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List of threatened sharks

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Photo of shark in profile surrounded by other, much smaller fish
The whale shark, the world's largest fish, is classified as Endangered.
Binding legislation and harvest management strategies... are urgently needed to address the disproportionate impact of fisheries on cartilaginous fishes.
IUCN global study 2010 [1]

Threatened sharks are those vulnerable to endangerment (extinction) in the near future. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world’s oldest global environmental organization.[2] It evaluates threatened species, and treats threatened species not as a single category, but as a group of three categories, depending on the degree to which they are threatened:[3]

VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable species
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered species
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically endangered species

The term threatened strictly refers to these three categories (critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable), while vulnerable is used to refer to the least at risk of these categories.[3] The terms can be used somewhat interchangeably, as all vulnerable species are threatened, all endangered species are vulnerable and threatened, and all critically endangered species are endangered, vulnerable and threatened. Threatened species are also referred to as a red-listed species, as they are listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[4]

 In a milestone decision in 2013, CITES prohibited international trade in the fins of the scalloped hammerhead (pictured) and four other shark species.[5]
In a milestone decision in 2013, CITES prohibited international trade in the fins of the scalloped hammerhead (pictured) and four other shark species.[5]

Shark species are increasingly becoming threatened because of commercial and recreational fishing pressures, the impact of non-shark fisheries on the seabed and shark prey species, and other habitat alterations such as damage and loss from coastal development and marine pollution.[6] Rising demands for shark products has increased pressure on shark fisheries, but little monitoring or management occurs of most fisheries.[7] Major declines in shark stocks have been recorded over the past few decades; some species have declined over 90% and population declines of 70% are not unusual.[8] In particular, harvesting young sharks before they reproduce severely impacts future populations. Sharks generally reach sexual maturity only after many years and produce few offspring in comparison to other fish species.[9]

Conservationists estimate that up to 100 million sharks are killed by commercial and recreational fishing every year.[10][11] Sharks are often killed for shark fin soup, which some Asian countries regard as a status symbol. Fishermen capture live sharks, fin them, and dump the finless animal back into the water to die from suffocation or predators.[11][12] Sharks are also killed for their flesh in Europe and elsewhere.[13] The 2007 film Sharkwater documents ways in which sharks are being hunted to extinction.[14] In 2009, the IUCN Shark Specialist Group reported on the conservation status of pelagic (open water) sharks and rays. They found that over half the pelagic sharks targeted by high-seas fisheries were threatened with extinction.[15][16][17]

In 2010, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) rejected proposals from the United States and Palau that would have required countries to strictly regulate trade in several species of hammerhead, oceanic whitetip and dogfish sharks. The majority, but not the required two-thirds of voting delegates, approved the proposal. China, by far the world’s largest shark consumer, and Japan, which battles all attempts to extend the Convention's protections to marine species, led the opposition.[18][19]

In 2013, CITES member nations overcame the continued opposition led by China and Japan,[20] and reversed course.[21][22] In what CITES has called a "milestone", the oceanic whitetip, porbeagle, and three species of hammerheads will now join the great white, basking and whale shark on CITES Appendix II, effective September 2014.[23] International trade of these species is thus prohibited without CITES permits, "... and evidence will have to be provided that they are harvested sustainably and legally."[5]

In 2014 the state government of Western Australia led by Premier Colin Barnett implemented a policy of killing large sharks. The policy is intended to protect users of the marine environment from shark attack following the deaths of seven people on the Western Australian coastline in the years 2010 to 2013.[24] Baited drum lines are deployed near popular beaches using hooks designed to catch the vulnerable great white shark, as well as bull and tiger sharks. Large sharks found hooked but still alive are shot and their bodies discarded at sea.[25] The government claims they are not culling sharks, but are using a "targeted, localised, hazard mitigation strategy".[26] Barnett has described opposition to killing the sharks as "ludicrous" and "extreme", and said that nothing can change his mind.[27]

Order Image Scientific name Common name Population trend IUCN status Fish
Base
FAO CITES
Appendix[23]
Mackerel
shark
Alopias pelagicus.jpg
Alopias pelagicus Pelagic thresher decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[28]
[29] [30]
Mackerel
shark
Alopias superciliosus.jpg
Alopias superciliosus Bigeye thresher shark decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[31]
[32] [33]
Mackerel
shark
Thresher shark.jpg
Alopias vulpinus Common thresher decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[34]
[35] [36]
Groundshark Atelomycterus baliensis Bali catshark unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[37]
[38]
Groundshark Aulohalaelurus kanakorum New Caledonia catshark unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[39]
[40]
Carpet shark
Heteroscyllium colcloughi csiro-nfc.jpg
Brachaelurus colcloughi Bluegrey carpetshark unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[41]
[42]
Groundshark Carcharhinus borneensis Borneo shark unknown
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[43]
[44]
Groundshark
Carcharhinus hemiodon nmfs 2.png
Carcharhinus hemiodon Pondicherry shark unknown
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically endangered[45]
[46]
Groundshark
Carcharhinus leiodon nmfs 2.png
Carcharhinus leiodon Smoothtooth blacktip shark unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[47]
[48]
Groundshark
Carcharhinus longimanus 1.jpg
Carcharhinus longimanus Oceanic whitetip shark decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[49]
[50] II (eff. Sep-2014)
Groundshark
Carcharhinus obscurus at Seaworld.jpg
Carcharhinus obscurus Dusky shark decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[51]
[52] [53]
Groundshark
Carcharhinus plumb.JPG
Carcharhinus plumbeus Sandbar shark decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[54]
[55] [56]
Groundshark
Carcharhinus signatus nmfs.jpg
Carcharhinus signatus Night shark unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[57]
[58] [59]
Mackerel
shark
Carcharias taurus in UShaka Sea World 1079-a.jpg
Carcharias taurus Sand tiger unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[60]
[61] [62]
Mackerel
shark
White shark.jpg
Carcharodon carcharias Great white shark unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[63]
[64] [65] II
Dogfish
Centrophorus granulosus.jpg
Centrophorus granulosus Gulper shark decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[66]
[67] [68]
Dogfish
Centrophorus harrissoni.jpg
Centrophorus harrissoni Dumb gulper shark decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[69]
[70] [71]
Dogfish Centrophorus lusitanicus Lowfin gulper shark unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[72]
[73] [74]
Dogfish
Centrophorus squamosus1.jpg
Centrophorus squamosus Deepwater spiny dogfish decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[75]
[76] [77]
Mackerel
shark
Cetorhinus maximus by greg skomal.JPG
Cetorhinus maximus Basking shark decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[78]
[79] [80] II
Groundshark
Chaenogaleus macrostoma Day - cropped.png
Chaenogaleus macrostoma Hooktooth shark unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[81]
[82]
Groundshark
Galeorhinus galeus1.jpg
Galeorhinus galeus School shark decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[83]
[84] [85]
Groundshark Galeus mincaronei Southern sawtail catshark decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[86]
[87]
Groundshark
Carcharias gangeticus by muller and henle.png
Glyphis gangeticus Ganges shark decreasing
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically endangered [88]
[89]
Groundshark
Glyphis garricki csiro-nfc.jpg
Glyphis garricki New Guinea river shark decreasing
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically endangered [90]
[91]
Groundshark
Speartooth shark melbourne.jpg
Glyphis glyphis Speartooth shark decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[92]
[93]
Groundshark Glyphis siamensis Irrawaddy river shark unknown
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically endangered [94]
[95]
Groundshark Haploblepharus fuscus Brown shyshark unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[96]
[97]
Groundshark Haploblepharus kistnasamyi Natal shyshark unknown
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically endangered[98]
[99]
Groundshark
Hemigaleus microstoma ranong 3.jpg
Hemigaleus microstoma Sickle fin weasel shark decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[100]
[101]
Groundshark
Hemipristis elongata csiro-nfc.jpg
Hemipristis elongata Snaggletooth shark decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[102]
[103]
Carpet shark Hemiscyllium hallstromi Papuan epaulette shark unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[104]
[105] [106]
Carpet shark Hemiscyllium strahani Hooded carpet shark unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[107]
[108] [109]
Groundshark Hemitriakis leucoperiptera Whitefin topeshark unknown
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[110]
[111]
Groundshark Holohalaelurus favus Honeycomb Izak decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[112]
[113]
Groundshark Holohalaelurus punctatus Whitespotted Izak decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[114]
[115]
Groundshark
Carcharias oxyrhynchus by muller and henle.png
Isogomphodon oxyrhynchus Daggernose shark decreasing
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically endangered[116]
[117]
Mackerel
shark
Isurus oxyrinchus by mark conlin2.JPG
Isurus oxyrinchus Shortfin mako decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[118]
[119] [120]
Mackerel
shark
Long fin mako shark.svg
Isurus paucus Longfin mako decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[121]
[122] [123]
Groundshark
Carcharias temminckii by muller and henle.png
Lamiopsis temminckii Broadfin shark decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[124]
[125]
Mackerel
shark
Lamna nasus.jpg
Lamna nasus Porbeagle decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[126]
[127] III
(II eff. Sept. 2014)
Groundshark Mustelus fasciatus Striped smooth-hound decreasing
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically endangered[128]
[129]
Groundshark
Mustelus mustelus1.jpg
Mustelus mustelus Common smoothhound decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[130]
[131]
Groundshark Mustelus schmitti Narrownose smoothhound decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[132]
[133] [134]
Groundshark Mustelus whitneyi Humpback smoothhound decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[135]
[136]
Carpet shark
Nebrius ferrugineus Day.jpg
Nebrius ferrugineus Tawny nurse shark decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[137]
[138] [139]
Groundshark
Negaprion acutidens sydney2.jpg
Negaprion acutidens Sharptooth lemon shark decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[140]
[141]
Mackerel
shark
Odontaspis ferox (Smalltooth sand tiger).gif
Odontaspis ferox Small-tooth sand tiger shark decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[142]
[143] [144]
Dogfish
Oxynotus centrina Gervais.jpg
Oxynotus centrina Angular rough shark unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[145]
[146] [147]
Carpet shark
Pseudoginglymostoma brevicaudatum.jpg
Pseudoginglymostoma
brevicaudatum
Shorttail nurse shark unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[148]
[149]
Carpet shark
Rhtyp u0 white bg.gif
Rhincodon typus Whale shark decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[150]
[151] [152] II
Groundshark Schroederichthys
saurisqualus
Lizard catshark unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[153]
[154]
Groundshark Scylliogaleus quecketti Flapnose houndshark unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[155]
[156]
Groundshark
Sphyrna lewini Gervais.jpg
Sphyrna lewini Scalloped hammerhead unknown
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[157]
[158] [159] II (eff. Sept. 2014)
Groundshark
Sphyrna mokarran at georgia.jpg
Sphyrna mokarran Great hammerhead decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[160]
[161] II (eff. Sept. 2014)
Groundshark
Sphyrna tudes2.jpg
Sphyrna tudes Smalleye hammerhead decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[162]
[163]
Groundshark
Sphyrna zygaena noaa.jpg
Sphyrna zygaena Smooth hammerhead decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[164]
[165] II (eff. Sept. 2014)
Dogfish
Squalus acanthias stellwagen.jpg
Squalus acanthias Piked dogfish decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[166]
[167] [168]
Dogfish
Squalus-montalbani-sideview.png
Squalus montalbani Philippines spurdog decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[169]
[170]
Angel shark Squatina aculeata Sawback angelshark decreasing
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically endangered[171]
[172] [173]
Angel shark Squatina albipunctata Eastern angel shark decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[174]
[175]
Angel shark Squatina argentina Argentine angel shark decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[176]
[177] [178]
Angel shark Squatina formosa Taiwan angelshark unknown
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[179]
[180] [181]
Angel shark Squatina guggenheim Hidden angelshark decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[182]
[183]
Angel shark
Squatina japonica2.jpg
Squatina japonica Japanese angelshark unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[184]
[185] [186]
Angel shark Squatina nebulosa Clouded angelshark unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[187]
[188] [189]
Angel shark
Hal - Squatina oculata.jpg
Squatina oculata Smoothback angel shark decreasing
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically endangered[190]
[191] [192]
Angel shark Squatina punctata Angular angelshark decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[193]
[194]
Angel shark
Squatina squatina tenerife.jpg
Squatina squatina Angel shark decreasing
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically endangered[195]
[196] [197]
Angel shark Squatina tergocellatoides Ocellated angelshark unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[198]
[199] [200]
Carpet shark
Stegostoma fasciatum mozambique.jpg
Stegostoma fasciatum Zebra shark decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[201]
[202] [203]
Groundshark Triakis acutipinna Sharpfin houndshark decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[204]
[205]
Groundshark Triakis maculata Spotted houndshark decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[206]
[207]

Talk

See also

References

  1. ^ Hoffmann M, C Hilton-Taylor and 173 others (2010) "The impact of conservation on the status of the world's vertebrates" Science, 330: 1503–1509. doi:10.1126/science.1194442
  2. ^ International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
  3. ^ a b "Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria" (PDF). IUCN. August 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 February 2011. Retrieved 2012-09-05. 
  4. ^ "Red List Overview". IUCN Red List. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Archived from the original on 27 May 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2012. 
  5. ^ a b CITES conference takes decisive action to halt decline of tropical timber, sharks, manta rays and a wide range of other plants and animals
  6. ^ "The Greatest Threats to Sharks". Oceana. 2007. Archived from the original on 2009-06-03. Retrieved 2009-08-29. 
  7. ^ Pratt, H. L. Jr; Gruber, S. H.; Taniuchi, T (1990). Elasmobranchs as living resources: Advances in the biology, ecology, systematics, and the status of the fisheries. NOAA Tech Rept. 
  8. ^ Walker, T.I. (1998). Shark Fisheries Management and Biology. 
  9. ^ Sharks Falling Prey To Humans' Appetites National Geographic, 28 October 2010.
  10. ^ HowStuffWorks "How many sharks are killed recreationally each year - and why?". Animals.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved on 2010-09-16.
  11. ^ a b "Shark fin soup alters an ecosystem—CNN.com". CNN. 2008-12-15. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-08-04. Retrieved 2016-02-06. 
  13. ^ "Shark fisheries and trade in Europe: Fact sheet on Italy". Retrieved 2007-09-06. 
  14. ^ Sharkwater | Movies. EW.com (2007-10-31). Retrieved on 2010-09-16.
  15. ^ Third of open ocean sharks threatened with extinction IUCN, 25 June 2009.
  16. ^ Camhi, M.D; Valenti, S.V.; Fordham, S.V.; Fowler, S.L.; Gibson, C., eds. (February 2007). "The Conservation Status of Pelagic Sharks and Rays" (PDF). Pelagic Shark Red List Workshop. Oxford, England: IUCN Shark Specialist Group. ISBN 978-0-9561063-1-5. Retrieved April 3, 2012. 
  17. ^ Jha, Alok (2009-06-25). "Fishing puts a third of all oceanic shark species at risk of extinction". The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-07-16. 
  18. ^ Jolly, David (March 23, 2010). "U.N. Group Rejects Shark Protections". The New York Times. 
  19. ^ "Qatar. UN body flip-flops on shark protection". Tawa News, Canwest News Service. March 26, 2010. Archived from the original on March 29, 2010. 
  20. ^ Opponents fail to overturn shark protection deal Dow Jones Newswires, 14 March 2013.
  21. ^ Five shark species win protection against finning trade The Guardian, 11 March 2013.
  22. ^ CITES Makes Historic Decision to Protect Sharks and Rays ScienceDaily, 14 March 2013.
  23. ^ a b "Appendices I, II and III". CITES. Retrieved 30 August 2014. 
  24. ^ "New measures to combat WA shark risks". Department of Fisheries, Western Australia. 2013-12-10. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  25. ^ Arup, Tom (21 January 2014), "Greg Hunt grants WA exemption for shark cull plan", The Sydney Morning Herald, Fairfax Media, archived from the original on 22 January 2014 
  26. ^ "Can governments protect people from killer sharks?". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2013-12-22. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  27. ^ Australia shark policy to stay, despite threats TVNZ, 20 January 2014.
  28. ^ Reardon, M.; Márquez, F.; Trejo, T. & Clarke, S.C. (2006). "Alopias pelagicus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  29. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Alopias pelagicus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  30. ^ Alopias pelagicus (Nakamura, 1935) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved March 2013.
  31. ^ Amorim, A.; Baum, J.; Cailliet, G.M.; Clò, S.; Clarke, S.C.; Fergusson, I.; Gonzalez, M.; Macias, D.; Mancini, P.; Mancusi, C.; et al. (2009). "Alopias superciliosus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2009: e.T161696A5482468. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T161696A5482468.en. Retrieved 16 January 2018. 
  32. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Alopias superciliosus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  33. ^ Alopias superciliosus (Lowe, 1841) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved March 2013.
  34. ^ Goldman, K.J.; Baum, J.; Cailliet, G.M.; Cortés, E.; Kohin, S.; Macías, D.; Megalofonou, P.; Perez, M.; Soldo, A. & Trejo, T. (2009). "Alopias vulpinus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2009: e.T39339A10205317. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T39339A10205317.en. Retrieved 16 January 2018. 
  35. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Alopias vulpinus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  36. ^ Alopias vulpinus (Bonnaterre, 1788) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved March 2013.
  37. ^ White, W.T.; Fahmi & Dharmadi (2009). "Atelomycterus baliensis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2009: e.T161736A5491875. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T161736A5491875.en. Retrieved 16 January 2018. 
  38. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Atelomycterus baliensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  39. ^ Fowler, S.L. & Lisney, T.J. (2003). "Aulohalaelurus kanakorum". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2003: e.T41870A10581635. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2003.RLTS.T41870A10581635.en. Retrieved 16 January 2018. 
  40. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Aulohalaelurus kanakorum" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  41. ^ Compagno, L.J.V.; Last, P. & Stevens, J. (2009). "Brachaelurus colcloughi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  42. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Brachaelurus colcloughi" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  43. ^ Compagno, L.J.V. (2009). "Carcharhinus borneensis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2009: e.T39367A10182233. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T39367A10182233.en. Retrieved 16 January 2018. 
  44. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Carcharhinus borneensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
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  126. ^ Stevens, J.; Fowler, S.L.; Soldo, A.; McCord, M.; Baum, J.; Acuña, E.; Domingo, A. & Francis, M. (2006). "Lamna nasus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
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  164. ^ Casper, B.M.; Domingo, A.; Gaibor, N.; Heupel, M.R.; Kotas, E.; Lamónaca, A.F.; Pérez-Jimenez, J.C.; Simpfendorfer, C.; Smith, W.D.; Stevens, J.D.; et al. (2005). "Sphyrna zygaena". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
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Further reading

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