and their child were deported from Prague to Theresienstadt concentration camp on December 10, 1941. They were deported to Auschwitz on October 1, 1944, where all three were killed immediately.[37]
Erika Taube[37] 1913 October 1, 1944 30 Polish Automobile engineer and the designer of the first Polish serially-built automobile, the CWS T-1. Arrested on July 3, 1940, and sent to the camp.
Maurice Perl[38] Jewish Father of Gisella Perl. Brought his prayer book into the gas chamber.
Barend Dresden-Polak[39] May 14, 1908 November 30, 1944 36 Jewish Husband of Anna Dresden-Polak and father of Eva Dresden, both of whom were killed at Sobibor on July 23, 1943.
Estusia Wajcblum[15][17] January 5, 1945 Smuggled gunpowder into the camp to help the Sonderkommando blow up Crematorium IV during an October 7, 1944 revolt. Tortured and eventually executed by hanging along with her three conspirators, the last public hanging at Auschwitz.
Froukje Esther Waterman-Hollander[40] October 25, 1915 February 28, 1943 27 Jewish Daughter of Han Hollander and Leentje Hollander-Smeer, both of whom were killed at Sobibor on July 9, 1943.
Prince Ludwik Swiatopelk-Czetwertynski 1876 or 1877 May 3, 1941 64 Polish Noble.
Jan Mosdorf May 30, 1904 October 11, 1943 39 Polish Right-wing politician, director of the nationalist organization All-Polish Youth and member of political party National Radical Camp. Killed for helping Jews in the camp.
Árpád Weisz April 16, 1896 January 31, 1944 47 Jewish Football (soccer) player and manager.
Sarah Wiesel 1905 May 1944 39 Jewish Mother of Elie Wiesel. Gassed immediately.
Tzipora Wiesel May 1944 Jewish Younger sister of Elie Wiesel. Gassed immediately.
Mala Zimetbaum[41] January 26, 1922 September 15, 1944 22 Jewish Deported to the camp on Transport #10 on September 15, 1942. Inmate #19880. Her proficiency in several languages allowed her to work as an interpreter in the camp. Publicly executed at the camp after an escape attempt, with her lover, Edward Galiński.
Edward Galiński[42] May 10, 1923 September 15, 1944 21 Polish Publicly executed at the camp after an escape attempt, with his lover, Mala Zimetbaum.
Eddy Hamel[43] October 21, 1902 April 30, 1943 40 Jewish (American) American soccer right winger (AFC Ajax).
Margot Schrader December 23, 1910 June 1, 1943 32 Jewish Wife of Karl Schrader (Christian man). Mother of Bodo Schrader (alive living in New Hampshire USA), Thea-Helene Schrader Paasch (deceased), Felizitas Schrader Fischer (deceased), and Manfred Schrader (deceased). Daughter of Abraham and Helene Basch. Siblings Hertha Basch Zander Berendson (born 1903), Dina Basch (went to Israel), Herbert Basch (went to England), Alfred Basch (born 1915, went to Argentina).

Margot was arrested by gestapo for repeatedly refusing to sign the assigned middle name "Sara" as part of her given name. Margot was eventually arrested and sent to Auschwitz. Her children were sent to an orphanage. The youngest, Bodo eventually arrived at Thereseinstadt and remained there til liberation. He immigrated to the US in 1949 at the age of 8 years old.

Rosa Stallbaumer November 30, 1897 November 23, 1942 45 Jewish Born Rosa Hoffman on 30 November 1897 in Sillian, Tyrol, Austria, Rosa Stallbaumer was the wife of Anton Stallbaumer. Both were members of the Austrian Resistance during World War II. Her name is one of 124 names of women and men from Tyrol, Austria inscribed on the Liberation Monument at The Eduard-Wallnöfer-Platz in Innsbruck in recognition of both her involvement in resisting National Socialism and of her death at Auschwitz, following her incarceration at that Nazi concentration camp as punishment for helping Jewish targets of Nazi persecution escape to Italy.[44]
Horst Rosenthal August 10, 1915 September 11, 1942 27 Jewish German-born French cartoonist of Jewish descent; detained in the Gurs internment camp in Vichy France on 28 October 1940; transferred to Auschwitz on 11 September 1942 and executed on the same day; best known for his comic book Mickey au Camp de Gurs he created while held in Gurs.
  • Ivan Bračanin, Croatian, green grocer, gassed immediately on September 1, 1939, at age 30
  • Josef Koganoviche (November 11, 1880 – June 1944), Russian, Orthordox Practitioner, belonged to the first group of people to organise the underground fight, evaded SS, gassed immediately on arrival at Majdanek.
  • Simon Okker (1 June 1881 – 6 March 1944), Dutch Olympic fencer.
  • Lion van Minden (10 June 1880 – 6 September 1944), Dutch Olympic fencer.
  • Ettie Steinberg, (1914-1942), Only Irish person killed in Holocaust.
  • Rosette Wolczak, (1928-1943), died in KZ Auschwitz

Survivors

Name # Born Died Age Ethnicity Imprisoned Notability
Tova Friedman A27633 September 10, 1938 81 Jewish Friedman is among the youngest people to survive the Nazi Holocaust[45]
Helena Biegala Badiukiewicz July 1, 1920 January 2, 1991 70 Polish
Jozek Rozenberg 137404 November 6, 1916 July 27, 1994 77 Jewish 1942
– April 1945
He and his wife had one son, Moniush Rozenberg, born in 1939 or 1940. They were hiding in the woods and in attics, making homemade candy to sell on the black market, until 1942 when they were captured. They used to use sugar cubes to give to the baby to keep him quiet in hiding. The gestapo took their 2-year-old son and put him in a wagon headed for Auschwitz, never to be seen again. He and his wife Gitla were separated. He was sent to Reichsautobahn Lager Pommern until he was sent to Auschwitz August 21, 1943. He survived by stealing an extra potato a day and cooking it on the oven where he loaded coal. On January 18, 1945, he was sent on a death march from Auschwitz to Wodzislaw where he was transferred via train to Buchenwald concentration camp January 22, 1945. He was assigned to the "Little Camp". Then, transferred again on January 30, 1945 to Berga concentration camp code name Schwalbe V where he was eventually liberated by American soldiers. He found his wife, Gitla Rozenberg née Rusinek who also survived the camps, when he returned to Poland.
Helen Lewis June 22, 1916 December 31, 2009 93 Jewish May 1944
– January 1945
Dancer who trained in Prague. Left Auschwitz on a forced march to Stutthof concentration camp in January 1945. Emigrated in 1947 to Belfast, where she worked as a dance teacher and choreographer. Her autobiography, A Time to Speak, was published in 1992.[46]
Anna Eilenberg-Eibeshitz November 5, 1923 95 Jewish Published Author on:
  • Breaking My Silence
  • Sisters of the Storm
  • Preserved Evidence, Ghetto Lodz
  • My Son... My Son... A Chronicle
  • Remember!: A Collection of Testimonies
  • Mirka Among Strangers
  • Ruthka: A Diary of War
  • Women in the Holocaust
Władysław Bartoszewski 4427 February 19, 1922 April 24, 2015 93 Polish September 22, 1940
– April 8, 1941
Member of Armia Krajowa. Released from camp due to actions by Polish Red Cross. Minister of Foreign Affairs of Poland (twice) after 1989.
Tadeusz Borowski November 12, 1922 July 1, 1951 28 Polish 1943–late 1944 Writer. Transferred to Natzweiler-Struthof, then to Dachau concentration camp; committed suicide after the war.
George Brady February 9, 1928 January 11, 2019 91 Jewish October 23, 1944
– January 18, 1945
Plumber. Sent on the death march; escaped when a Soviet tank blew a hole in the building he was in. His mother, father and sister Hana were gassed at the camp.
Boris Braun[47][48][49] August 20, 1920 January 11, 2019 99 Jewish 1943
– January 17, 1945
University professor. His mother and father were killed during the Holocaust. Sent on the death march.
Yehuda Bacon July 28, 1929 alive 90 Jewish December 1943
– January 18, 1945
Artist. Sent on the death march. His father was gassed in June 1944; his mother and his sister Hanna were deported to Stutthof concentration camp, where they died a few weeks before its liberation.
Anton Korêk March 29, 1927 alive 92 Jewish October 1943
– January, 1945
Carpenter. His brother was gassed in December 1943. His parents were tortured to death during the Holocaust. [50]
Bat-Sheva Dagan 45554 September 8, 1925 alive 94 Jewish May 1943
– January 1945
Kindergarten teacher, psychologist, author. Worked in camp infirmary and in the "Canada" commando. Survived death march to Ravensbrück and Malchow concentration camps in January 1945, and death march to Lübz, where she was liberated on May 2, 1945. Pioneer in children's Holocaust education, author of books, poems, and songs on Holocaust themes as well as psychological and pedagogical methods for teaching the Holocaust to young children.[51]
Dario Gabbai[52] 182568 September 2, 1922 Jewish (Greek) April 1944
– January 18, 1945
Member of Sonderkommando. Family was killed at the camp. Sent on the death march.
Jerzy Bielecki[52] Polish Political prisoner. Suffered hanging torture (arms hung behind back).
Józef Paczyński[52] 121 January 20, 1920 April 26, 2015 95 Polish June 1940
– January 18, 1945
Political prisoner. About every 1 1/2 weeks, he was ordered to cut the hair of the camp's commanding officer, Rudolf Höss. Personally witnessed gassings from nearby.[36]
Kazimierz Piechowski[52] 918 October 3, 1919 December 15, 2017 98 Polish June 20, 1940
– June 20, 1942
Imprisoned because the boy scouts were labeled a criminal organization. From Rajkowy. Deported to camp on second transport from Tarnów. On June 20, 1942, he escaped from Auschwitz I along with 3 other prisoners, dressed as members of the SS-Totenkopfverbände, fully armed. They stole an SS staff car from the motor pool, a Steyr 220 belonging to Rudolf Höss, and drove out the main gate. The escape was facilitated by Piechowski's fluent command of German. As they drove toward the gate he told the guards to hurry up and open it. None of the four were recaptured.[53][54]
Stanisław Gustaw Jaster[54] 6438 1921 Polish June 20, 1942 Veteran of Invasion of Poland in rank of first lieutenant, from Warsaw. On June 20, 1942, he escaped from Auschwitz I along with 3 other prisoners, dressed as members of the SS-Totenkopfverbände, fully armed. They stole an SS staff car from the motor pool, a Steyr 220 belonging to Rudolf Höss, and drove out the main gate.[53][54]
Józef Lempart[54] 3419 1916 Polish June 20, 1942 Priest, from Wadowice. On June 20, 1942, he escaped from Auschwitz I along with 3 other prisoners, dressed as members of the SS-Totenkopfverbände, fully armed. They stole an SS staff car from the motor pool, a Steyr 220 belonging to Rudolf Höss, and drove out the main gate.[53][54]
Eugeniusz Bendera[54] 8502 1906 Ukrainian June 20, 1942 Auto mechanic, from Chortkiv. On June 20, 1942, he escaped from Auschwitz I along with 3 other prisoners, dressed as members of the SS-Totenkopfverbände, fully armed. They stole an SS staff car from the motor pool, a Steyr 220 belonging to Rudolf Höss, and drove out the main gate.[53][54]
Kazimierz Smoleń[52] 1327 April 19, 1920 January 27, 2012 91 Polish July 1940– January 18, 1945 Political prisoner. Sent on the death march.
August Kowalczyk[52] August 15, 1921 July 29, 2012 90 Polish Political prisoner.
Pavel Stenkin[36] Russian Prisoner of war.
Józef Mikusz[36] Polish Political prisoner.
Silvia Veselá[36] Jewish 1942 Deported from holding camp near Bratislava.
Eva Votavová[36] Jewish July 1942
Otto Pressburger[36] Jewish From Trnava. Forced to dig mass graves and exhume corpses. His mother and father were killed at the camp.
Libuša Breder[55] Jewish Worked in the "Canada" sector of the camp. Witnessed rapes of women by the camp's officers.
Helena Citrónová[55] Jewish Worked in the "Canada" sector of the camp. An SS officer, Franz Wunch, fell in love with her. As a result, Wunch would later save Helena's sister from the gas chambers, although her sister's son and daughter could not be saved.
Tadeusz Rybacki[55] Polish Political prisoner. Served as a waiter at the SS canteen in the camp.
Vera Alexander[55] Jewish Witnessed crimes committed by Irma Grese.
Eva Mozes Kor[55][56] A7063 January 31, 1935 July 4, 2019 84 Jewish 1944
– January 27, 1945
One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Both of her parents and two older sisters were killed at the camp; only Miriam and herself survived. Founder of CANDLES Holocaust Museum and Education Center.
Miriam Mozes[56] A7064 January 31, 1935 June 6, 1993 58 Jewish 1944
– January 27, 1945
Eva's twin sister. One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Mengele injected Miriam with a chemical that stopped the growth of her kidneys; later, Eva donated one of her kidneys.
Jona Laks[56] A27700 1930 Jewish (Polish) August 1944
– January 27, 1945
One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Sent on the death march with her twin sister Miriam (A27725).
Vera Kriegel[56] One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments.
Pearl Pufeles[56] One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments.
Helen Rappaport[56] One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments.
Ephraim Reichenberg[56] Jewish One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments.
Gyuri Frankfurter[57] Jewish One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. From Berettyóújfalu. Emigrated to United States in 1947, name changed to "George".
Laci Frankfurter[57] Jewish One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. From Berettyóújfalu. Emigrated to United States in 1947, name changed to "Leslie".
Peter Greenfeld[58] A-2459 1940 Jewish 1944
– January 27, 1945
One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Known at the camp as "Josef "Peipchek" Klineman". Born in Prague.
Martha Klineman[58] A-4931 1940 Jewish 1944
– January 27, 1945
Peter's twin. One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Born in Prague.
Lipot Salomon[59] A-5723 1923 or 1924 April 19, 1965 40 Jewish May 28, 1944
– January 1945
One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Born in Turţ. First deported to Vynohradiv ghetto on April 14, 1944.
Dezo Salomon[59] A-5724 1923 or 1924 April 22, 1996 71 Jewish May 28, 1944
– January 1945
One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Born in Turţ. First deported to Vynohradiv ghetto on April 14, 1944.
Peter Somogyi[60] A-17454 April 14, 1933 Jewish July 9, 1944
– January 27, 1945
One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. From Pécs. Their mother and older sister (14 years) were gassed at Auschwitz at arrival.
Thomas Somogyi[60] A-17455 April 14, 1933 Jewish July 9, 1944
– January 27, 1945
One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. From Pécs.
Stephanie Helbrun[22] February 4, 1924 Jewish December 1943
– January 18, 1945
One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Born in Subotica, lived in Prague until 1939. Escaped on the death march. Their parents and sister were killed in various camps.
Annetta Helbrun[22] February 4, 1924 Jewish December 1943
– January 18, 1945
One of the "Mengele twins" who was selected and used for involuntary medical experiments. Born in Subotica, lived in Prague until 1939. Escaped on the death march.
George Able[22] Met Annetta Helbrun when both were assigned to a commando loading corpses. Later married Annetta in 1948.
Zvi Ernst Spiegel[60] 1913 or 1914 January 27, 1945 Assigned to supervise twins used in the medical experiments of Josef Mengele. Saved children from the gas chamber on several occasions. After the camp's liberation, he took 157 Mengele twins and homeless children to safety in Hungary. 29 years old in 1944.
Miklós Nyiszli[55] June 17, 1901 May 5, 1956 54 Jewish June 1944
– January 18, 1945
Prisoner, and doctor (pathologist) who served Josef Mengele. Sent on the death march.
Ryszard Dacko[55] Polish Political prisoner.
Stanislaw Hantz[61] Polish Political prisoner.
Eliezer Einsenschmidt[61] Jewish
Alice Lok Cahana[61] February 7, 1929 November 28, 2017 88 Jewish 1944 Deported from Sárvár. Abstract painter.
Morris Venezia[61] February 25, 1921 September 2, 2013 92 Jewish April 11, 1944
– ?
Part of the Sonderkommando.
Franz Rosenbach[61] Romanian Survived because he was transferred to another camp. His mother was killed at the camp.
Władysław Szmyt[61] Polish Political prisoner.
Henryk Mandelbaum[61] 181970 December 15, 1922 June 17, 2008 85 Jewish April 22, 1944
– January 18, 1945
Part of Sonderkommando. Fled on a death march.
Ibi Mann[61] Jewish
Lucille Eichengreen[36] February 1, 1925 alive 94 Jewish August 1943
– October 1944
From Hamburg. Deported to Łódź Ghetto on October 26, 1941, where she was molested by Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski. Remained there for two years until deported to Auschwitz. Transferred to Neuengamme concentration camp.
Witold Pilecki 4859 May 13, 1901 May 25, 1948 47 Polish September 22, 1940
– April 26, 1943
Soldier and secret agent ("Tomasz Serafiński"). He volunteered to be imprisoned at Auschwitz (the only person known to do so) for a Polish resistance operation in order to gather intelligence and escape. As the author of the Witold's report, the first intelligence report on Auschwitz, his operation enabled the Polish government-in-exile to convince the Allies that the Holocaust was taking place. Later executed by communists.
Elie Wiesel[61] A-7713 September 30, 1928 July 2, 2016 87 Jewish May 17, 1944
– January 1945
Writer, professor, political activist, Nobel Peace Prize winner (1986). His mother and younger sister are gassed immediately. Transferred to Buchenwald concentration camp, where Wiesel's father, Shlomo, was beaten[62] and killed.[63] Two older sisters, Hilda and Beatrice, survive.
Renée Firestone[64] Jewish Her sister was killed at the camp during medical experiments.
Samuel Pisar[65][66] March 18, 1929 July 27, 2015 86 Jewish Lawyer, writer. His parents and younger sister Frieda were killed during the war. Transferred to Dachau concentration camp. Escaped during a death march.[65]
Karel Ančerl[67] April 11, 1908 July 3, 1973 65 Jewish October 15, 1944 Conductor. Josef Mengele was about to send Ančerl to the gas chamber, but a weakened Pavel Haas, who stood next to him, began to cough and the death sentence was therefore chosen for him instead. Helped to organize cultural life in Theresienstadt concentration camp.
Gisella Perl[38][68] December 10, 1907 December 16, 1988 81 Jewish 1944 Gynecologist. Forced to be an inmate doctor. Saved the lives of hundreds of pregnant women by aborting their pregnancies (pregnant women were often killed for experiments by Josef Mengele).
Rudolf Vrba[69] 44070 September 11, 1924 March 27, 2006 81 Jewish June 30, 1942
– April 7, 1944
Scientist. Escaped from the camp. Co-author of the Vrba-Wetzler report, delivered to the Allies, which saved the lives of an estimated 120 to 200 thousand Jews. Testified against Adolf Eichmann at Eichmann's trial.
Eugeniusz Hejka 608 October 16, 1918 2009 90 Polish June 14, 1940
– November 1940
Polish-Catholic soldier punished as an eleventh for escape of Tadeusz Wiejowski, survived.
Alfréd Wetzler[69] 29162 May 10, 1918 February 8, 1988 69 Jewish 1942
– April 7, 1944
Escaped from the camp. Co-author of the Vrba-Wetzler report, delivered to the Allies, which saved the lives of an estimated 120 to 200 thousand Jews.
Alex Dekel[70] Served under Josef Mengele as his subject, witnessing many of Mengele's human medical experiments.
Wieslaw Kielar August 12, 1912 June 1, 1990 77 Polish (non-Jewish)[71] Author of the autobiographical novel Anus Mundi: 5 Years in Auschwitz.
Primo Levi 174517 July 31, 1919 April 11, 1987 67 Jewish (Italian) February 21, 1944
– January 18, 1945
Was an Italian Jewish chemist and writer. He was the author of several books, novels, collections of short stories, essays, and poems.
Anne Frank June 12, 1929 February or March 1945 15 Jewish (German) September 3, 1944
– October 28, 1944
Teenage diarist from Amsterdam, held 7 weeks at Auschwitz, transferred to Bergen-Belsen where she died of Typhus.
Eva Brewster December 28, 1922 December 3, 2004 81 Jewish (German) April 1943
– January 1945
Author of Vanished in Darkness – An Auschwitz Memoir.
Sigmund Sobolewski 88 May 11, 1923 August 7, 2017 94 Polish June 14, 1940
– November 7, 1944
Immortalized in the book Prisoner 88: The Man in Stripes.
Thomas Buergenthal May 11, 1934 alive 85 Jewish Human rights champion, former judge of the International Court of Justice, author of A Lucky Child, interned at Auschwitz-Birkenau and Sachsenhausen.
Józef Cyrankiewicz 62933 April 23, 1911 January 20, 1989 77 Polish September 4, 1942
– ?
Later Prime Minister of Poland and Chairman of the Polish Council of State.
Yehiel De-Nur 135633 May 16, 1909 July 17, 2001 92 Jewish Writer.
Robert Desnos July 4, 1900 June 8, 1945 44 French French surrealist poet. Died of typhoid in Theresienstadt.
Lale Sokolov 32407 1916 October 31, 2006 90 Jewish April 23, 1942 – Camp Tätowierer (tattooist)
  • Lucie Adelsberger (1895–1971), German-Jewish physician
  • Ted Banwell, British soldier and member of Dutch Resistance
  • Leo Bretholz, Austrian Jew who escaped from train en route, author of Leap into Darkness (1998).
  • Lowy Dezso, from Hungary (Miskolc), Jewish accountant.
  • Laure Diebold, French resistant, Compagnon de la Libération.
  • Ita Hanna Dorfsman, from Lodz, Poland.
  • Xawery Dunikowski, Polish sculptor and artist, best known for his Neo-Romantic sculptures and Auschwitz-inspired art, survived.
  • Kurt Epstein, Czechoslovak Jewish Olympic water polo competitor
  • Hans Frankenthal, German-Jewish author, survived.
  • Viktor Frankl, Austrian-Jewish neurologist and psychiatrist, survived.
  • Hédi Fried, Hungarian-Jewish (from Sighet), author of The Road to Auschwitz: Fragments of a Life, survived.
  • Franciszek Gajowniczek, Polish Army Sergeant whose life was spared when Maximilian Kolbe took his place. Survived and died in 1995.
  • Józef Garliński, Polish best selling writer who wrote numerous books in both English and Polish on Auschwitz and World War II, including the best selling 'Fighting Auschwitz'. Survived and died in 2005.
  • Leon Greenman, British anti-fascism campaigner. Survived and died in 2008.
  • Nicholas (Miklós) Hammer, Hungarian born Jew, who was placed in Auschwitz I block 6 and worked in the Kanada I section. Subject of the biography Sacred Games by Gerald Jacobs. Unusual as he was in labour, concentration and death camps before being liberated.
  • Magda Herzberger, Romanian-Jewish author and poet, survived.
  • Ruth Huppert Elias, Czechoslovak-Jewish (from Ostrava), Author of Triumph of Hope: From Theresienstadt and Auschwitz to Israel, survived.
  • Joseph Friedenson, Polish-Jewish (from Łódź), editor of Dos Yiddishe Vort, survived.
  • Hugo Gryn (25 June 1930 – 18 August 1996), senior rabbi, London.
  • Stefan Jaracz, Polish actor and theater director who survived camp but died of Tuberculosis in 1945.
  • Isabella Katz Leitner Hungarian-Jewish (from Kisvárda), author of Isabella: From Auschwitz to Freedom, survived.
  • Imre Kertész, Hungarian writer, Nobel Laureate in Literature for 2002.
  • Stanisław Kętrzyński, Polish historian and diplomat.
  • Gertrude "Traute" Kleinová, Czechoslovak Jew, 3-time table tennis world champion.
  • Antoni Kocjan, Polish glider constructor and a contributor to the intelligence services of the Polish Home Army. Murdered by Gestapo in 1944.
  • Abram Korn, Polish-Jewish (from Lipno), author of Abe's Story: A Holocaust Memoir, survived.
  • Rena Kornreich Gelissen, Polish-Jewish (born in Tyliczi), author of Rena's Promise: A Story of Sisters in Auschwitz, survived.
  • Zofia Kossak-Szczucka, Polish writer and World War II resistance fighter, co-founder the wartime Polish organization Żegota. Released through the efforts of the Polish underground.
  • Henri Landwirth, Belgian philanthropist and founder of Give Kids the World (survived).
  • Bedriska 'Ishka' Lavecka (Irene Capek), from Czechoslovakia, MBE (28 December 1924 – 19 November 2006) was a Jewish holocaust survivor, humanitarian and local Australian politician.
  • Joel Lebowitz, Mathematical Physicist. Survived. Honors include the Boltzmann Medal, Henri Poincaré Prize, and Max Planck Medal.
  • Olga Lengyel, Hungarian-Jewish author of Five Chimneys (1946), survived.
  • Stepan Lenkavsky, Ukrainian nationalist ideologist
  • Curt Lowens, German-Jewish actor and resistant, survived.
  • Arnošt Lustig, Czechoslovak and later Czech Jewish writer and novelist, the Holocaust is his lifelong theme, survived.
  • Branko Lustig, Croatian-American film producer.[72]
  • Filip Müller, inmate no. 29236, survivor and author of Eyewitness Auschwitz: Three Years in the Gas Chambers (1979).
  • Alfred "Artem" Nakache, French swimmer, world record (200-m breaststroke), one-third of French 2x world record (3x100 relay team), imprisoned in Auschwitz, where his wife and daughter were killed.
  • Igor Newerly, (1903–1987), Polish novelist and educator.
  • Henry Oertelt, German-Jewish author of An Unbroken Chain, incarcerated at Theresienstadt, Auschwitz-Birkenau, Golleschau and Flossenburg, survived.
  • Bernard Offen, (born 1929) Polish documentary filmmaker working in Poland and the United States to create Second Generation Witnesses.
  • Harry Osers (born 1929) Czech engineer, currently living in Caracas, Venezuela.
  • Ignacy Oziewicz, (1887–1966) Polish army officer, first commandant of Narodowe Sily Zbrojne
  • Lev Rebet, (1912–1957) Ukrainian nationalist ideologist.
  • Bernat Rosner Hungarian-Jewish lawyer, co-author of An uncommon friendship. Survived.
  • Mira Ryczke Kimmelman German-Jewish (from Danzig), author of Echoes from the Holocaust. A Memoir, survived.
  • Lowy Sandor, from Hungary (Miskolc), Jewish lawyer.
  • Vladek and Anja Spiegelman, parents of Art Spiegelman, author of Maus. Vladek Spiegelmann was the central character in Maus.
  • Józef Szajna, (1922–2008) Polish scenery designer, stage director, playwright, theoretician of the theatre, painter and graphic artist.
  • Leon Schiller, (1887–1954) Polish theater and film director, critic and theoretician. He was also a composer and wrote theater and radio screenplays.
  • Alexander L. Spier d. 2017 Naples FL ae 90 from Amsterdam, Auschwitz in 1941, Bergen Belsen in 1945.
  • Paul Steinberg, German-Jewish (born in Berlin), author of Speak You Also: A Survivor's Reckoning, survived.
  • Julianna Zsuzsanna Strasser, from Hungary (Paks).
  • Menachem Mendel Taub, rabbi of Kaliv.
  • Jack Tramiel, (1928-2012). Polish-born businessman, founder of Commodore International. Rescued by the U.S. Army in April 1945.
  • Rose Van Thyn (1921–2010), Auschwitz and Ravensbrueck survivor who directed Holocaust education activities in her adopted city of Shreveport, Louisiana.
  • Simone Veil, née Simone Annie Jacob (July 13, 1927–), French politician, survived.
  • Shlomo Venezia, (1923–2012) Greek-Jewish (born in Thessaloniki), author of Inside the Gas Chambers: Eight Months in the Sonderkommando of Auschwitz, survived.
  • Rose Warfman (née Gluck), (1916–2016) a French nurse, member of the French Resistance.
  • Stanislaw Wygodzki, (1923–2012) Polish-Jewish author, survived.

See also

References

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Bibliography

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  • Miodrag Savkovitch, Emerih Mike (1926). Zbirka portreta i biografija znamenitih ljudi kraljevstva Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca. Vienna: Union – Stephen A. Schwarzman Building / Slavic and Baltic Division.
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