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List of twin towns and sister cities in the Republic of Ireland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of places in Ireland having standing links to local communities in other countries. In most cases, the association, especially when formalised by local government, is known as "town twinning" (though other terms, such as "partner towns" or "sister cities" are sometimes used instead), and while most of the places included are towns, the list also comprises villages, cities, districts, counties, etc. with similar links.

Sign posted at the entrance of Greystones, Co. Wicklow, Ireland, stating that the city is twinned with Holyhead, in Wales.
Sign posted at the entrance of Greystones, Co. Wicklow, Ireland, stating that the city is twinned with Holyhead, in Wales.

The list is arranged by province; and then by the county. It forms part of the larger list of twin towns and sister cities.

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We all know that England was conquered, by William the Conqueror, in 1066. But we've forgotten,... or do not care to remember,... ...that... 600 years later,... ...England was also conquered... by another William. William of Orange was Dutch, rather than Norman,... ...and, whilst there's no doubt that the Norman conquest of 1066... ...changed England radically,... ...the Dutch conquest of 1688 also had profound consequences. And not just for England, but arguably for the whole of the rest of the world. For, the revolution in government that it ushered in... ...transformed England, from a feeble imitator of the French absolute monarchy,... ...and a mere bystander in European affairs,... ...into the most powerful and aggressively modernising state in Europe. In short, the Dutch conquest... ...invented a modern England, a modern monarchy,... ...perhaps, even,... modernity itself. The purest form of monarchy is Despotism,... ...the unencumbered rule of an individual,... from any interference by Parliament, Church, or any other body. Few monarchs ever achieved this, though many aspired to it. The archetype of English despotism is Henry the Eighth. To this day his image is an icon,... instantly recognizable symbol... ...of absolute kingship. This is a later copy of Holbein's great dynastic mural,... ...which shows Henry VIII as head of his family and head of the Church. In the later 17th century, the original of this wall painting... ...was still one of the wonders of Whitehall Palace. And fittingly so, for Restoration England... ...was still shaped by the key legacy of the reign of Henry VIII. The Act of Supremacy, which made the King... ...Supreme Head of the Church of England. For a century and a half, Henry and his successors... ...had exploited the religious authority conferred by the Supremacy,... try to make royal power... ...effectively unlimited... by Parliament, or anybody else. 150 years after Henry's death,... ...the restored monarchy of Charles II came close to achieving this. As, towards the end of his reign,... ...the support of the uncritically royalist Church of England,... ...and subsidies from his cousin, the Catholic Louis XIV,... ...enabled Charles to rule without Parliament. When he died unexpectedly, in 1685,... ...he was succeeded by his brother, James. It was a testament to the strength of Charles's monarchy... ...that this succession went unchallenged,... ...because James had done something that many people thought made him ineligible... ...for the kingship of Protestant England : ... ...he converted to Catholicism. There'd been attempts in Parliament to have him excluded from the succession,... ...but the protests had died away. The climate had changed. So that now, as he was proclaimed King on the 6th of February,... ...all the difficulties seemed, miraculously, to have vanished. Crowds of Londoners toasted him in free wine, and cheered. The smoothness of James's accession was underscored... the magnificence of his Coronation. Appropriately, it was commemorated... this lavishly Illustrated souvenir volume, by Francis Sanford. The volume, which was James's own idea,... ...records every aspect of the ceremony in the minutest detail. Also, on James's orders, all the figures are actual portraits. So, here,... is Henry Purcell,... ...the Master of the King's Music, ... ...who composed and directed the music for the ceremony,... ...culminating in his great anthem "My Heart is Inditing". Here, is the diarist, Samuel Pepys. In his capacity as one of the Barons of the Cinque Ports,... ...he helped to carry the canopy, over the King,... the initial procession, from Westminster Hall to the Abbey. Here, are the various stages. The coronation, first of all, of the King himself,... ...and then of the Queen, Mary of Modena. And here,... the coronation banquet. Sandford took the trouble to note the position of every plate,... ...and provided a key, listing each dish by number. It's a remarkable document. Which, with the crayfish placed next to the blancmange,... ...recalls the eating habits of a different age. And here, is the final fireworks display. It was dominated by a huge blazing Sun. The Sun in splendour was a universal emblem of monarchy,... ...and of the monarchy of James's cousin, Louis XIV of France, in particular. The Sun King, as Louis was known, ruled the most successful monarchy in Europe. Catholic, conquering, and autocratic, he exercised a level of despotic power... ...that was unthinkable in England. To most Englishmen, Louis represented... ...a dangerous mixture of religious fanaticism and military might. But James admired his glamorous cousin. Did the Sun, and the great crowned figure of Monarchia,... ...that also appeared in the coronation fireworks,... ...suggest that James would like England to go the same way as Louis' France? But these worries were for later. At his coronation, in Westminster Abbey, there was no hint of unease. Instead, the mood was a celebration of the miraculously smooth,... ...trouble-free, transfer of power. For James, a convert to the Church of Rome,... become, as King,... ...Head of the Church of England,... ...was indeed a miracle. But perhaps, it was a horrible misunderstanding. That was certainly the opinion of a group of English exiles of the Dutch Republic. Known as Whigs, and staunch believers... Protestantism and limited monarchy,... ...they'd been forced to flee... ...when they lost the battle to keep James from the throne. They were in despair at the complacency... ...of those in the Church of England and in Parliament, known as Tories,... ...who now supported a Catholic King. Only an armed invasion, the Whig exiles thought,... ...could save England from Catholic absolutism. Its natural leader was one of their own number, James, Duke of Monmouth. Who, because he was Charles II's bastard son, had some sort of claim to the throne. His fellow exiles managed to persuade him to lead an expedition. And, on the 24th of May, he set sail for England,... the head of a pathetically small force... ...of three ships, and only 83 men. The little band made for the coast of Dorset,... area where the good old cause of English republicanism... ...had been particularly strong. James, for his part, was worried about insurrection elsewhere,... ...and was able to spare only two or three thousand troops against Monmouth,... ...but, at least, they were professional soldiers, and that proved decisive. The showdown came here, at Sedgemoor. Boxed in by the royal army, Monmouth decided... ...that his only chance was to launch a surprise nighttime attack. The tactic made sense. But his scratch troops were incapable of carrying it out. Instead, as dawn broke, they were routed by the King's troops. 500 of them were killed, and 1500 captured. By then, Monmouth himself had fled. Two days later, he was discovered hiding in a ditch, made prisoner, and taken to London. There was no need for trial. Monmouth had already been condemned, as a traitor, by Act of Parliament. He was brought to Tower Hill, for execution, on the 15th of July. James had easily overcome what had only ever been a revolt of enthusiastic amateurs. But a far greater challenge was to come from within his own Government,... James was plunged into a crisis almost entirely of his own making. James II was England's first Catholic monarch for over 150 years. Ever since the Reformation, Englishmen had been taught to hate and fear Catholicism,... foreign, ungodly, and, above all,... un-English. How, in view of these deep-seated fears, could a Catholic monarch... Head of the Protestant Church of England? In Parliament, the ruling Tories were anxious to be reassured. They had supported James's right to become King. Now, in return, they naturally expected that James, Catholic though he was,... ...would be equally unwavering in his support for the Church of England. And, at first, it looked as though he would be. I have been reported a man for arbitrary power. But I know the principles of the Church of England are for monarchy. Therefore, I shall always take care to defend and support it. Things apparently got off to a good start with this speech by James. the first Privy Council meeting of his reign. His hearers applauded, and the King basked in their approval. In fact, there was a misunderstanding on both sides. The Tory councillors thought that James had promised to rule as though he were an Anglican. While James, for his part, thought that the Tories of the Church of England... ...would continue to support him, whatever he did. Both sides were quickly to be undeceived,... ...for James... was a man with a mission. For, whatever he may have said in public,... ...James saw his own succession, against the odds, as giving him... ...the God-appointed task of reconversion,... he made clear in his own private devotional writings. God Almighty be praised, by whose blessing that rebellion of Monmouth was suppressed. It was Divine Providence that drove me early out of my native country. And it was the same Providence ordered it, so that I passed the time... Catholic kingdoms. James's mission, then, was to convert the country back to Catholicism. But what method would he use? Would it be persuasion, or coercion? Here, memories mattered. The Catholic Queen, Bloody Mary, had used the rack and the stake,... And thanks to Fox's "Book of Martyrs",... The memory was still fresh in England. So, too, was the massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Eve, the slaughter of Protestants... ...which had occurred during the French wars of religion. These memories, which had scarcely faded, were revived in the most dramatic possible fashion,... Louis XIV of France, the outstanding contemporary Catholic King,... ...and James's model and mentor. For, on the 22nd of October, 1685, Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes,... ...which, by granting toleration to French Protestants,... ...had brought the terrible wars of religion to an end. News spread quickly to England. And the effects were dramatic. The country erupted. Cartoons and leaflets appeared, warning of the actions of the French tyrant,... ...demolishing churches, and plundering the common people. James's Catholicism did not now just affect political stability. It might also be a threat to body and soul. The message was clear : England might be next. Could something like the revocation of the Edict of Nantes happen in the England of James II? A Catholic army harries English Protestants,... ...and compels them to convert or to emigrate. Circumstances made it infinitely improbable. But James, by single-minded determination... allow Catholicism a level playing field with the established Protestant Church,... ...did his best to make the improbable scene a real possibility. In private, James made representations about the persecution of French Protestants. But his public actions seemed to fulfill the worst fears of a Catholic takeover. James had recruited, as part of his professional army,... ...100 officers who were Catholics. This was acceptable in an emergency. But it was technically illegal. An act of Parliament, called the Test Act,... ...forbade the employment of Catholics in any public post, including the army. With characteristic bluntness,... ...James tackled the issue of Catholic army officers... ...head-on, in his speech from the throne. When he vowed that nothing would ever make him give them up. To deal plainly with you,... ...I will neither expose them to disgrace,... ...nor myself to the want of their assistance, should a second rebellion make it necessary. This was to fling down a challenge to both Houses of Parliament. In the Commons, a backbencher invoked the spirit of parliamentary freedom. "I hope we are Englishmen,..." "...and not to be frightened from our duty by a few high words." In the Lords, the Bishop of London declared that, for the King to act in contravention of the Test Act,... ...would undermine the security of the Church of England. James had lost the fight. Furious and frustrated, he dismissed Parliament. He would have to get round the Test Act some other way. He turned his attentions to the judiciary,... ...the only other body whose authority remotely compared with Parliament's. He began to prepare the ground. First, the bench of judges was purged of waverers. Then, a test case was brought,... ...on behalf of a Catholic army officer to whom James had granted a royal dispensation, or waiver,... ...from the requirements of the Test Act. The Lord Chief Justice read out the judgment on behalf of his almost unanimous colleagues. It could hardly have been clearer... ...or more subversive. The Kings of England are sovereign princes,... The laws of England are the King's laws,... It is an inseparable prerogative of the Kings of England... dispense with penal laws upon particular, necessary reasons. And of those reasons, the King himself is sole judge. This ruling turned Parliament into a mere sleeping partner in the Constitution. It might pass whatever laws it liked. Whether, and on whom they were enforced, was entirely up to the King. But, most of all, the judges' ruling was exquisitely uncomfortable for the Tories,... ...since it turned one of their fundamental beliefs in the unconditional nature of royal power... ...against the other, in the sanctity of the Church of England. And it was to the Church that James was to turn his attention next. His victory in the courts had given him the power to overturn... ...anti-catholic legislation on a case-by-case basis. But his ultimate goal... ...was to get the power to nullify all the laws which Parliament had made against Catholics. The Church of England, with its wealth, its power, its churches in every town and village,... ...was the great obstacle to this. But, boldly handled, and James was nothing if not bold,... ...the Church might be the means to bring about change. For, had not the Church of England made absolute obedience to the King an article of faith,... ...preached from every pulpit? First, James drew up a Declaration of Indulgence, which offered... ...universal religious toleration to all,... ...Anglicans, Catholics, and Protestant dissenters. Then, he commanded the clergy of the Church of England... read out the declaration in every parish church. This impelled the church on the horns of a dilemma. Should they obey the King's commands? Or God's, as they saw it? The Archbishop of Canterbury, William Sancroft,... ...summoned his fellow bishops to a secret supper party at Lambeth,... discuss the situation. When the meal was over, seven of them signed a petition to the King,... ...denouncing his declaration. In their petition, the bishops contrived, both to have their Tory cake... ...and to eat Whig principles. On the one hand, they invoked our Holy Mother, the Church of England,... ...which was, both in her principles and practice, unquestionably loyal. And, on the other, they argued, like good Whigs,... ...that the Declaration was founded upon a Dispensing Power,... had often been declared illegal in Parliament. This was a dramatic turnaround. Only three years before, Sancroft, as Archbishop of Canterbury,... ...had crowned James at Westminster Abbey. Now, he was the instigator of a document... ...that criticized the King on a central constitutional issue. It was a frontal attack on royal policy,... ...and, as the petition quickly circulated in print,... ...a public challenge to royal authority as well. James determined to face it down by prosecuting the bishops for seditious libel. But he had underestimated the bishops, who showed unexpected courage. And he completely misjudged the mood of the people,... ...which the bishops, showing a remarkable flair for public relations,... ...were able to milk. Instead of being intimidated by the indignity of prosecution,... ...the bishops pursued a deliberate policy of non-cooperation. They refused to raise security for bail,... ...with the result that they were all imprisoned in the Tower of London. It was a terrific coup. Crowds of Londoners had cheered them from the riverbank, as they were brought here by water. When they landed, the soldiers of the garrison received them on their knees,... ...and the Governor treated them, not as prisoners, but as honored guests. The bishops brief and comfortable stay in the Tower... ...had turned them into celebrities. More importantly, it had turned the constitutional question of James's power... ...into a public issue. At the trial, in the huge spaces of Westminster Hall,... ...passions about the legality of the dispensing power itself... ...rose to such an extent, that decorum broke down. The spectators cheered counsel for the bishops, and booed and hissed the royal lawyers. The jurors stayed out all night, in continuous deliberation. Then, the following morning, they returned the verdict of... not guilty. Instead, it was James's government that had been condemned. His bid to become an absolute monarch in the mold of his cousin Louis,... ...or even his predecessor Henry VIII, had failed. No English monarch would ever dare make the attempt again. James's eagerness to legitimise Catholicism in England... ...had brought him into open conflict with Parliament, the bishops, and now the courts. He came off worse in all these conflicts. But, even so, he might have survived. It was an unexpected event,... ...which took place in the bedchamber at St. James's Palace,... ...that brought about the final crisis. Mary of Modena, James's second wife, a Catholic,... ...came from famously fertile stock. And she duly conceived, frequently, but all the babies either miscarried or died in infancy. James already had two daughters by his previous marriage. Mary and Anne, who were next in line to the throne. They were firm Protestants. So, as matters stood,... ...when James died, the anomaly of his Catholicism would die with him. On the other hand, were he now to father a male heir by his second wife,... ...the Catholic threat would remain for another generation. In the late summer of 1687, Mary took the waters at Bath. Remarkably, it seemed to do the trick. And in December, her pregnancy was officially confirmed. Now the question was : would Mary finally produce a healthy heir? Her labour began, at St. James's, on the morning of the 10th of June, 1688. In this very bed. And, after short labour,... ...impeded only by the crowd of witnesses crammed into the royal bedchamber,... ...she gave birth at about 10 a.m. The baby, christened James Francis Edward, was a boy. And, once his doctors had stopped feeding him with a spoon,... ...on a gruel made of water, flour, and sugar,... ...flavored with a little sweet white wine,... ...and allowed him human milk from a wet nurse, he was healthy. Normally, the birth of a Prince of Wales... ...would have crowned James's attempt to reassert royal authority. But the birth of James Francis had the opposite effect. It was a prelude to war. James's opponents, his daughters Mary and Anne among them,... ...decided that they couldn't tolerate the prospect of a Catholic succession. Anne, who still lived in her father's palace,... ...had always disliked her stepmother for her airs and graces. When the child was born, she took pleasure in suggesting... ...that it was a changeling, and not in fact Mary's. There were, she claimed, "a number of things not quite right" about the circumstances of the birth. "Mary of Modena was too well." "James, bearing in mind his wife's previous disastrous gynecological history,..." "...was too confident, and he was too confident, in particular, that he would have a son." "So, the pregnancy must be suppositious,..." "...and the child, a changeling, smuggled into the Queen's bed in a warming pan." The story of the maid and the warming-pan... ...was embroidered with lots of circumstantial detail,... ...and circulated in scurrilous pamphlets and prints,... part of a black propaganda campaign. It was all malicious nonsense, of course. But Princess Anne believed it,... ...and she persuaded her sister Mary, in the Netherlands, to believe it, too. Mary's husband also found it convenient to believe. He was William of Orange, and he came from a long line of Dutch princes. He was James's nephew, as well as his son-in-law,... ...and a man of consuming ambition in his own right. By 1688, William was a hardened general and politician. But his goal, to unite England and the Netherlands in a Protestant Crusade,... ...against the overweening Catholic power of Louis XIV's France,... ...remained unchanged. The new palace he built at Het Loo... ...was almost a conscious answer to Louis XIV's Versailles,... ...a visible expression of princely power, but executed with Protestant decorum and restraint. For William was not a king, but the first citizen and general of the Dutch Republic. He interest lay in foreign policy, and the war against France. Which is why he was so concerned with English affairs. Bearing in mind his position as James's son-in-law,... ...William had every reason to suppose that he would gain control of England... ...naturally, when his wife succeeded,... Queen Regnant, on her father's death. But, James's catholicising policies,... ...and still worse, the birth of a Catholic son and heir,... ...threatened to rob William of the prize. He would not let it go without a struggle. William now made preparations to invade. Unlike the Duke of Monmouth, he realized that he must use overwhelming force. So, in the course of the summer, he began to assemble a formidable Armada. Events in England also benefited William. James had now alienated every powerful interest group in the country,... ...including the Tories and the Church, who had been his strongest supporters. The last straw was the birth of a Catholic heir. The result was that, on the 30th of June, and three weeks after the birth of James Francis,... ...four Whig peers and gentlemen, and three Tories, took the revolutionary and treasonable step,... ...of signing an invitation to William to invade Britain,... ...on the grounds that : "19 parts of 20 of the people are desirous of a change". They exaggerated, of course,... ...but their sense of the popular mood was right. William was eager to take up the invitation. He now had a waiting fleet, consisting of 60 warships,... ...700 transports,... ...15000 troops,... ...4,000 horses,... ...and a printing press. The problem, was the weather. At first, it seemed as though the weather would offer James the protection which Louis XIV had not. William had intended to set sail on the first high tide in October. But, adverse winds kept him bottled up in port here, for several days. Then, a violent storm scattered his fleet, and drove it to shore. To James, all this seemed like Divine Providence. "I see God Almighty continues his protection of me, and of my realm." "It is by His will that the wind has turned westerly again." But then, the wind turned easterly, and stayed that way. The result not only blew William to England,... also blew away James's confidence, and with it, his authority. William landed, unopposed, here in Torbay,... ...on Auspicious Day, the 5th of November. Then he marched, through cheering crowds, to Exeter,... ...where he set up camp, and his printing press,... churn out carefully prepared propaganda. But words alone were, it appeared, not going to be enough to give him control of England. For, camped on Salisbury Plain,... ...between William and the seat of government in London,... ...was an army of 25000 soldiers,... ...all nominally loyal to his father-in-law, the King. Everything depended on how they would react to the crisis. James... ...arrived to take personal command of the Royal Army on Salisbury Plain. But, instead of stiffening the resolve of the troops,... ...James underwent some sort of personal psychosomatic crisis,... ...succumbing to repeated heavy nosebleeds. The ill nose seems to've been a symptom of some profound crisis of confidence. James, who'd been so confident of his divinely ordained mission,... ...suddenly lost faith that God was, after all, on his side. Quite why, will never be known. Was his overweening self-confidence, and sense of divine mission,... ...just too brittle to cope with a real challenge,... ...or was he undermined by a justifiable fear of betrayal,... ...within his own inner circle? At any event, on the 23rd of November, James decided... cut and run, and return to London. The decision sent a disastrous signal. If the King wasn't prepared to stand and fight in his own cause,... ...why should anybody else bother to risk their neck on his behalf? By the time he arrived in London,... ...his leading general, and his own daughter, Anne,... ...deserted to join William. Who would be next to go? Abandoned by his God, as well as his children, James's only thought, now, was for flight. Outwardly, he conducted negotiations with William, but they were only a cover for his real purpose. And he contrived to bungle even that. The escape of the Queen with the infant Prince of Wales had to be postponed several days,... ...and only took place on the 10th of December,... ...when she left Whitehall disguised as a laundry woman. James himself quit the capital the next day,... ...first flinging the matrix, or mold, of the Great Seal into the Thames,... that the seal, the supreme emblem of royal authority,... ...couldn't be used to legitimise... ...either his own overthrow or the nomination of a successor. His flight was a disaster, too. Dressed as an ordinary country gentleman, he rode to the North Kent coast,... ...where he embarked for France. But he was caught, and then rescued by a loyal detachment of his guards,... ...and brought back to London. By then, it was too late. William arrived, and took control of the capital. The 23rd of December, James was allowed to escape to France. This time, with William's connivance, he succeeded. Only six weeks after landing in Torbay,... ...William was master of the country,... ...and Holland had conquered England, with scarcely a shot being fired. But, although in military terms it was a non-event, the Glorious Revolution... it almost immediately became known, was to transform the monarchy. But first, William's status had to be decided. In his propaganda, William had promised to do nothing without Parliament,... ...and an assembly of both Lords and Commons was now summoned. Tory peers wanted to make William Regent,... act as caretaker, while the Stuart dynasty skipped a generation,... his wife Mary. But William made it clear that he would be King... ...or he would return to the Netherlands. Nobody wanted that, so, in the end,... ...Lords and Commons agreed to a face-saving compromise. William and Mary would be joint King and Queen,... ...a sort of double monarchy, unique in the history of England,... ...although the exercise of sovereignty would be vested solely in William. At a ceremony at the Banqueting House, in Whitehall, William and Mary were formally offered the Crown. Mary, who'd only arrived in the country the day before,... ...joined her husband on twin thrones, under the cloth of Estate. Then, the House of Lords on the right, the Commons on the left,... ...led by their respective speakers, advanced towards the steps of the throne. The Clerk read out the Bill of Rights, and a nobleman offered William and Mary the crown,... the name of the Convention, as the representative of the English nation. William accepted on their joint behalves,... ...and they were proclaimed King and Queen of England,... the sound of trumpets. England had, in effect, elected King and Queen,... ...though the fact that Mary was the dethroned James's daughter,... ...drew a decent veil over the harsh reality. England, the monarchy, would never be the same again. Through the extraordinary agency of an invited, armed, yet virtually bloodless invasion of the country,... ...William and Mary had become joint monarchs of England. Two months later, their coronation took place in Westminster Abbey. With a new ceremony, and, in particular, a new oath,... ...that had been transformed to reflect the new realities of power. Just as innovatory, was the coronation sermon. Ever since the time of Henry VIII,... ...preachers of the coronation had vied with each other... elevate the monarch, come Supreme Head of the Church,... an almost godlike plane. But in 1689 all this changed, too,... ...and the preacher began by asserting that despotic command... ...had no place in the divine scheme of things. "A rigour in commanding, and a cruelty in punishing,..." "...must find patterns elsewhere than in God's governing the world." "Happy we", the preacher said, by way of contrast, "who are delivered from both extremes,..." "...who neither live under the terror of despotic power,..." France, under Louis XIV,... "Nor are cast loose into the wildness of governed multitude,..." England herself had been, during the Civil War and the Commonwealth. "God save King William and Queen Mary!" As the preacher finished, the congregation broke into Infinite applause. They were responding, as though the ancient mysteries of the English coronation service... ...had been transmuted into the inauguration ceremonies of a popular Prince--President... ...of a middle-of-the-road Republic,... of course William was, in his native Holland. Parliament was not of course going to go the whole hog,... ...and declare England a Republic again. But, after having given him the Crown he wanted, Whigs and Tories united... restrict the powers that he or any future monarch could exercise. They drew up the Declaration of Rights,... ...intended to encapsulate the ancient rights and liberties of the nation. It laid the foundations for a limited -- or "constitutional" -- monarchy. The bill declared that the Crown could not suspend laws made in Parliament. He could not raise taxation except through Parliament,... ...and it could not have a standing army without the consent of Parliament. Above all the bill declared it "Inconsistent with the safety and welfare of this Protestant kingdom..." "...for the monarch to be a papist Catholic, or to be married to a papist. The principle of the royal supremacy,... ...that the English should have the religion of their King, had been stood on its head. Now, the King must have the religion of his people,... ...and no English monarch has been either a Catholic, or married to a Catholic, since then. it was a revolution indeed. But William's power was not totally unopposed. On the eve of the coronation, Mary had received a message from her father, the exiled James II. If you are crowned while I and the Prince of Wales are living,... ...the curses of an angry father will fall upon you, as well as those of God. William would have to fight to keep his crown. And sure enough, on the very day of the coronation, news arrived that James had landed in Ireland,... ...with a force of French mercenaries. But this French invasion did not fare so well as the recent Dutch one. The Irish troops were unseasoned,... ...and James's own incompetence and indolence made matters worse. The result was James's final shattering defeat in battle,... son-in-law, William of Orange, on the banks of the river Boyne. The Battle of the Boyne is why the word Orange... ...continues to arouse such fierce... ...and contradictory emotions on both sides of Ireland's religious divide,... ...and, why, to this day, people march and counter--demonstrate... commemorate this definitive Catholic--Protestant encounter. James, now more than ever convinced that God had turned against him,... ...fled back to exile in France,... Where he took up a rather comfortable residence to the west of Paris. Here, James lived out his days as an ex-king, in the fractious little court that he kept.... this château of Saint-Germain-en-Laye,... ...Louis XIV's old palace, before he'd built Versailles. James's devotions steadily became more extravagant,... ...and his modification of the flesh more extreme. He died in 1701,... ...leaving a disastrous legacy of uncompromising Catholic piety to his son. James was buried in France, provisionally,... the hope that his body would be reinterred in Westminster Abbey. Instead, the French revolutionaries first displayed it as a tourist attraction, and then destroyed it. William, meanwhile, was not comfortable in the old palace that he was now inhabiting. The Palace of Whitehall had been built by Henry VIII by the Thames. William was asthmatic, and detested the palace's urban, riverside position,... ...with its fogs and mists. So, too, did Mary. Instead, they longed for the modern, comfortable residences... ...they'd been used to in the Netherlands. Within a few months, therefore, the couple bought the former Nottingham House,... ...with its extensive gardens, and pleasant, if rather suburban location,... ...on the western fringe of Hyde Park, and rebuilt it,... breakneck speed, as Kensington Palace. The result, described by one contemporary as "Very noble, though not great",... ...was exactly the kind of residence that William and Mary were used to at Het Loo. In England, it was a new palace, for a new, more modest monarchy. Meanwhile, Whitehall was abandoned, for all, save ceremonial, occasions. Neglected, like all underused buildings, in 1698 it caught fire. It was never rebuilt. Perishing in the flames and ruins was the great dynastic mural of Henry VIII and his family. Which, more than any other single image,... ...represented the awesome powers of the royal supremacy over Church and State. The Glorious Revolution had drawn the sting from the supremacy,... ...and its deadly fusion of religious and political power. Henry's palace, and his portrait, had survived the repudiation of his legacy by less than a decade. Those who watched the fire at Westminster knew,... ...that by overthrowing their anointed legitimate King, and choosing another,... ...England had entered a dangerous and unfamiliar world. None can have realized that it had taken the first vital step... becoming the first modern state. Next week, England's successful transformation, "When monarchy continues". You can find the book and DVDs of the series at ABC shops and centres. Coming up next, late edition news.


Connacht Connacht

County Galway

United StatesMissouri Saint Louis, Missouri, United States [1]
United StatesIllinois Chicago, Illinois, United States[2]
United StatesWashington (state) Seattle, Washington, United States[3]
FranceBrittany Quimperlé, Brittany, France[4]
CanadaNewfoundland and Labrador Renews-Cappahayden, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada[5]
United StatesNebraska Boys Town, Nebraska, United States[6]

County Leitrim

County Mayo

County Roscommon

County Sligo

Sligo Town (borough)

Leinster Leinster

County Carlow

United StatesNew Jersey Hackettstown, New Jersey, United States[7]

County Dublin

Dublin City

SpainCatalonia Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain (1998)[8]
China Beijing, People's Republic of China [9]
United KingdomEngland Liverpool, Merseyside, England, United Kingdom [9]
United StatesCalifornia San Jose, California, United States (1986) [9]

County Kildare

Seoul - South Korea

County Kilkenny

Sana'a - Yemen

County Laois

United StatesMassachusetts Arlington, Massachusetts, United States[6]
United StatesTennessee Franklin, Tennessee, United States[10]
CanadaOntario Carleton Place, Ontario, Canada[10]

County Longford

County Louth

United KingdomScotland Letham, Scotland, United Kingdom (2000)[11]

County Meath

United StatesNorth Carolina Cary, North Carolina, United States[6][12]
FranceEure Étrépagny, Normandy, France (1989) [13][14]
France Autonne villages, Picardy, France (2000) [13][15]
United KingdomScotland Iona, Scotland, United Kingdom [13]
Italy Bobbio, Italy (2002) [13][16]
Italy Broccostella, Italy (2006) [13]
CanadaOntario Tecumseh, Ontario, Canada (2009) [13]

County Offaly

County Wexford

Scotland Oban, Scotland, United Kingdom [17][18][19]
United States Annapolis, Maryland, United States[6]

County Wicklow

Germany Würzburg, Germany[20]
United States Seminole County, Florida, United States[20]
Wales Aberystwyth, Wales, United Kingdom [21]
France Chateaudun, France[20]
France Bègles, France[22]
United States Dublin, California[22]
Germany Würzburg, Germany[20]
Wales Holyhead, Wales, United Kingdom[20]
Czech Republic Otročiněves, Czech Republic[20]
Germany Eichenzell, Fulda, Germany[20]
France Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France[20]
Wales Porthmadog, Wales, United Kingdom[20]

Munster Munster

County Clare

County Cork

Cork City

This page was last edited on 1 August 2018, at 10:30
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