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List of special elections to the United States House of Representatives

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Below is a list of special elections to the United States House of Representatives. Such elections are called by state governors to fill vacancies that occur when a member of the House of Representatives dies or resigns before the biennial general election. Winners of these elections serve the remainder of the term and are usually candidates in the next general election for their districts.

In the United States, these contests are called "special elections." They are sometimes held on the regular Election Day like regular congressional elections but often they are on different days as determined by local statutes. Despite their name, however, special elections to the U.S. House happen often. Furthermore, one published study shows that special elections are explained by the same factors as regular congressional elections.[1] Special elections to the U.S. House of Representatives have occurred at least once in all states except Iowa and Idaho. A few special elections for territorial delegates to Congress have also been held.

A 2016 study of special elections to the United States House of Representatives found "that while candidate characteristics affect special election outcomes, presidential approval is predictive of special election outcomes as well. Furthermore, we find that the effect of presidential approval on special election outcomes has increased in magnitude from 1995 to 2014, with the 2002 midterm representing an important juncture in the nationalization of special elections."[2]

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  • ✪ UNITED STATES SENATE elections, 2020 - WikiVidi Documentary

Transcription

GOOD EVENING. I AM STEVE BARNES. WELCOME TO THE SECOND NIGHT OF DEBATE WEEK ON ARKANSAS EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION NETWORK, AETN. TONIGHT . TONIGHT'S FIRST DISTRICT. THE CANDIDATES IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER, RICK CRAWFORD THE REPUBLICAN NOMINEE, MARK WEST THE LIBERTARIAN NOMINEE. THE CANDIDATES WILL BE QUESTION BY A PANEL OF ARKANSAS JOURNALISTS. GEORGE JARED OF TALK BUSINESS AND POLITICS, TOM HENRY OF THE BLYTHEVILLE COURIER NEWSAND JOHNATHAN REAVES, KASU RADIO. EACH WILL HAVE TWO MINUTES AND 50 SECONDS TO RESPOND TO A QUESTION WHILE REBUTTALS ARE LIMITED TO ONE MINUTE. AT THE CONCLUSION, EACH CANDIDATE WILL HAVE TWO MINUTES FOR A CLOSING STATEMENT IN THE ORDER OF OPENING STATEMENTS QUESTIONING, REBUTTALS AND CLOSING STATEMENTS WAS DETERMINED PRIOR TO THE BROADCAST BY A COIN TOSS IN WHICH THE CANDIDATES OR THEIR REPRESENTATIVES PARTICIPATED IN. THE TIMEKEEPER TONIGHT ISCINDY GAMBLE OF AETN AND WITH THAT , THE FIRST OPENING STATEMENT TONIGHT BY MR. CRAWFORD. >> LET ME SAY THANK YOU TO YOU AND THE PANELS OF JOURNALISTS. ONE THING YOU MADE AND YOU SHARED THIS BEFORE THE BROADCAST IS HAVING SUFFERED A STROKE, LET ME OFFER MY SINCERE WISHES TO THE FAMILY. CERTAINLY OUR THOUGHTS AND PRAYERS ARE WITH YOU. WE WILL TALK A LOT TODAY THROUGHOUT THE DEBATE ABOUT POLITICAL IDEOLOGY AND THINGS LIKE THIS AND YOU WILL SEE A DIFFERENCE IN POSITIONS AND YOU WILL COMPARE AND CONTRAST ON YOUR OWN. WHO YOU THINK IS BEST SUITED TO REPRESENT YOU.I BEEN PROUD TO DO THAT FOR THE PAST SIX REASON TO SIX YEARS NOW. WE NEED TO PROBABLY GET A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT IT IS THE REPRESENTATIVES DO. THEY REPRESENT YOU IN WASHINGTON. IT'S MUCH MUCH BIGGER'S THE NIGHT.WE CHANGE LIVES AT HOME. FOR EXAMPLE, IF YOU ARE A WOMAN WHOSE VETERAN FATHER IS STRUGGLING TO FIND A VA BID, WE HELP YOU WITH THAT.IF YOU ARE A MOTHER OF A CHILD WITH AUTISM WHO IS STRUGGLING TO GET DISABILITY AND HELP FOR THE CHILD, WE HELP WITH THAT. IF YOU ARE A FARMER WHO HAS HAD A CONTRACT ISSUE WITH THE USDA, WE HELP WITH THAT. ANY FEDERAL AGENCY, WE INTERCEDE ON YOUR BEHALF. WE ARE THE BUFFER BETWEEN YOU AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SOMETIMES. IT'S IMPORTANT TO KNOW WHAT A REPRESENTATIVES JOB IS THAT WILL REPRESENT YOU IN WASHINGTON. WE ADVOCATE FOR YOU ON BEHALF OF THE CONSTITUENTS HERE. WE ARE HAPPY TO HAVE YOUR VOTE. >> Steve: THANK YOU. MR. WEST? >> Mark West: I WOULD LIKE TO BEGIN BY THANKING AETN FOR HOSTING THE DEBATE AND PUTTING EVERYTHING TOGETHER. I WANT TO THANK STEVE FOR MODERATING AND TOM AND JONATHAN. DEALING WITH THE ARKANSAS ISSUES. I WANT TO EXTEND MY CONDOLENCES TO THE FAMILY. THAT'S A TOUGH SITUATION TO DEAL WITH AND I WILL BE PRAYING FOR YOU. I WANT TO THANK THOSE OF YOU WHO ARE WATCHING AT HOME. YOU HAVE COME HOME AND YOU ARE TRYING TO GET DINNER TOGETHER AND TONIGHT YOU CHOSE TO STOP AND WATCH THIS DEBATE AND ENGAGE IN THE POLITICAL PROCESS. I APPLAUD YOU FOR THAT AND I HOPE THAT TONIGHT CONGRESSMAN CRAWFORD AND I GIVE YOU THE INFORMATION YOU NEED SO WHEN YOU GO TO THE POLLS YOU CAN MAKE A DECISION THAT'S BEST FOR YOU AND THAT YOU FEEL IS BEST FOR ARKANSAS AND YOUR COUNTRY. THE REASON I'VE CHOSEN TO RUN IS BECAUSE I BELIEVE WHAT HAPPENS IN DC'S CONGRESS GETS AWAY FROM THE FOCUS ON WHAT WE, THE PEOPLE ARE LOOKING FOR. WE ALL BELIEVE THAT CONGRESS IS DOING A BAD JOB AS FAR AS HANDLING THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. I APPLAUD CONGRESSMAN CRAWFORD FOR WHAT HE HAS DONE AS FAR AS THE SERVICES AND MEMBERS OF CONGRESS THROUGH THAT FOR ALL OVER THE COUNTRY. IT'S A LOT OF HARD WORK AND IT TAKES TIME AND DEDICATION. WHAT WE NEED TO DO IS WORK TOGETHER. BUT WE WORK TOGETHER WE CAN GET THE GOVERNMENT OUT OF BUSINESS. WE NEED TO END THE ATMOSPHERE OF OVERREGULATION, HIGH TAXES THAT ARE STRANGLING SMALL BUSINESSES AND KILLING JOBS. WE HAVE TO GET BUSINESS OUT OF GOVERNMENT. CAPITALISM IS KILLING WASHINGTON. WE HAVE A POLITICIAN AND SPECIAL INTEREST IN LOBBYIST USING OUR TAX DOLLARS TO BUY INFLUENCE AND IT'S WRONG AND IT NEEDS TO STOP. FINALLY, WE NEED TO FIGHT TOGETHER FOR THE MINORITY INDIVIDUAL AND THAT'S THE GREATEST MINORITY IN AMERICA. WE STAND TOGETHER AND WE STOPPED ONE PERSON'S RIGHTS WERE BEING VIOLATED WE ARE PROTECTING OUR OWN RIGHTS. I HOPE TONIGHT YOU CAN SEE THERE IS A CLEAR DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO OF US AND YOU WILL HAVE ENOUGH TO DECIDE ON WHEN YOU GO VOTE . >> Steve: THANK YOU SO MUCH. OUR FIRST QUESTION TONIGHT IS FOR GEORGE JARED AND IT GOES TO CONGRESSMAN CRAWFORD. >> George: DONALD TRUMP ADMITS HE GROPED AND GRABBED WOMEN BY THE GENERALS. HIS ADMISSION MEETS THE FELONY STANDARDS FOR SEXUAL ASSAULT IN THE STATE OF ARKANSAS. YOU SAID THIS WEEKEND YOU STILL SUPPORT MR. TRUMP AND YOU WILL VOTE FOR THE GOP TICKET. CONGRESSMAN, WE VOTE FOR DONALD TRUMP IN NOVEMBER AND IF YOU DO HOW WILL YOU EXPLAIN THAT TO YOUR FEMALE CONSTITUENTS? >> I AM A HUSBAND AND A FATHER. THOSE COMMENTS DO CONCERN ME. NO QUESTION ABOUT IT.I'VE INDICATED I WILL CONTINUE TO SUPPORT THE REPUBLICAN TICKET. THE SADDEST PART IS THAT IN SPITE OF ALL THE THINGS THAT HE HAS DONE OR IS ACCUSED OF HAVING DONE, HE IS STILL THE BEST CHOICE IN HILLARY CLINTON. I WILL CONTINUE TO SUPPORT THE REPUBLICAN TICKET BECAUSE WE CANNOT AFFORD TO ALLOW HILLARY CLINTON TO OCCUPY THE WHITE HOUSE AND PUSHER AGENDA ON THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. THIS WILL BE A CONTINUATION OF OBAMA AND THAT AGENDA. MAYBE WORSE THAN WE HAVE SEEN. SHE IS ALREADY DISCLOSED THROUGH THE LEAKED EMAILS THAT SHE SUPPORTS OPEN BORDERS AND THERE'S A COMMON MARKET THAT IS JUST TOTALLY INCONSISTENT WITH AMERICA'S PRINCIPLES AND VALUES. WE KNOW WHAT SHE WOULD DO IN REGARDS TO APPOINTING THE SUPREME COURT JUSTICES. WE CANNOT AFFORD HILLARY CLINTONAS PRESIDENT FOR THAT REASON, I CONTINUE TO SUPPORT THE REPUBLICAN TICKET . >> WHEN I LOOKED TO MY RIGHT I SEE CONGRESSMAN CRAWFORD. I DON'T SEE DONALD TRUMP. CONGRESSMAN CRAWFORD ISN'T DONALD TRUMP. I AM DISAPPOINTED THAT HE IS CONTINUING TO PUSH THE MYTH THAT THERE IS ONLY TWO CHOICES. GARY JOHNSON, THE LIBERTARIAN CANDIDATE IS IN THE BALLOT. HE IS A MAN OF CHARACTER, A MAN OF HONOR AND UNFORTUNATELY, WHEN YOU LOOK AT SECRETARY CLINTON OR DONALD TRUMP, YOU DON'T SEE THE CHARACTER REPRESENTS THE VALUES THAT MAKE AMERICA WHAT WE ARE. MAKE AMERICA THIS DIVERSE DYNAMIC AND AMAZING PEOPLE. CHARACTERS HAVE TO MATTER. DONALD TRUMP STATEMENTS WERE DISCUSSING AND PREDATORY AND THEY ARE STATEMENTS THAT DON'T BELONG COMING OUT OF THE MOUTH OF ANYONE THAT WILL RUN FOR PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. I TEACH MY DAUGHTER TO AVOID GUYS THAT TALK LIKE THIS. I TEACH MY SONS NOT TO BECOME THIS AND SAY THESE TYPES OF THINGS. I PRAY DAILY THAT THEY AVOID THOSE TYPE OF PEOPLE WHEN THEY GO OUT INTO THE WORLD AND THE OPERATING IN THIS COUNTRY. WHAT WE NEED TO GET BACK TO AND UNDERSTAND IS THAT CHARACTER MATTERS. THEY LIKE TO THROW THE MYTH OF PRO-LIFE NEVER ENDING AND I AM A CHRISTIAN. I AM PRO-LIFE. ONE THING THAT BOTHERS ME IS THAT SO MANY PEOPLES LOSE THEIR FAITH OVER CHARACTER. MY GOD IS BIGGER THAN THE SUPREME COURT. MY GOD IS BIGGER THAN THE PRESIDENT. I DON'T NEED A PRESIDENT OR A SUPREME COURT TO SEE CULTURAL LIFE PROMOTED IN AMERICA. THAT SOMETHING I DO EVERY DAY. EVERY TIME I PREACH A SERMON IN MY CHURCH OR EVERY TIME I WORK IN MY COMMUNITY OR MINISTER WITH A WOMANWHO IS STRUGGLING WITH THAT CHOICE. MAYBE SHE'S IN A CRISIS PREGNANCY OR NEEDS HELP . WE MAKE PRIVATE ADOPTION EASIER AND WE END ABORTION WITHOUT HAVING TO HAVE ANYONE ON THE SUPREME COURT OR IN THE WHITE HOUSE. >> THANK YOU, SIR. MR. CRAWFORD ONE MINUTE. >> I DO AGREE THAT CHARACTER COUNTS AND I DON'T THINK THAT BEING A CHARACTER EQUATES TO HAVING CHARACTER. THE CHARACTER OF GARY JOHNSON, THE CEO OF A MARIJUANA COMPANY IS THAT SOMEONE TO ELEVATE TO THE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES? DO WE WANT TO ELEVATE SOMEONE TO THE ELECTED OFFICE WAS BEEN ENDORSED BY AN INDIVIDUAL WHO IS A FLEEING FUGITIVE ON CHARGES OF MURDER? CHARACTER DOES COUNT AND WHO YOU ASSOCIATE YOURSELF WITH. I AM NOT COMPELLED TO VOTE FOR GARY JOHNSON BECAUSE OF THE STATEMENTS THAT MR. TRUMP MADE AND I DO THINK IT MATTERS THAT WE KEEP AND PREVENT HILLARY CLINTON FROM ASCENDING TO THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENCY. AS I SAID, GARY JOHNSON OFFERS NOTHING TO COMPEL ME TO VOTE FOR HIM. JUST BECAUSE HE WAS A FORMER REPUBLICAN THAT'S CHOSEN TO BE LIBERTARIAN AND VOWED TO THE POLICIES OF SOCIAL AND LIBERAL POLICIES IT'S TRYING TO HAVE IT BOTH WAYS. YOU ARE EITHER CONSERVATIVE OR YOU ARE NOT AND IT'S AN IDEA TO PLACATE BOTH SIDES. >> AND Q, SIR. THE NEXT QUESTION GOES FIRST TO MR. WEST. >> YOUR PARTIES CANDIDATES FOR PRESIDENT, CARRIE JOHNSON HAS NO WORKING KNOWLEDGE OF THE HUMANITARIAN CRISIS. WHEN ASKED TO NAME A SINGLE FOREIGN LEADER THAT HE RESPECTED HE COULD NOT NAME ONE. WILL YOU VOTE FOR HIM IN NOVEMBER AND IF YES, HOW CAN YOU SUPPORT A CANDIDATE THAT HAS NO WRITTEN KNOWLEDGE OF AFFAIRS IN THE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT IS OUR AMBASSADOR. >> TOM, THANK YOU FOR THE QUESTION. I WANT TO SAY YES, I WILL VOTE FOR GARY JOHNSON AND I GO TO THE POLLS IN NOVEMBER. THE PROBLEM THAT WE HAVE IN AMERICA IS WE HAVE THIS TWO-PARTY CONCEPT AND WE WANT TO FUSS ABOUT THE PROBLEMS IN WASHINGTON AND WHAT CREATES THE SYSTEM WE HAVE HILLARY CLINTON IS ONE CHOICE WITH HER CHARACTER FLAWS AND DONALD TRUMP IS THE OTHER. IT'S A TWO-PARTY SYSTEM ACTIVELY WORKS TO KEEP ANY OTHER VOICES FROM GETTING INTO THE GAME. KEEPING OTHER VOICES FROM THE STAGE. I WILL SUPPORT GARY JOHNSON AND ADMITTEDLY, GARY JOHNSON SHOULD HAVE DONE BETTER.I KNOW WHAT IT IS AND I UNDERSTAND THE SITUATION THERE. I'VE SEEN THE REFUGEE CAMPS IN THE TENTS ALL OVER THE MIDDLE EAST WERE THESE REFUGEES ARE FLEEING. THE PROBLEM IS, THEY ARE FLEEING FROM THE FOREIGN POLICY. WE HAVE ANEVENTUAL LIST FOREIGN POLICY THAT NEEDS TO STOP . EVERY TIME THERE IS A REGIME THAT WE DISAGREE WITH WE SHOULD CHANGETHAT REGIME . WE TRY TO FIND HUMAN RIGHT BECAUSE TO GET BOOTS ON THE GROUND AND THAT'S EASY FOR SOME PRESIDENT WHO HAS NEVER SERVED BUT WHEN YOU HAVE HAD A FAMILY AND A FRIEND THAT HAS SERVED IN THE MILITARY, THOSE DECISIONS NEED TO COME BEFORE CONGRESS REAL PEOPLE THAT HAVE SERVED IN THE MILITARY AND PEOPLES WHOSE FAMILIES ARE AFFECTED DIRECTLY WITH DECISIONS TO GO INTO COMBAT OVERSEAS. AS FAR AS FOREIGN LEADERS, I CANNOT THINK OF ONE THAT I RESPECT BECAUSE EVERY FOREIGN LEADER USES THE POWER OFTHE STATE TO ABUSE THEIR CITIZENS IN ONE WAY , SHAPE OR FORM. THAT INCLUDES OUR CURRENT PRESIDENT. BOTH CANDIDATES WANT TO USE THE POWER OF THE STATE TO ENFORCE AND IMPOSE THEIR WILL ON PEOPLE. TO DEFY INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS. YES, I PROUDLY SUPPORT GARY JOHNSON. WE NEED A RADICAL CHANGE FROM WHERE WE ARE GOING. TWO THIRDS IN THE COUNTRY BELIEVE WE ARE HEADED IN THE WRONG DIRECTION AND THE ONLY WAY TO STOP IT IS TO THINK DIFFERENT. >> Steve: ESTHER CRAWFORD? >> Rick Crawford: I HAVE A HARD TIME RECONCILING THAT STATEMENT WITH REALITY. EVERY WORLD LEADER IS CORRUPT, GARY JOHNSON WOULD BE MORE OF THE SAME. CERTAINLY, THERE ARE WORLD LEADERS OUT THERE WHO ARE WORTHY OF RESPECT. TERESA AND UNITED KINGDOM AND GREAT BRITAIN. THESE BLANKET STATEMENTS THAT NO ONE IS WORTHY OF RESPECT I DON'T THINK THEY ARE APPROPRIATE AND I DO THINK YOU OUGHT TO BE ABLE TO NAME A FEW WORLD LEADERS IF YOU ARE GOING TO BE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. I THINK IS ESSENTIAL. NOTHING THAT GARY JOHNSON SAYS WHY WOULD WE TRADE , AS MR. WEST INDICATED, WE HAVE FLAWED CHARACTERS. WE ARE ALL FLAWED CHARACTERS. WE ARE A FALLEN PEOPLE. WHY DO WE WANT TO INTRODUCE GARY JOHNSON AS AN ALTERNATIVE WHEN HE IS NO BETTER AND IS NOT IN ANY POSITION, IF YOU LOOK AT THE POLL NUMBERS THERE'S A REASON. I THINK IT'S A RIDICULOUS NOTION. IT'S NOT HOW GARY JOHNSON, OF ALL THE WORLD LEADERS ON THE STAGE THAT SHE WOULD BE THE ONLY CHOICE THAT WOULD NOT ABUSE THE CITIZENS OF HIS OWN NATION ACCORDING TO MR. WEST, EVERY PUBLIC SERVANT IS ABUSIVE. I THINK THAT'S ENTIRELY INCONSISTENT AND INACCURATE. >> Steve: MR. WEST, >> Mark West: CONGRESSMAN CRAWFORD SAID YOU ARE CONSERVATIVE OR NOT BUT THAT TELLS ME HE DOESN'T UNDERSTAND POLITICS. THERE'S A WHOLE OTHER VIEW OF HOW THE GOVERNMENT SHOULD OPERATE CALLED LIBERTARIANISM. IT MEANS YOU DON'T GO AGAINST SOMEONE ELSE AND IS THERE A THREAT TO YOU, YOUR PROPERTY OR YOUR LIFE. WHAT THEY DO IS GET INTO BUSINESS. THEY GO INTO PEOPLE'S BUSINESS AND LIES IN THE IMPACT PEOPLE. THEY DO SO AT THE WILL OF THE PRESIDENT. WHATEVER THE PRESIDENT SAYS, THEY GO IN THEY DO IT. IT'S IT COMES WITH RESPECT. I RESPECT THE NATIONAL LEADERS. WHAT I DON'T RESPECT IS THAT SO MANY OF THEM USE THE POWER OF AUTHORITY AGAINST THEIR OWN CITIZENS. WHETHER IT'S THROUGH DEATH IN THE STREETS THERE'S SO MANY WAYS THAT GARY JOHNSON REPRESENTS THE LIBERTARIAN PHILOSOPHY WHICH SAYS, THE AUTHORITY THAT WE ARE PUTTING IN OUR CENTRAL GOVERNMENT IS BAD FOR US. IT ATTACKS OUR RIGHTS AND OUR LIBERTIES AND WE DESERVE BETTER. >> MR. WEST, THANK YOU. >> JONATHAN REEVES, FIRST QUESTION. >> Jonathan: ARKANSAS FARMERS HAVE BEEN FACING CHALLENGES. A LOT OF RURAL CROPS ARE GROWN IN THE DISTRICTS LIKE RICE, SOYBEANS AND WHEAT. IF YOU ARE REELECTED YOU WOULD HAVE A PART IN WORKING ON THE NEW FARMVILLE NGUYEN WHEN IT COMES TO AGRICULTURE, WHAT WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE? >> Rick Crawford: THERE ARE SO MANY PEOPLE THAT TALK ABOUT THE ROLE OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT WHEN IT COMES TO AGRICULTURE. FOOD SECURITY IS PARAMOUNT TO THE UNITED STATES FROM A NATIONAL SECURITY PERSPECTIVE. IT'S IMPERATIVE THAT WE ARE ABLE TO FEED AND CLOTHE OURSELVES. GOVERNMENT WILL CONTINUE TO PLAY A ROLE IN DEVELOPING POLICY TO AFFECT THAT. WHAT IT IS SHOULD BE MINIMIZED. FARMERS SAY WE WANT TO OPERATE IN THE FREE MARKET BUT ONE DOESN'T EXIST FOR FARMERS. IT'S RISKY, THEY ARE PRICE TAKERS AND THEY HAVE VERY LITTLE CONTROL OVER POLICY. THEY HAVE VERY LITTLE CONTROL OVER TRADE AND ALL THEY ARE ASKING FOR IS A FAIR SHOT. UNTIL THEY RECEIVE IT, UNFORTUNATELY WE WILL CONTINUE TO IMPLEMENTPOLICY THAT PROVIDES A LEVEL OF SUPPORT . WE WILL USE PRIVATE SECTOR TOOLS TO AFFECT THAT. ONE OF THE THINGS I HAVE BEEN WORKING ON, FOR EXAMPLE IS INCENTIVIZING FARMERS TO FUND THEIR OWN DISASTER RELIEF. BLACK RIVER AND UNTIMELY FALL RAIN. WE LOST OVER 40,000 ACRES. THEY WON'T GET THAT BACK. THERE IS NO OPPORTUNITY TO REPLANT. IF WE HAVE THOSE TYPES OF PROGRAMS IN PLACE, FARMERS COULD FUND THEIR OWN DISASTER RELIEF UNTIL SOMETIME THAT OTHER RELIEF IS AVAILABLE. IT COULD BE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BEING IN BUSINESS AND NOT BEING A BUSINESS. I WANT TO SEE FLEXIBILITY FROM THE AGRICULTURAL LENDERS WHO HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO CARRY FARMERS IN TIMES OF TROUBLE. THEY CAN'T DO THAT. THEY NO LONGER HAVE THE DISCRETION TO ALLOW THEM TO MAKE INTEREST PAYMENTS AND STAY CURRENT. THEY HAVE TO DEFAULT OR GO INTO BANKRUPTCY. WE NEED TO PROTECT THE FARMERS BECAUSE IN THE NATIONAL SECURITY INTEREST, WE SHOULD DO SO. WRITTEN TO ENCOURAGE THE USE OF PRIVATE SECTOR AND FREE-MARKET TOOLS TO DO THAT. >> Steve: MR. WEST? >> Mark West: CONGRESSMAN STATED THAT IS SOMETHING THAT WE NEED TO FOCUS ON. I AGREE THAT FOOD SECURITY IS IMPORTANT BUT WHAT HE BETRAYS TO US AND WHAT HE SAYS IS THAT HE DOESN'T BELIEVE THAT FARMERS ARE CAPABLE OF MANAGING THEIR OWN FORMS. HE BELIEVES THEY NEED THE GOVERNMENT TO TELL THEM WHO THEY SHOULD TRADE WITH AND WHAT SEEDS TO BUY AND WHEN THEY SHOULD PLANT AND WHEN THEY SHOULD HARVEST. TELL THEM WHAT TO DO WITH LEFTOVER SEEDS THAT THEY HAVE AT THE END OF THE YEAR. THIS IS NOT THE PLACE FOR THE GOVERNMENT. THAT'S WHAT WE HAVE THE CENTRAL PLANNING OF AGRICULTURAL. WE HAVE A CENTRAL PLANNING THAT ROB SMALL FARMERS OF THE FREEDOM AND LIBERTY THEY NEED TO MAKE MONEY. THERE'S SO MANY SMALL FARMERS. I PASTOR IN A SMALL COMMUNITY OF FARMERS. SMALL FAMILY FARMS. THEY ARE STRUGGLING. THEY STRUGGLE BECAUSE THE WAY REGULATIONS WORK AND THE WAY THE FARM WORKS. THIS FARMVILLE SAYS WE ARE THE GOVERNMENT WE ARE HERE TO HELP. WE ALL KNOW WHAT RONALD REAGAN SAID ABOUT THAT. HE BELIEVES HE IS HERE WITH THE GOVERNMENT HERE TO HELP WHICH IS AGAINST ANYTHING RONALD REAGAN WOULD'VE EVER SUPPORTED. THIS FARM BILL COMES OUT OF WASHINGTON IT'S NOTHING MORE THAN JUST A BABY SWITCH. WE WILL GIVE YOU THIS BUT WE WILL TAKE THAT. WE WILL GIVE YOU THIS FOOD SECURITY BUT WE WILL TAKE THE RIGHT TO DO WHAT YOU CHOOSE. WE WILL CONTROL HOW YOU CAN BUY YOUR INSURANCE AND WHAT YOU CAN PAY AND SO OFTEN IT FALLS SHORT. THEN HE COMES UP WITH A BILL WHERE HE SAYS THAT WE WILL SET UP A PHONE PLAN AND IT'S TAX-FREE BUT IT WILL COME WITH ITS OWN LIMITS IN ITS OWN RESTRICTIONS ON WHERE YOU CAN PUT THE MONEY AND HOW YOU CAN SPEND IT. EVERYTHING FROM THE GOVERNMENT COMES WITH STRINGS ATTACHED. I AM TIRED OF HEARING I'M HERE FROM THE GOVERNMENT AND I'MHERE TO HELP . >> RickCrawford: I'M NOT HERE FROM THE GOVERNMENT BUT I AM HERE TO HELP . WHAT MR. WEST IS SAYING IS COMPLETE AND TOTAL IGNORANCE. THE GOVERNMENT DOESN'T TELL PEOPLE WHERE TO BUY A SEAT AND WERE TO PLANET. FARMERS KNOW HOW TO OPERATE THEIR FARMS. IT AMAZES ME THEY CAN LIVE IN THE FIRST DISTRICT OF ARKANSAS I KNOW SO LITTLE ABOUT AGRICULTURE TO THE NUMBER ONE DRIVER OF THE ECONOMY. IT'S ABSOLUTELY AMAZING THAT HE DOESN'T KNOW MORE ABOUT THAT. TO COMPLETELY TAKE LIBERTY WITH MY POSITION ON OUR CULTURE AND WHAT I HAVE DONE FOR FARMERS, AND HAVE AN AGRICULTURE ADVISORY COUNCIL AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCERS.I'VE BEEN A COMMUNICATOR IN THE AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY. I HAVE BUILT AN AGRICULTURAL NETWORKTHAT SPANNED FIVE STATES AND 53 RADIO STATIONS. I KNOW WHAT IT'S LIKE TO MAKE A PAYROLL , UNLIKE MY CHALLENGER. YOU KNOW WHAT IT'S LIKE TO SIGN A PAIN CHECK LIKE FARMERS DO. I THINK THAT'S A DIFFERENCE HERE. TO KNOW HOW AGRICULTURE WORKS AND NOT READING POINTS OFF THE LIBERTARIAN WEBSITE. >> Steve: A QUESTION FOR MR. WEST FROM MR. JARED. >> George: HEALTHCARE COSTS ARE SOARING ACROSS THE COUNTRY. HILLARY CLINTON IS PROMISED TO MODIFY THE AFFORDABLE HAIR ACT COMMONLY REFERRED TO AS OBAMACARE. DONALD TRUMP HAS SAID HE WOULD REPEAL IT. HOW DO WE NEED TO DEAL WITH THE HEALTHCARE CRISIS IN THE COUNTRY? >> Mark West: THANK YOU FOR THE QUESTION. HEALTHCARE IS AN IMPORTANT ISSUE AND IT AFFECTS A LOT OF PEOPLE.CONGRESSMAN CRAWFORD DIDN'T DO HIS HOMEWORK. I WORK FOR A COMPANY FOR THE PAST NINE YEARS OF WHAT I DO IS MANAGE PAYROLL AND MAKE SURE MY EMPLOYEES ALL OVER THE COUNTRY GET PAID. WE RUN OPERATIONS IN SEVERAL STATES ALL OVER THE NATION AND ITS IVORY SURE EVERY WEEK THEY GET PAID. HE NEEDS TO DO A LITTLE MORE RESEARCH THAN TRY TO MAKE HIS TALKING POINTS ABOUT ME BEING A LIBERTARIAN JUST BECAUSE HE LIKES TO TELL YOU WHAT TO DO WITH YOUR LIFE. AS FAR AS HEALTHCARE IS CONCERNED, I AGREE WITH BILL CLINTON. HE SAYS IT IS THE CRAZIEST THING IN THE WORLD THAT PEOPLE WORK 40 60 HOURS PER WEEK AND WHAT THEY HAVE SEEN IS THE RATES DOUBLED BUT THE COVERAGE HAS BEEN CUT IN HALF. WE ARE COVERING MORE AMERICANS AND I AGREE WITH DONALD TRUMP WE SHOULD REPEAL OBAMACARE. HOWEVER, ONE WOULD REPEAL IT WE NEED TO WORK TO REPEAL ANY OTHER TYPES OF REGULATIONS THAT ARE IN THE MARKET THAT ARE PREVENTING PEOPLE FROM GETTING THE CARE THEY NEED BECAUSE THE WHOLE ISSUE IS ACCESS. WE HAVE A VERY CLOSED MARKET BUT IT'S NOT FREE. PEOPLE CAN'T GET THE ACCESS AND THAT'SWHY THE NEED , DESIRE AND WANT AS THEY ARE. THAT'S WHAT IT AROSE FROM. IT'S RIDICULOUS THAT CONGRESSMAN SPENT SO MUCH TIME ON THIS LAST SESSION SENDING OBAMACARE REPEALS TO A PRESIDENT THAT NEW THAT THEY WOULD VETO IT.IT'S MORE PLAYING GAMES AND FIGHTING OVER SOMETHING THEY ALREADY KNOW THE OUTCOME FOUR. THEY ALREADY KNEW HE WOULD VETO IT SO WE NEEDED OTHER WAYS. I APPLAUD THE CONGRESSMAN THAT DID TRY TO FIND OTHER WAYS. WE NEED TO BE ACTIVE. >> Steve: MR. CRAWFORD? >> Rick Crawford: OBAMACARE IS AN UTTER DISASTER. NO QUESTION ABOUT IT. WE CAN ALL AGREE ON THAT POINT. WHAT DO WE DO? WE HAVE TO COME UP WITH A REPLACEMENT. IT'S NOT ENOUGH TO REPEAL IT. THEY EXPECT A PACKAGE DEAL. WITH THAT, IT SHOULD CONSIST OF KEY ELEMENTS. ONE IS REFORM AND THE OTHERS TAKING DOWN STATE TO STATE COMPETITION ALLOWING PORTABILITY AND ALLOWING WHAT IT IS BETWEEN PLAYERS. THE KEY IN THE HEART OF THIS MATTER REALLY COMES DOWN TO CREDITABLE COVERAGE. PRE-EXISTING CONDITIONS AND ONE OF THE BIGGEST ARGUMENTS THAT WERE MADE FOR IMPLEMENTING OBAMACARE WAS THE PRE-EXISTING CONDITIONS THAT COULDN'T GET COVERAGE. THERE'S A REASON WHY THEY COULDN'T GET COVERAGE. WHEN YOU GO FROM ONE EMPLOYER TO THE OTHER IF YOU HAVE A GAP IN THERE. ONE IS CONSOLIDATING DOWN TO BUDGET CONSOLIDATION. COBRA COVERAGE IS COST PROHIBITIVE. MOST PEOPLE HAVE TO CHOOSE TO MAKE THEIR MORTGAGE PAYMENT OR THEIR HEALTHCARE PAYMENT AND THAT'S NOT A WAY TO COVER PEOPLE. IF YOU IMPORT PORTABILITY AND ALLOW THE POLICY TO BE UNDER THE OWNERSHIP OF THE EMPLOYER OR THE EMPLOYEE WHEN HE LEAVES EMPLOYER A.M. GOES TO EMPLOYEE BE TAKES THE POLICY WITH HIM UNTIL HE CAN GET ENROLLED IN THE NEW EMPLOYER OR HE BECOMES ELIGIBLE FOR COVERAGE. THE KEY IS CREDIBLE COVERAGE AND PORTABILITY. COMPETITION FROM STATE TO STATE AND WE KNOW WE NEED TO HAVE TORT REFORM TO PUSH BACK AGAINST THE PRACTICING OF DEFENSIVE MEDICINE. IT'S RUNNING COSTS THROUGH THE ROOF. DOCTORS ARE HAVING TO PERFORM UNNECESSARY PROCEDURES AND TESTS JUST TO PREVENT BEING SUED IN THE PROCESS OF CARING FOR THEIR PATIENTS. >> MR. WEST, ONE MINUTE.>> Mark West: I AGREE WITH CONGRESSMAN CRAWFORD THAT THERE IS UNNECESSARY COST IN THE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM. REFORM IS ONE WAY TO ADDRESS THAT BUT WE DO ALSO NEED TO GET AWAY FROM THE SYSTEMATIC UNDERSTANDING THAT SOMEHOW OUR EMPLOYER SHOULD BE THE ONE PROVIDING HEALTHCARE. I BELIEVE IN YOU. I BELIEVE YOU ARE ABLE TO FIGURE THESE THINGS OUT FOR YOURSELF. IF YOU'RE SMART ENOUGH TO GET A JOB AND HOLD A JOB , I THINK YOU'RE SMART ENOUGH TO DECIDE WHAT'S BEST FOR YOUR HEALTHCARE AND WHAT'S BEST FOR YOUR INSURANCE. YOU SHOULDN'T HAVE TO DEPEND ON YOUR LAWYER FOR THAT.I NEED TO END THE SYSTEM. THEY WANT YOU TO FEEL LIKE YOU NEED THEM TO HELP YOU. TO STEP IN AND FIX THINGS. LET'S FIX THIS. LET'S QUICK QUIT MAKING PEOPLE DEPEND ON THEIR EMPLOYERS FOR HEALTHCARE SERVICE. JOHN ROBERTS MADE SURE THE SUPREME COURT PAST OBAMACARE. THEY WILL TRUST THENOMINEES WITH TRYING TO END ROW VERSUS WADE AND THEY CAN'T HANDLE HEALTHCARE ? QUESTION FIRST FOR MR. CRAWFORD. >> Jonathan: RETURNING TO PRESIDENTREAGAN'S QUOTE , I AM FROM THE GOVERNMENTAND I'M HERE TO HELP . BOTH OF YOU SAY THE SIZE OF GOVERNMENT IS TOO BIG AND THE DEPTH IS TO YOUR LARGE. WHAT ARE YOU WILLING TO DO PLEDGE TO ELIMINATE FROM THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IF ELECTED IN NOVEMBER. >> I WOULD BE WILLING TO SUPPORT A HIRING FREEZE. I THINK WE CAN ACHIEVE MAJOR SAVINGS IN THE FEDERAL BUDGET BY NOT HIRING WHEN AN EMPLOYEE RETIRES. I THINK THAT'S A REASONABLE APPROACH TO STEP ONE. TAKING A FULL ACCOUNT READ TO AUDIT EVERY FEDERAL AGENCY. THERE'S A LOT OF AGENCIES OUT THERE THAT HAVE BEEN PASSED OVER FROM THE REQUIREMENT. THE PENTAGON IS NOT SANCTIONED BUT EVERY YEAR, THE NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT HAS A PROVISION IN THERE REQUIRING THEM TO PREPARE FOR AN AUDIT BUT INVARIABLY THERE IS AN AMENDMENT THAT IS PUT IN PLACE THAT BASICALLY EXTENDS THAT DATE SO THEY ARE PREVENTED FROM BEING SUBJECT TO ANAUDIT. THESE ARE THE KINDS OF THINGS THAT WE NEED TO DO TO FERRET OUT . IT'S RAMPANT IN EVERY AGENCY. I DON'T KNOW THAT IT'S FAIR OR APPROPRIATE TO TARGET SPECIFIC AGENCIES IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FORECLOSURE IMMEDIATELY WITHOUT HAVING A FULL ACCOUNT OF WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE. THE OTHER ARGUMENT IS THAT YOU NEED TO CUT ACROSS THE BOARD BUT THAT IS IRRESPONSIBLE. I'VE LEARNED THAT BASICALLY, WHAT YOU DO, IF YOU MAKE ACROSS THE BOARD CUT YOU ARE MAKING ONE AND ONE AGENCY THAT CAN'T AFFORD IT AND LETTING OTHER AGENCIES OFF SCOTT FREE THAT SHOULD HAVE A DEEPER CUT OR DISCONTINUATION. HAVE TO GET A FULL ACCOUNT OF EXACTLY WHAT FEDERAL AGENCIES ARE DOING SO AT THE VERY LEAST, IMPLEMENT A HIRING FREEZE AND ACHIEVE GREATSAVINGS IN THE FEDERAL BUDGET . YOU WILL RECEIVE A SMALL GOVERNMENT AS YOU SEE THE WORKFORCE INCREASE IN SIZE. THEY WILL BE THE IMMEDIATE SOLUTION OF CLOSING DOWN AGENCIES AS MY OPPONENT SUGGESTED. JUST GET THE GOVERNMENT OUT OF BUSINESS. IT'S PROBABLY RESPONSIBLE AND NOT THE APPROPRIATE APPROACH. >> TWO MINUTES, MR. WEST. >> Mark West: IN DEALING WITH THE GOVERNMENT THERE IS A LOT OF UNNECESSARY AND UNCONSTITUTIONAL THINGSTHAT THE GOVERNMENT DOESN'T NEED TO CUT THOSE. DO AN AUDIT PROCESS I AGREE WE NEED AN AUDIT . MAYBE IF WE WERE ABLE TO AUDIT THE PENTAGON LIKE WE SHOULD WHO WOULDN'T HAVE LOST 6 AND A HALF TRILLION DOLLARS. WHEN YOU'RE LOOKING AT A NATIONAL DEBT OF $6 TRILLION IT COULD GO A LONG WAY TO KEEP IT FROM EXPLODING. ONE QUIT BUDGET CUT IS DECIDING TO END ALL OF OUR INTERVENTION AND WARS OF REGIME TRAIN AND BRING OUR TROOPS HOME. IT COST $2 MILLION PER SOLDIER TO KEEP A SOLDIER DEPLOYED OVERSEAS. THAT'S A HUGE AMOUNT OF COST WHEN ALL WE ARE DOING IS CREATING THE NEVER ENDING CYCLE OF WARFARE. WE STARTED IN AFGHANISTAN AND THEN WE WENT TO IRAQ AND THEN WE WENT TO AFRICA, EGYPT, YEMEN, NOW WE CREEP INTO SYRIA. WHEN DO WE STOP CREEPING AND SAY ENOUGH IS ENOUGH? THE BLOOD OF OUR SOLDIERS IS ENOUGH. WE HAD A PROBLEM AND SEPTEMBER 11 HAPPENED. OSAMA BIN LADEN IS DEAD. BECAUSE THE TERRORISTS ARE ABLE TO STRETCH EVERYWHERE, WHERE HOW FAR WILL WE STRETCH TO FIND THE TERRORISTS? WILL WE GO TO WAR IN GERMANY AND THERE COULD BE SOME AMONG THE SYRIAN REFUGEES? WE ARE VERY RESPONSIBLE WITH HOW WE HANDLE INTERNATIONAL POLICY ON WAR. THE FOREIGN POLICY IS ATROCIOUS. WE ARE DRAWN BOMBING INNOCENT CHILDREN. THAT IS SAD. HOW CAN WE SAY WE ARE A COUNTRY THAT VALUES LIFE WILL MEET JEROME BALM INNOCENT CHILDREN. WE CAN ALSO DEAL WITH THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. WE HAVE THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ON THE STATE LEVEL WE HAVE THE SCHOOL BOARD AND THAT COULD BE HANDLED OPENLY. >> THANK YOU, SIR. MR. CRAWFORD. >> Rick Crawford: >> Steve: THE NEXT QUESTION GOES TO MR. REEVES AND IT GOES TO MR. WEST. WITH ISIS, HOW CONCERNED SHOULD WE BE ABOUT TERRORIST CELLS CREEPINGUP HERE IN ARKANSAS AND WHAT WOULD YOU DO TO KEEP US SAFE WE . >> Mark West: THE FIRST THING I WOULD DO IS DISPEL THE RUMOR THAT THE GOVERNMENT COULD KEEP YOU SAFE. THIS IS A MINDSET THAT WASHINGTON PUSHES. THAT WE NEED THE GOVERNMENT TO KEEP US SAFE. IF THEY WOULD LEAVE US AND OUR GARDENS AND OUR RIGHTS ALONE, WECOULD KEEP OURSELVES SAFE . ARKANSAS IS ONE OF THOSE STATES WHERE YOU CAN HAVE AN OPEN CARRY. IT'S A GOOD THING. IT'S A GOOD METHOD OF CRIME PREVENTION. IF YOU PEOPLE WITH GUNS, YOU CAN HELP MEET PEOPLE WHO HAVE A TERRORIST INTENTION. WE HAVE ISIS AND ATERRORIST IN THE STREET.WHAT WILL THE NEXT ONE BE ? THE GOVERNMENT INVENTS ANOTHER BOGEYMAN THAT WE HAVE TO BE AFRAID OF. WE HAVE TO COWER AND ACCEPT WHATEVER THE GOVERNMENT TELLS US. THE GOVERNMENT WHAT IT HAS DONE, IS THEY HAVE BEEN SPYING ON THE EMAILS. I DON'T KNOW IF YOU CAUGHT THE STORY BUT YAHOO HAS BEEN SPYING ON YOUR EMAIL AND GIVING THE INFORMATION TO YOUR GOVERNMENT. IS THAT WHAT WE WANT AMERICA TO BE? THEY ALLOW THAT TO HAPPEN. WE HAVE A GOVERNMENT THAT HAS DECIDED THAT SOMEHOW OR ANOTHER YOU CAN'T SECURE YOUR SELVES. YOU'RE NOT GOOD ENOUGH TO BE YOUR OWN PERSON AND SMART ENOUGH TO HANDLE SO WE NEED THEM THERE TO HANDLE THINGS AND TELL US HOW TO LIVE OUR LIVES. THAT MEANS INTRUDING IN OUR LAPTOPS AND INTRUDING INTO OUR EMAILS. WE DON'T NEED THAT GOVERNMENT INTRUSION. I DON'T MEAN THE GOVERNMENT LISTENING WHEN I TALK TO MY WIFE ON MY CELL PHONE. WE HAVE PRIVATE CONVERSATIONS THAT I DON'T NEED THE GOVERNMENT PRIVY TO. NEED TO SECURE THEMSELVES AND RENEW THE BELIEF IN EVERYONE THAT WE CAN SECURE OURSELVES. ANOTHER THING THAT WOULD HELP IS IF DONALD TRUMP AND THE REPUBLICANS WOULD QUIT BASHING MUSLIMS. THEY ARE A SAFETY NET AND THEY CAN HELP US FIND ISIS TERROR CELLS IN THE COUNTRY BUT THEY ARE SCARED TO TALK BECAUSE THEY ARE SCARED TO TALKTO US IF THEY DO. >> MR. CRAWFORD TWO MINUTES. >> . >> Rick Crawford: LET ME GO BACK TO 9/11. 9/11 WAS THE WORST ATTACK THAT EVER TOOK PLACE ON SOIL BUT IT WASN'T JUST DESIGNED TO BE THE WORST EVER ATTACK. EXCEEDED BEYOND THEIR WILDEST EXPECTATIONS. THEY DID NOT EXPECT TO KILL 3000+ AMERICANS. THEY EXPECTED TO TARGET AMERICANS TO CREATE HAVOC IN THE DID. IT WAS MUCH MORE SUCCESSFUL THAT THEY ANTICIPATED. WHAT THEY ARE ENGAGED IN NOW IS THE ATTACKS LIKE WE HAVE SEEN IN ORLANDO AND SAN BERNARDINO AND PARIS AND THEY ARE INVESTED IN CONTINUING THOSE ATTACKS. THEY DON'T COST ANYTHING. THE GUYANESE JUMPED IN A TRUCK AND KILLED 80+ PEOPLE. THAT'S CREATING TERROR AND MAKING PEOPLE STAY IN THEIR HOMES. OPEN CARRY DOES NOT ADDRESS A GLOBAL TERROR THREAT. I AM NOT SAYING I'M AGAINST IT I'M JUST SAYING THAT WHEN YOU TELL THE CITIZENS OF THE FIRST DISTRICT OF ARKANSAS THAT THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT HAS NO ROLE IN PROTECTING THEM , IT'S IRRESPONSIBLE. IT'S A CONSTITUTIONAL MANDATE THAT WE PROVIDE FOR THE COMMON DEFENSE. IT'S EXACTLY WHAT WE ARE SUPPOSED TO DO. I WOULD RATHER FIGHT TERRORIST OFF OUR SHORES THAN ON OUR SHORES. WHEN THOMAS JEFFERSON TOOK ON THE PIRATES ON THE COAST I AM SURE THERE WERE FOLKS THAT VIEWED THAT AS A DEBACLE BUT HE WAS LATER SECURING THE TRADE ROUTES IN STANDING UP FOR AMERICAN SOVEREIGNTY AND PROTECTING AMERICAN INTERESTS. WE CAN'T RETREAT TO THE PLATOON OF THE SHORES AND THE BORDERS AND PRETEND THAT NOTHING GOING ON WILL EVER TOUCH US BECAUSE WE HAVE FOLKS AT HOME THAT COULD TAKECARE OF THEMSELVES . FOLKS CAN TAKE CARE OF THEMSELVES AND THE SECOND AMENDMENTPROVIDES OPPORTUNITY BUT NOT EVERYONE CAN . IT IS THE GOVERNMENT'S RESPONSIBILITY TO PROVIDE A STANDING ARMY IN THE COMMON DEFENSE. IT'S NAOVE TO THINK WE COULD JUST RETREAT TO HOME AND START STANDING WATCH ON OUR OWN HOME. >> Steve: MR. WEST, ONE MINUTE. >> Mark West: CONGRESSMAN CRAWFORD MENTIONS ORLANDO AND SAN BERNARDINO AND DENISE. THEY ALL HAVE ONE THING IN COMMON. SOME GUY, HOMEGROWN GUY WHO WAS IN LONE WOLF ACTING ON HIS OWN. THIS IS WHY IT'SSO IMPORTANT THAT WE HAVE A GOOD RELATIONSHIP WITH THE MUSLIM COMMUNITY. WE HAVE TO STOP INSULTING AND ACTING LIKE OUR COUNTRY IS AT WAR WITH EVERY MUSLIM THAT LIVES HERE. IF WE ARE GOING TO STOP HOMEGROWN TERRORISM , IF WE ARE GOING TO INFILTRATE AND FIND PEOPLE THAT MIGHT BE GETTING INTO SOMETHING LIKE THIS WE ARE DEPENDING ON THE MUSLIM COMMUNITY TO HELP US FIND PEOPLE THAT ARE DOING THAT. JUST THIS WEEK, IN GERMANY, THE SYRIAN REFUGEES THERE WERE TWO THAT FOUND THE GUY THAT WAS PLOTTING TO DO JUST THAT. THEY TOOK HIM TO THE POLICE. THAT'S HOW WE STOP HOMEGROWN TERRORISM. WE DON'T STOP IT BY TRYING TO CHASE TERRORISM IN CAVES ALL OVER THE WORLD. WE NEED TO BRING OUR SOLDIERS BACK AND REFOCUS ON KEEPING AMERICA SAFE. >> Steve: GEORGE JARED, QUESTION FOR MR. CRAWFORD. >> George: THERE IS A HUMANITARIANCRISIS THAT HAS ERUPT THE . ISIS IS IN SYRIA AND IRAQ AND THE A SHOD REGIME IS BECOMING EXTREMELY GROWING WITH VLADIMIR PUTIN AND THE RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT. SHOULD THE US SEND TROOPS TO SYRIA AND WOULD YOU SUPPORT SUCH A MOVE? >> Rick Crawford: IT DEPENDS ON THE NATURE OF WHAT THEY ARE BEING SENT THERE TO DO. THE ISSUE OF A BLANKET STATEMENT SUPPORTING TROOPS IN SYRIA I CAN'T ANSWER THAT QUESTION DEFINITIVELY. HAD THE UNITED STATES BEEN PRESENT IN SECURED THE AGREEMENT BEFORE ANYTHING HAPPENED, WE WOULD BE IN MUCH BETTER SHAPE IN THEMIDDLE EAST AND IT WOULD'VE BEEN MUCH MORE SAFER . THAT'S WATER UNDER THE BRIDGE. WE CAN'T GO BACK AND RELIVE THAT OR CHANGE THAT SO WE HAVE TO MOVE FORWARD. THE SYRIAN REFUGEE CRISIS IS A CRISIS BUT IT SHOULD BE ADDRESSED THROUGH SAFE ZONES IN THAT REGION. THE MONEY THAT WE INVEST IN RELOCATING SYRIAN REFUGEES COULD EASILY BE PUT INTO SAFE ZONES IN THEIR OWN AREAS CLOSER TO THEIR OWN AREAS SO THEY COULD MAINTAIN A CULTURAL BALANCE AND NOT HAVE THE DIFFICULTIES THAT THE SIMULATING INTO A COUNTRY THAT THEY ARE NOT FAMILIAR WITH. THEY COULD AFFECT CHANGE IN THAT REGION. IF EVERYONE JUST LEAVES HOW WILL THEY GO BACK HOME IN EFFECT THAT POSITIVELY. WE SHOULD BE THERE. WHEN THE UNITED STATES IS NOT LEADING WE ARE NOT TAKING POINTS ON EVERYTHING BUT WE HAVE TO HAVE A PRESENCE AND WE HAVE TO SHOW THAT WE ARE WILLING TO HELP . THE FACT OF THE MATTER IS IT SHOULD BE A SEMI-LED COALITION AND THE UNITED STATES TROOPS IN SMALL NUMBERS SHOULDBE THERE TO PROVIDE SUPPORT . WE DON'T LEAD AND BAD THINGS HAPPEN. IT COULD LEAD TO WINGS THAT ARE NOT GOOD FOR THE NATION. WHETHER IT'S IN THE MILITARY OR TRADE DEALS OR GLOBAL COMMERCE. THE UNITED STATES SHOULD TAKE A LEADERSHIP ROLE AND IT'S NOT ABOUT TRYING TO DICK DATE POLICY GLOBALLY IS JUST ABOUT ADVOCATING. LIBERTY IS NOT TO OPPRESSED PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD. >> MR. WEST, TWO MINUTES. >> Mark West: I BELIEVE THAT WE COULD ADVOCATE WITHOUT HAVING TO BE MILITARILY INVOLVED EVERYWHERE THERE ARE AMERICAN INTERESTS. THAT IS ONE OF THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CONGRESSMAN CRAWFORD AND MYSELF. WE LOOK AT SYRIA WE SEE A SITUATION WHERE THE COMMUNITY DESPERATELY NEEDS TO BE INVOLVED. WE LOOK AT EUROPE AND EUROPE IS GETTING INVOLVED BY TAKING IN REFUGEES AND FINDING WAYS TO HELP THEM BECOME A PART OF THE SOCIETY. I KNOW THAT MANY OF THEM, ESPECIALLY IF YOU GO AND VISIT THE CAMPS I'VE HEARD THE CONGRESSMAN TALK. THEY SAY THE REFUGEES WANT TO GO HOME. THERE IS IN A HOME RIGHT NOW. THAT'S THE PROBLEM. I DON'T KNOW IF YOU GUYS WATCH THE COVERAGE OR GOOGLED ON THE INTERNETTHE PICTURES OF THE CITIES THERE . THERE IS NOWHERE TO GO HOME. THERE IS 6 MILLION PEOPLE WITHIN SYRIA BY ITSELF. ADD THAT TO THE 4 MILLION PEOPLE WHO HAVE FLED FOR THEIR LIVES. THEY HAVE NO ONE FIGHTING FOR THEM. IN SYRIA, WHAT WE SEE IS THE OUTFLOW OF EVERYTHING WE HAVE BEEN DOING INTERNATIONALLY. YOU SEE, WE HAVE HAD A PROBLEM WITH THE SOLID BIN LADEN AND WE CHASED HIM TO AFGHANISTAN. THEN WE DECIDED WE HAD A PROBLEM WITH IRAQ. WE GOT OUT OF IRAQ AND WHAT HAPPENED IS ISIS FILLED THE VOID. ISIS IS TAKING TERRITORY OVER THERE AND MOVING INTO SYRIA. RUSSIA HAS STEPPED IN ON THE SIDE OF A SOLID. 91 PERCENT, THEY ARE BOMBING PEOPLE THAT ARE REBELS AND PEOPLE WERE SUPPORTING OVER THERE. THEY NEED TO BE THE NEXT WAR WITH AMERICA. THEY WERE SATISFIED IN AFGHANISTAN. IN CASE YOU DIDN'T KNOW, WE HAVE BEEN INTERFERING IN THE MIDDLE EAST FOR A LONG TIME BEFORE 2001. RUSSIA JUST WANTS TO MOVE SEE ANOTHER PROXY WAR THAT THEY THINK THEY WILL WIN. IRAN IS TRYING TO PROVOKE. WE NEED TO STOP GIVING INTO EVERY PROVOCATION AND BEGIN BRINGING THE WAR DECISIONS TO CONGRESS WHERE THEY BELONG. >> MR. CRAWFORD, ONE MINUTE. >> I THINK MR. WEST SHOWS A REAL LACK OF KNOWLEDGE ON INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS. IT'S SAD THAT WE HAVE A CANDIDATE THAT'S RUNNING FOR CONGRESS THAT IS SO WILLING TO JOIN THE OBAMA COURSE OF BLAME AMERICA FIRST. I DON'T THINK IT'S NECESSARY. WE DON'T KNOW ANYONE IN APOLOGY. THE UNITED STATES HAS BEEN INVESTED IN LIBERATING OPPRESSED PEOPLE EVERYWHERE. UNITED STATES ARMY GREEN BERET IF YOU LOOK CLOSELY AT THE FLASH YOU WILL SEE THE PEN THERE THAT SAYS TO FREE THE OPPRESSED. IT'S NOT JUST A MODEL IT'S SOMETHING THAT THEY DO. IT'S THE AMERICAN SPIRIT THATWE PROVIDE LIBERTY TO . WE HELP OPPRESSED PEOPLE TO ACHIEVE LIBERTY. WE WILL TURN A BLIND EYE ON THE AND PRETEND ISIS FORCES ARE NOT BURNING CHRISTIANS AND MUSLIMS AND JEWS AND ANYONE ELSE WHO STANDS IN THEIR WAY? WE WILL JUST CONTINUE TO GO HOME AND EVERYTHING IS FINE? WE WILL HAVE TO PLAY A ROLE THERE. WE NEED TO FILL A VOID THAT EXISTS IN THE AREA.>> TOM HENRY QUESTION FOR MR. WEST. >> THERE WAS A TIME WHEN COTTON WAS KING. INDIVIDUALS SAY TIME HAS CHANGED. WE HAVE A CORPORATE INTEREST IN MISSISSIPPI COUNTY AND HONESTLY, THE DELTA IS KNOWN. WHAT DO YOU DO TO GUARANTEE THAT YOU COME TO THE DELTA IF YOU ARE ELECTED. >> THE FIRST THING I WILL DO IS GET THE DEBT UNDER CONTROL. I AM NOT PART OF AN OBAMA COURSE WE TALK ABOUT THE OPPRESSED PEOPLE IN SYRIA AND WE IGNORE THE OPPRESSED PEOPLE IN AFRICA WE DO BUSINESS IN THOSE PLACES. IN ORDER TO DEAL WITH POVERTY IN THE REGION WE HAVE TO ADDRESS IT AS IT IS. IT'S ITS OWN REGION. WE HAVE A POVERTY PROBLEM THAT IS ALSO AN EDUCATION PROBLEM. IT'S FAILING TO PREPARE PEOPLE IN THE REGION WITH THE JOB IT'S AVAILABLE. IF YOU TALK TO THE MANUFACTURERS IN THAT REGION THEY HAVE JOBS. THEY JUST DON'T HAVE PEOPLE TO TAKE THEM. WE NEED TO CLOSE THE GAP AND ITS THE EDUCATION SYSTEM NEEDS TO WORK TO WHERE WE CAN TRAIN PEOPLE IN HOSPITALS FOR THE JOB IT'S AVAILABLE ON THE MARKET IN THE AREA WHERE THEY LIVE. MY SON HAS DECIDED HE WANTS TO BE A WELDER. THAT'S A GREAT TRAIT TO HAVE. YOU COULD MAKE A LOT OF MONEY AS A WELDER AND PEOPLE DON'T KNOW THAT. THE CONSTRUCTION BUSINESS THAT WE WORK AND PEOPLE DO WELDING. THEY DO A VARIETY OF INTERESTING JOBS THAT A LOT OF PEOPLE DON'T KNOW BECAUSE THE EDUCATION SYSTEM TRAINS PEOPLE FOR COLLEGE. READ TO BE TRAINING PEOPLE FOR THE JOBS THAT ARE AVAILABLE. IT'S IT'S THE PRIMARY WAY I WOULD DEAL WITH POVERTY IS EDUCATION. WE HAVE TO MAKE SURE IT PREPARES PEOPLE FOR THE JOBS THAT ARE AVAILABLE IN THE AREA. ALSO, WE NEED TO GET PAST THE VIEWPOINT THAT SOMEHOW PEOPLE ARE POOR BECAUSE THEY CHOOSE TO BE. MIND YOU, WE CAN'T IGNORE THE GENERATIONAL POVERTY OUT THERE. WE HAVE TO WORK TO BREAK THE MINDSET. WE DON'T DO IT TO BE THE GOVERNMENT HERE TO HELP WHEN ALL WE DO IS CREATE A WOUND AND IT'S PART OF THE PROBLEM. >> Steve: TWO MINUTES, MR. CRAWFORD. >> Rick Crawford: THANK YOU. WE DO HAVE AN ISSUE. ALL UP AND DOWN THE DELTA WE HAVE SOME REALLY GOOD VOCATIONAL EDUCATION. IT'S IN EAST ARKANSAS COMMUNITY. PHILLIPS COMMUNITY COLLEGE, THEY ARE DOINGEVERYTHING THEY CAN TO BRIDGE THE GAP . I ASSEMBLED A GROUP OF ADVISORS CALLED THE DELTA REGIONAL ECONOMIC OR THE DREAM COUNCIL AND IT'S APPRISED OF COMMUNITY LEADERS FROM MISSISSIPPI COUNTY ALL THE WAY DOWN TO THE DELTA AND I BROUGHT THEM TOGETHER SO WE COULD DISCUSS WHAT WE SHOULD DO TO EMPOWER THE DELTA AND AFTER TWO OR THREE MEETINGS, THIS GROUP ORGANICALLY DEVELOP THE IDEA TO RECOGNIZE THAT WHAT IS LACKING IS NOT THE WORKFORCE EDUCATION IS MUCH AS THAT YOU CAN'T TEACH THOSE SOFT SKILLS IN THE WORKPLACE THAT REALLY MODEL GOOD BEHAVIOR IN THE WORKPLACE. IMPLEMENT WORK ETHIC. AND IT'S REALLY IMPORTANT. THEY ARE THINGS THAT ARE BEING MODELED TO THE YOUNG PEOPLE. YOU COULD GIVE THEM THE TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE BUT THEY ARE NOT EQUIPPED WITH THE SOFT SKILLS AND YOU WILL CONTINUE TO SEE THE POVERTY IN THE DELTA REGION. THESE COMMUNITY LEADERS RECOGNIZE THAT WE ARE WORKING TOGETHER FOR THE SOLUTION. YOUARE NOT SPENDING A DIME OF MONEY TO DO IT . IT'S AN ORGANIC MOVEMENT TAKING PLACE AS AN ADVISORY COUNCIL THAT'S BROUGHT TOGETHER IN THE OFFICE TO SERVE THE CONSTITUENTS IN THE DISTRICT THE DELTA REGION. WE HAVE ANOTHER ONE OF THOSE COUNCILS OVER IN THE OZARK REGION. THEY TOOK A LOOK AT THE PARTICULAR ISSUE AND DECIDED IT WAS INFRASTRUCTURE EXCEEDING THE ECONOMIC GROWTH AS RESPECT TO THE HIGHWAYS AND IT WAS DIFFICULT TO PASS ON A HILLY AND CURVY ROAD. THAT'S THINGS LIKE THAT THAT MAKE IT DIFFICULT FOR THINGS TO PASS. >> WE ARE LOOKING FOR INDIVIDUALS TO COME TOGETHER AND CREATE THAT. >> Steve: MR. WEST, ONE MINUTE. >> Mark West: I AM NOT SURE IF CONGRESSMAN CRAWFORD IS AVAILABLE AWARE OF IT BUT LIBERTARIANS WOULD LIKE TO DEAL WITH POVERTY ALL OVER THE COUNTRY SET UP THINGS LIKE THAT TO HELP THE COMMUNITY SOLVE THESE POVERTY ISSUES. AGAIN, WE HAVE SO MANY SOLUTIONS THAT COME FROM THE TOP DOWN SOLUTIONS THAT WE NEED TO STOP ENGAGING IN. THINGS LIKE THE DREAM ARE ONE THING THAT WE NEED TO DO TO GET THE COMMUNITY INVOLVED TO SOLVE THE POVERTY PROBLEM. D.C. CAN'T SOLVE THE PROBLEM. PEOPLE LOCALLY CAN. TEACHERS AND GIFTED TEACHERS AND INSTRUCTORS AND PEOPLE ON THE LOCAL LEVEL AND PARENTS CAN HELP EDUCATION PROBLEMS. I DON'T KNOW IF YOU MEANT TO BUT HE DID THAT SHE GAVE YOU A LIBERTARIAN SOLUTION FOR FIGHTING POVERTY IN THE DELTA. >> THE NEXT QUESTION GOES TO MR. CRAWFORD. MR. REEVES? >> GOING BACK TO AGRICULTURE, THERE IS MORE PRODUCTS OPEN TO THE ARKANSAS BASE GOODS.ONE OF THOSE IS IN CUBA. GIVE US A PLAN TO WIN ALL THE RESTRICTIONS AND THE EMBARGO WILL BE LIFTED. >> Rick Crawford: IT'S HARD TO TELL WHEN THERE WILL BE A WHOLESALE REPEAL INVOLVING CUBA. ONE OF THE BIGGEST IMPEDIMENTS FROM OUR PERSPECTIVE IN THIS DISTRICT IS HOME TO HALF OF THE US RICE PRODUCTION. IT'S IMPORTANT THAT WE HAVE GLOBAL MARKET ACCESS. CUBA IS NOT THE SILVER BULLET BUT IT'S CONSIDERABLE. IT'S SO CLOSE TO US THAT WE WOULD BENEFIT ALMOST IMMEDIATELY. THE ONLY IMPEDIMENT IS THAT WE COULD SELL RICE IN CUBA BUT WE HAVE TO SELL AND CASH. WE ARE SEEKING TO DO IS AN INCREMENTAL APPROACH THAT LEADS US TO A LONG-TERM SOLUTION ON HOW TO DEAL WITH CUBA. THE FIRST STEP IS TO LIFT THE RESTRICTION ON CASH ONLY AND ALLOW FOR THE US ENTITY TO ENGAGE IN A TRANSACTION WITH CUBA THROUGH CREDIT. THE EXTENSIONS WILL NOT BE FOR A TAXPAYER. WE ARE CLOSER NOW THAN WE HAVE BEEN IN THE PAST 50 YEARS. ACTUALLY SEEING THOSE COME TO FRUITION. I WORKED VERY HARD ON IMPLEMENTING THIS TRADE LEGISLATION. THE AUTHORIZATION TO LIFT THE STATUTE AND PREVENT THE ENTITY FROM ENGAGING IN THETRANSACTION . I THINK IT WOULD HAVE A HUGE IMPACT ON NOT ONLY HELPING PRODUCERS BUT ALSO FILLING A VOID IN CUBA. A VOID OF LEADERSHIP THAT IS BEING FILLED AS WE SPEAK WITH NATIONS LIKE RUSSIA, IRAN AND CHINA. IT'S IMPORTANT TO KNOW THAT WE NEED TO QUIT VIEWING CUBA THROUGH THE LENS OF THE COLD WAR AND WAKE UP TO THE REALITY THAT IT'S IN THE STRATEGIC INTEREST AND THE ECONOMIC INTEREST TO READJUST THE POSTURE WITH CUBA. >> TWO MINUTES, MR. WEST. >> Mark West: I AGREE WITH CONGRESSMANCRAWFORD ON HOW WE APPROACH CUBA. UNFORTUNATELY, HE WILL HAVE A FIGHT WITH HIS PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE, DONALD TRUMP . HE HAS SHOWN VERY CLEARLY HE WILL NOT HAVE THAT KIND OF TRADE WITH THAT KIND OF COUNTRY. CUBA IS THE MARKET WE NEED TO OPEN UP TO. THE FIRST DISTRICT IS BOOMING AND IT WOULD BE A GREAT INVESTMENT OF THE COMMUNITY TO BE ABLE TO TRADE THERE. THERE IS A PLAN IN PLACE AND THEY WILL SET UP FOR THE SMALL FARMERS TO HAVE ACCESS THROUGH BIGGER AGRICULTURAL COMPANIES. THIS TRADE IS SOMETHING THAT WE NEED TO OPEN UP.I BELIEVE THAT OPENING THE TRADE IN THE FIRST DISTRICT. >> THE NEXT QUESTION COMES FIRST FROM THEM I WISH WE HAD TIME FOR ONE MORE QUESTION. ACCORDING TO THE FLIP OF A COIN PRIOR TO THE BROADCAST TONIGHT, THE FIRST CLOSING STATEMENT COMES FROM MR. CRAWFORD. >> Rick Crawford: THANK YOU. AGAIN, THANK YOU FOR THE OPPORTUNITY GREAT QUESTIONS AND I ENJOYED THIS. I THINK YOU'VE SEEN QUITE A CONTRAST IN WHAT WE VIEW AS THE REPRESENTATIVE IN THE DISTRICT. CERTAINLY, IT'S REFLECTING THE WISHES OF THE DISTRICT. IT'S NOT JUST ABOUT VOTERS. IT'S ABOUT CITIZENS AND CONSTITUENTS OF THE DISTRICT. 750,000 RESIDENTS IN THE DISTRICT GIVE OR TAKE. IT'S IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT WE OWE THEM OUR BEST EFFORTS. KEEPING THEM SECURE AND WHEN I HEAR LIBERTARIANS TALK ABOUT HOW WE NEED TO RETREAT TO THE SHORES OF OUR HOME AND MAKE IT SECURITY FOR THEIR OWN DEFENSE I CAN DEFEND MY HOME. I BELIEVE IN THE SECOND AMENDMENT. I BELIEVE MR. WEST CANTU. NOT EVERYONE CAN. IT'S ENTIRELY CONSTITUTIONAL THAT WE MAINTAIN A STANDING ARMY AND PROVIDE FOR COMMON DEFENSE. THAT'S WITHOUT QUESTION.THE IDEA THAT IF WE DON'T ENGAGE OVERSEAS, PROBLEMS WILL NOT COME TO THE SHORES IS INTENSELY NAOVE. WE WILL HAVE THESE PROBLEMS BECAUSE THIS IS THE WORLD WE LIVE IN. I WISH WE HAD BETTER NEWS ON THIS BUT THE WORLD IS ON FIRE. WE ARE TRYING TO PUT SOME WATER ON IT AND MAKE THINGS BETTER. WE DON'T NEED TO COMPOUND THE PROBLEM BY PRETENDING THEY DON'T EXIST. THE FIRST STEP IS RECOGNIZING THAT IT DOES EXIST. IT'S A THREAT TO US AND IT'S A VERY REAL THREAT AND THEY WON'T GO AWAY JUST BY ARTICULATING THE CLEAR PLAN ON HOW TO DO THAT. TO AFFECT THE SECURITY HERE AT HOME AND ALLOW CITIZENS TO BE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR THEIR OWN DEFENSE. I THINK THAT'S ENTIRELY IRRESPONSIBLE AND IT'S ONE OF THE SHARPEST CONTRAST BETWEEN MY CHALLENGER AND MYSELF. >> MR. CRAWFORD, THANK YOU. >> I WOULD LIKE YOU TO TAKE A MOMENT AND IMAGINE. WHEN YOU GET UP IN THE MORNING WHAT IS THE FIRST THING THAT COMES TO YOUR MIND? WHEN YOU ROLL OUT OF BED DO YOU WONDER IF YOU PAID ENOUGH OF YOUR TAXES? WHEN YOU BRUSH HER TEETH ARE YOU TRYING TO INVENT SOME NEW AND INNOVATIVE WAY FOR THE SYSTEM TO GET INVOLVED IN YOUR LIFE? IF YOU ARE LIKE ME, I AM SURE THEY ARE NOT WHAT YOU ARE THINKING ABOUT. YOU ARE HOPING THAT WHEN YOU GO TO WORK YOUR JOB WILL STILL BE THERE. YOU ARE PRAYING THAT WHAT YOU PUT TOGETHER THIS WEEK TO PAY BILLS WILL ACTUALLY MEET THE NEED. YOU ARE TRYING DESPERATELY TO KEEP A ROOF OVER YOUR HEAD AND CLOSE ON YOUR BACK AND FOOD ON THE TABLE. IF YOU ARE LIKE ME, YOU WORK 40 60 HOURS PER WEEK. I WORK TWO JOBS. JUST TRYING TO MAKE ENDS MEET. WE ARE REGULAR PEOPLE TRYING TO MAKE ENDS MEET. I WANT TO TELL YOU SOMETHING. YOU NEED A GOVERNMENT THAT STAYS OUT OF YOUR WAYS YOU CAN BE SUCCESSFUL. YOU NEED A GOVERNMENT THAT IS SMALLER AND LESS EXPENSIVE AND YOU NEED A CONGRESSMAN THAT WILL FIGHT FOR ALL OF YOUR RIGHTS NOT JUST SOME OF THEM. WHAT WE CAN DO IS DO IT TOGETHER. I BELIEVE IN YOU. YOU JUST HEARD THE CONGRESSMAN SAY HE DOESN'T BELIEVE IN YOU. HE BELIEVES YOU NEED HIM IN YOUR LIFE. I DON'T BELIEVE YOU NEED ME AND I DON'T BELIEVE YOU NEED CONGRESSMAN CRAWFORD. I BELIEVE YOUR WELL CAPABLE AND I PLEDGE TO YOU, IF YOU SEND ME TO CONGRESS I WILL FIGHT TO KEEP THE GOVERNMENT OUT OF YOUR LIFE SO YOU HAVE THE FREEDOM TO TURN THIS COUNTRY AROUND. TWO THIRDS OF US BELIEVE THE COUNTRY IS HEADED THE WRONG WAY. I BELIEVE YOU ARE THE ONE WHO COULD TURN AROUND. IT'S I HOPE YOU SEE THE CLEAR DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CONGRESSMAN CRAWFORD AND I. I HOPE YOU WILL CONSIDER MAKING THE DECISION TO VOTE FOR ME WHEN YOU GO TO THE POLLS IN NOVEMBER. MARK WEST FOR CONGRESS.COM. DONATE, VOLUNTEER. LET'S GET ON BOARD AND LET'S DO THIS TOGETHER. I BELIEVE IN YOU AND I BELIEVE WE CAN DO THIS. >> Steve: MR. WEST, WE THANK YOU. WE THANK YOU AND MR. CRAWFORD FOR YOUR TIME AND PRECIPITATION IN TODAY'S DEBATE. AS ALWAYS, APPRECIATION TO YOU FOR WATCHING. DEBATE WEEK CONTINUES TOMORROW NIGHT HERE ON AETN. GOOD NIGHT.♪

Contents

1st through 10th congresses

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
New Hampshire at-large 1st June 22, 1789[c] Benjamin West[d] (Pro-Admin) Abiel Foster (Pro-Admin) Declined to serve.
Virginia 9 1st July 1790[c] Theodorick Bland (Anti-Admin) William B. Giles (Anti-Admin) Died.
Connecticut at-large 1st December 16, 1790[c] Pierpont Edwards[e] (Pro-Admin) Jeremiah Wadsworth (Pro-Admin) Resigned.
New York 1 2nd April 26–28, 1791[c] James Townsend[e] (Pro-Admin) Thomas Tredwell (Anti-Admin) Died.
Connecticut at-large 2nd September 19, 1791[c] Roger Sherman (Pro-Admin) Amasa Learned (Pro-Admin) Representative-elect resigned to become the United States Senator from Connecticut.
Maryland 3 2nd October 26–29, 1791[c] William Pinkney (Pro-Admin) John Francis Mercer (Anti-Admin) Resigned.
Georgia 1 2nd July 9, 1792[c] Anthony Wayne (Anti-Admin) John Milledge (Anti-Admin) Removed during a debate over his residency qualifications.
Maryland 2 2nd January 7–10, 1793[c] Joshua Seney (Anti-Admin) William Hindman (Pro-Admin) Resigned to take up his new duties as a judge of the state court for the district of Baltimore.
Connecticut at-large 3rd April 8, 1793[c][f] Jonathan Sturges[e] (Pro-Admin) Uriah Tracy (Pro-Admin) Resigned to become Associate Justice of the Connecticut Supreme Court.
Connecticut at-large 3rd September 16, 1793[c] Benjamin Huntington (Pro-Admin) Jonathan Ingersoll (Pro-Admin) Representative-elect resigned.
Connecticut at-large 3rd November 11, 1793[c] Stephen M. Mitchell (Pro-Admin)
Jonathan Ingersoll (Pro-Admin)
Joshua Coit (Pro-Admin)
Zephaniah Swift (Pro-Admin)
Representative-elect resigned to become the United States Senator from Connecticut and Ingersoll declined to take his seat.
Maryland 2 3rd May 5, 1794[c] John Francis Mercer (Anti-Admin) Gabriel Duvall (Anti-Admin) Resigned.
South Carolina 5 3rd October 13–14, 1794 Alexander Gillon (Anti-Admin) Robert Goodloe Harper (P) Died October 6, 1794.
Maryland 3 3rd December 8, 1794 Uriah Forrest (P) Benjamin Edwards (P) Resigned.
New Jersey at-large 3rd January 11, 1795 Abraham Clark (Pro-Admin) Aaron Kitchell (Pro-Admin) Died September 15, 1794.
South Carolina 2 4th January 19–20, 1795[c] John Barnwell[e] (F) Wade Hampton (DR) Declined to serve.
Connecticut at-large 4th April 13, 1795[c] Jonathan Trumbull[e] (F) Nathaniel Smith (F) Elected U.S. Senator.
North Carolina 4 4th August 13–14, 1795[c] Alexander Mebane (DR) Absalom Tatom (DR) Representative-elect died July 5, 1795.
Maryland 2 4th April 18, 1796[c] Gabriel Duvall (DR) Richard Sprigg (DR) Resigned March 28, 1796, after election to the Maryland Supreme Court.
Massachusetts 10 4th September 12, 1796[c] Benjamin Goodhue (F) Samuel Sewall (F) Resigned to retire from public life.
Connecticut at-large 4th September 19, 1796[c] James Hillhouse (F) James Davenport (F) Elected U.S. Senator May 12, 1796; resigned in the fall of 1796
Maryland 3 4th October 3, 1796[c] Jeremiah Crabb (F) William Craik (F) Resigned in 1796 after June 1.
Pennsylvania 5 4th October 11, 1796[c] Daniel Hiester (DR) George Ege (F) Resigned and moved to Hagerstown, Maryland.
Rhode Island at-large 4th November 15, 1796[c] Benjamin Bourne (F) Elisha R. Potter (F) Resigned in October 1796.
Massachusetts 1 4th November 21, 1796[c] Theodore Sedgwick (F) Thomson J. Skinner (DR) Resigned in early June 1796 after election as U.S. Senator.
North Carolina 4 4th November 23, 1796[c] Absalom Tatom (DR) William Strudwick (F) Resigned June 1, 1796 (the last day of the 1st Session of the 4th Congress).
Connecticut at-large 4th December 5, 1796[c] Uriah Tracy (F) Samuel W. Dana (F) Resigned October 13, 1796, after election as U.S. Senator.
Rhode Island at-large 5th November 15, 1796[c] Benjamin Bourne (F) Elisha R. Potter (F) Resigned in October 1796.
Connecticut at-large 5th April 10, 1797[c] Uriah Tracy[e] (F)
Zephaniah Swift (F)
John Allen (F)
James Davenport (F)
Representative-elect resigned October 13, 1796, after election as U.S. Senator
Swift declined reelection, retiring from Congress March 3, 1797.
Vermont 2 5th May 23, 1797[c] Daniel Buck (F) Lewis R. Morris (F) Representative-elect declined to serve.
Massachusetts 11 5th August 4, 1797[c] Theophilus Bradbury (F) Bailey Bartlett (F) Resigned July 24, 1797 to become Judge of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court.
New Hampshire at-large 5th August 28, 1797 Jeremiah Smith (F) Peleg Sprague (F) Smith was named United States Attorney for the District of New Hampshire.
Rhode Island at-large 5th August 29, 1797[c] Elisha R. Potter (F) Thomas Tillinghast (F) Resigned in July 1797.
South Carolina 1 5th September 4–5, 1797[c] William L. Smith (F) Thomas Pinckney (F) Resigned July 10, 1797 to become Minister to Portugal & Spain.
Connecticut at-large 5th September 18, 1797[c] James Davenport (F) William Edmond (F) Died August 3, 1797.[3]
Pennsylvania 5 5th October 10, 1797[c] George Ege (F) Joseph Hiester (DR) Resigned in October 1797.
New Hampshire at-large 5th October 30, 1797[c] Jeremiah Smith (F) Peleg Sprague (F) Resigned June 26, 1797
North Carolina 10 5th August 2, 1798[c] Nathan Bryan (DR) Richard D. Spaight (DR) Died June 4, 1798.
Pennsylvania 1 5th October 9, 1798[c] John Swanwick (DR) Robert Waln (F) Died August 1, 1798.
Pennsylvania 4 5th October 9, 1798[c] Samuel Sitgreaves (F) Robert Brown (DR) Resigned in 1798.
Connecticut at-large 5th October 22, 1798[c] Joshua Coit (F) Jonathan Brace (F) Died September 5, 1798.
Virginia 9 5th November 1, 1798[c] William B. Giles (DR) Joseph Eggleston (DR) Resigned October 2, 1798, on the grounds of ill health, and in disgust at the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Maryland 7 6th November 29, 1798[c] Joshua Seney[e] (DR) Joseph H. Nicholson (DR) Died October 20, 1798.
Connecticut at-large 6th September 16, 1799[c] John Allen (F) Elizur Goodrich (F) Representative-elect declined to serve.
New Hampshire at-large 6th November 18, 1799[c] Peleg Sprague (F) James Sheafe (F) Representative-elect declined to serve.
New York 1 6th December 27–29, 1799[c] Jonathan N. Havens (DR) John Smith (DR) Representative-elect died October 25, 1799.
Virginia 13 6th June 7, 1800 John Marshall (F) Littleton W. Tazewell (DR) Resigned to become United States Secretary of State.
New Hampshire at-large 6th August 25, 1800 William Gordon (F) Samuel Tenney (F) Resigned to accept appointment as New Hampshire Attorney General.
Connecticut at-large 6th September 15, 1800[c] Jonathan Brace (F) John C. Smith (F) Resigned in May 1800.
Massachusetts 10 6th October 20, 1800[c] Samuel Sewall (F) Nathan Read (F) Resigned January 10, 1800 to serve as a judge of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court.
New Hampshire at-large 6th October 27, 1800[c] William Gordon (F) Samuel Tenney (F) Resigned to become New Hampshire Attorney General.
Massachusetts 3 6th December 15, 1800[c] Samuel Lyman (F) Ebenezer Mattoon (F) Resigned November 6, 1800.
Massachusetts 4 6th December 15, 1800[c][f] Dwight Foster (F) Levi Lincoln (DR) Resigned to serve as U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 8 6th January 15, 1801[c][f] Thomas Hartley (F) John Stewart (DR) Died December 21, 1800.
Georgia at-large 7th March 23, 1801[c] James Jones[e] (DR) John Milledge (DR) Died January 11, 1801.
Connecticut at-large 7th April 9, 1801[c] Elizur Goodrich[e] (F) Calvin Goddard (F) Resigned after appointment as collector of customs for the Port of New Haven.
Massachusetts 14 7th June 22, 1801[c] George Thatcher[d] (F) Richard Cutts (DR) Declined to seek re-election after accepting a judicial appointment.
North Carolina 8 7th August 6–7, 1801[c] David Stone[e] (DR) Charles Johnson (DR) Resigned to return to the North Carolina Superior Court.
Massachusetts 4 7th June 22, 1801[c] Levi Lincoln (DR) Seth Hastings (F) Representative-elect appointed U.S. Attorney General
Massachusetts 14 7th June 22, 1801 George Thatcher (F) Richard Cutts (DR) Thatcher declined to serve in the 7th Congress.
Connecticut at-large 7th September 21, 1801[c] William Edmond[d] (F) Benjamin Tallmadge (F) Declined to seek renomination.
Massachusetts 12 7th September 25, 1801 Silas Lee (F) Vacant Resigned after appointment as U.S. Attorney for the District of Maine.
North Carolina 8 7th August 6, 1801 David Stone (F) Charles Johnson (DR) Resigned before the start of the 7th Congress upon election to the Senate.
New York 5 7th October 6–8, 1801[c] Thomas Tillotson[d] (DR) Theodorus Bailey (DR) Resigned after appointment as Secretary of State of New York.
New York 6 7th October 6–8, 1801[c] John Bird[d] (F) John P. Van Ness (DR) Resigned July 25, 1801.
Pennsylvania 4 7th October 13, 1801[c] Peter Muhlenberg (DR) Isaac Van Horne (DR) Representative-elect resigned March 4, 1801, after election as U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 12 7th October 13, 1801[c] Albert Gallatin (DR) William Hoge (DR) Representative-elect resigned in May 1801 to become U.S. Treasury Secretary.
Tennessee at-large 7th October 29–30, 1801[c] William C. C. Claiborne[d] (DR) William Dickson (DR) Resigned to become Governor of Mississippi Territory.
Maryland 2 7th March 2, 1802[c] Richard Sprigg (DR) Walter Bowie (DR) Resigned April 11, 1802.
Georgia at-large 7th April 5, 1802[c] Benjamin Taliaferro (DR) David Meriwether (DR) Resigned.
South Carolina 4 7th April 12–13, 1802[c] Thomas Sumter (DR) Richard Winn (DR) Resigned after being elected U.S. Senator.
Massachusetts 12 7th July 29, 1802[c] None Samuel Thatcher (F) Failure to elect after four ballots when no candidate won 50% of votes required.
New Hampshire at-large 7th August 30, 1802[c] Joseph Peirce (F) Samuel Hunt (F) Resigned.
North Carolina 8 7th October 15, 1802[c] Charles Johnson (DR) Thomas Wynns (DR) Died July 23, 1802.
New York 7 8th April 26–28, 1803[c] John Cantine[e] (F) Josiah Hasbrouck (DR) Representative-elect declined to serve.
Connecticut at-large 8th September 5, 1803[c] Elias Perkins[d] (F) Simeon Baldwin (F) Re-elected, but declined to serve.
New York 6 8th September 14–16, 1803[c] Isaac Bloom[d] (DR) Daniel C. Verplanck (DR) Died.
Georgia at-large 8th October 3, 1803[c] John Milledge[e] (DR) Joseph Bryan (DR) Milledge was elected Governor of Georgia
New York 1 8th April 24–26, 1804[c] John Smith (DR) Samuel Riker (DR) Resigned.
New York 2 9th September 11–13, 1804[c] Daniel D. Tompkins[e] (DR) Gurdon S. Mumford (DR) Representative-elect resigned.
Massachusetts 12 8th September 17, 1804[c] Thomson J. Skinner (DR) Simon Larned (DR) Resigned.
Pennsylvania 10 8th November 2, 1804[c][f] William Hoge (DR) John Hoge (DR) Resigned October 15, 1804.
Virginia 13 8th October 1804[c] John Johns Trigg (DR) Christopher H. Clark (DR) Died.
Maryland 4 8th October 1, 1804[c] Daniel Hiester (DR) Roger Nelson (DR) Died.
Virginia 5 8th November 13, 1804[c] Andrew Moore (DR) Alexander Wilson (DR) Resigned to serve as U.S. Senator.
New York 3 8th January 2–4, 1805[c] Samuel L. Mitchill (DR) George Clinton (DR) Resigned after being elected U.S. Senator.
South Carolina 8 9th September 26–27, 1805[c] John B. Earle[d] (DR) Elias Earle (DR) Retired before the start of the 9th Congress.
North Carolina 5 9th August 8, 1805[c] James Gillespie[e] (DR) Thomas Kenan (DR) Died.
Connecticut at-large 9th September 16, 1805[c][f] Calvin Goddard[d] (F)
Roger Griswold[d] (F)
Timothy Pitkin (F)
Lewis B. Sturges (F)
Resigned before the start of the 9th Congress.
Delaware at-large 9th October 1, 1805[c] James A. Bayard (F) James M. Broom (F) Representative-elect resigned after election as U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 4 9th October 8, 1805[c] John A. Hanna (DR) Robert Whitehill (DR) Representative-elect died July 23, 1805.
Pennsylvania 11 9th October 8, 1805[c] John B. Lucas (DR) Samuel Smith (DR) Representative-elect resigned.
North Carolina 10 9th January 23–24, 1806[c] Nathaniel Alexander[d] (DR) Evan S. Alexander (DR) Resigned to serve as Governor of North Carolina.
Georgia at-large 9th September 1, 1806[c][f] Joseph Bryan (DR) Dennis Smelt (DR) Resigned.
Connecticut at-large 9th September 15, 1806[c] John C. Smith (F) Theodore Dwight (F) Resigned.
Maryland 7 9th September 27/October 4, 1806[c] Joseph H. Nicholson (DR) Edward Lloyd (DR) Resigned.
Virginia 13 9th November 1806[c] Christopher H. Clark (DR) William A. Burwell (DR) Resigned.
Pennsylvania 1 9th November 27, 1806[c] Michael Leib (DR) John Porter (DR) Resigned and returned to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives.
Georgia at-large 9th December 1, 1806[c] Thomas Spalding (DR) William W. Bibb (DR) Resigned.
South Carolina 6 10th June 1–2, 1807[c] Levi Casey[e] (DR) Joseph C. Calhoun (DR) Died.
Massachusetts 12 10th July 13, 1807[c] Barnabas Bidwell[d] (DR) Ezekiel Bacon (DR) Resigned to become Massachusetts Attorney General.
Delaware at-large 10th October 6, 1807[c] James M. Broom (F) Nicholas Van Dyke (F) Representative-elect resigned.
North Carolina 7 10th February 1, 1808[c] John Culpepper (F) John Culpepper (F) Seat declared vacant from January to February 1808.
New Jersey at-large 10th March 8–9, 1808[c] Ezra Darby (DR) Adam Boyd (DR) Died.
New York 12 10th April 26–28, 1808[c] David Thomas (DR) Nathan Wilson (DR) Resigned to become New York State Treasurer.
Massachusetts 2 10th May 4, 1808[c] Jacob Crowninshield (DR) Joseph Story (DR) Died.
Rhode Island at-large 10th August 30, 1808[c] Nehemiah Knight (DR) Richard Jackson Jr. (F) Died.
Vermont 1 10th September 6, 1808[c][f] James Witherell (DR) Samuel Shaw (DR) Resigned to become a judge in the Michigan Territory.
Virginia 17 10th September 8, 12, 26, 1808[c] John Claiborne (DR) Thomas Gholson Jr. (DR) Died.
Pennsylvania 1 10th October 11, 1808[c] Joseph Clay (DR) Benjamin Say (DR) Resigned after March 28, 1808.

11th through 20th congresses

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
Pennsylvania 1 11th October 10, 1809[c][f] Benjamin Say (DR) Adam Seybert (DR) Resigned in June 1809.
Virginia 21 11th December 1809[c] Wilson C. Nicholas (DR) David S. Garland (DR) Resigned.
New York 2 11th April 24–26, 1810[c] William Denning[d] (DR) Samuel L. Mitchill (DR) Resigned.
Kentucky 5 11th August 6, 1810[c] Benjamin Howa (DR) William T. Barry (DR) Resigned, later became Governor of Louisiana Territory.
Connecticut at-large 11th September 17, 1810[c] Samuel W. Dana (F) Ebenezer Huntington (F) Resigned after election as U.S. Senator.
Maryland 4 11th October 1, 1810[c] Roger Nelson (DR) Samuel Ringgold (DR) Resigned.
New Jersey at-large 11th October 30–31, 1810[c] James Cox (DR) John A. Scudder (DR) Died.
Massachusetts 10 11th October 8, 1810[c][f] Jabez Upham (F) Joseph Allen (F) Resigned.
Massachusetts 11 11th October 8, 1810[c][f] William Stedman (F) Abijah Bigelow (F) Resigned.
Virginia 1 11th November 1810[c] John G. Jackson (DR) William McKinley (DR) Resigned after being wounded in a duel.
Maryland 7 11th November 15, 1810[c] John Brown (DR) Robert Wright (DR) Resigned before the close of the 11th Congress to accept a position as clerk of the county court of Queen Anne's County.
South Carolina 1 11th December 31, 1810[c][f] Robert Marion (DR) Langdon Cheves (DR) Resigned.
Maryland 7 12th November 15, 1810[c][g] John Brown[e] (DR) Robert Wright (DR) (Same reason in the entry of Maryland's 7th district for the 11th Congress.)
Maryland 6 12th October 2, 1811[c] John Montgomery[d] (DR) Stevenson Archer (DR) Resigned to become Attorney General of Maryland.
Massachusetts 4 12th November 4, 1811[c][f] Joseph B. Varnum[d] (DR) William M. Richardson (DR) Resigned after election as U.S. Senator.
Massachusetts 17 12th April 6, 1812[c][f] Barzillai Gannett[d] (DR) Francis Carr (DR) Resigned.
Georgia at-large 12th October 5, 1812[c][f] Howell Cobb (DR) William Barnett (DR) Resigned before October 1812 to accept a captain's commission in the U.S. Army.
New York 6 12th December 15–17, 1812[c] Robert L. Livingston (F) Thomas P. Grosvenor (F) Resigned to accept commission as a lieutenant colonel.
North Carolina 3 12th January 11, 1813[c] Thomas Blount (DR) William Kennedy (DR) Died February 7, 1812.
Pennsylvania 13 13th February 16, 1813[c] John Smilie[e] (DR) Isaac Griffin (DR) Died December 30, 1812.
Ohio 6 13th April 20, 1813[c] John S. Edwards[e] (F) Reasin Beall (DR) Representative-elect died.
New York 15 13th April 27–29, 1813[c] William Dowse[e] (F) John M. Bowers[h] (F) Representative-elect died.
Kentucky 8 13th April 29, 1813[c] John Simpson[e] (DR) Stephen Ormsby (DR) Died January 22, 1813.
Pennsylvania 15 13th May 4, 1813[c][f] Abner Lacock[e] (DR) Thomas Wilson (DR) Resigned March 3, 1813, due to election as U.S. Senator.
Ohio 3 13th May 10, 1813[c] Duncan McArthur[d] (DR) William Creighton (DR) Representative-elect resigned to stay in the state militia.
Pennsylvania 5 13th May 11, 1813[c][f] Robert Whitehill (DR) John Rea (DR) Representative-elect died April 8, 1813.
Pennsylvania 3 13th October 12, 1813[c][f] John Gloninger (F) Edward Crouch (DR) Resigned August 2, 1813.
Pennsylvania 7 13th October 12, 1813[c][f] John M. Hyneman (DR) Daniel Udree (DR) Resigned August 2, 1813.
Georgia at-large 13th December 13, 1813[c][f] William W. Bibb (DR) Alfred Cuthbert (DR) Resigned after election as U.S. Senator.
New York 2 13th December 28–30, 1813[c] Egbert Benson (F) William Irving (DR) Resigned
Kentucky 2 13th February 28, 1814[c] Henry Clay (DR) Joseph H. Hawkins (DR) Resigned and traveled to Europe for the War of 1812 negotiations.
Massachusetts 4 13th May 23, 1814[c] William M. Richardson (DR) Samuel Dana (DR) Resigned.
Virginia 11 13th June 1814[c] John Dawson (DR) Philip P. Barbour (DR) Died.
Massachusetts 12 13th August 4, 1814[c] Daniel Dewey (F) John W. Hulbert (F) Resigned to become associate judge of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court.
New Hampshire at-large 13th August 29, 1814[c] Samuel Smith (F) Vacant[i] Failure to elect (see note).
Tennessee 5 13th September 15–16, 1814[c] Felix Grundy (DR) Newton Cannon (DR) Resigned.
New Jersey 3 13th October 10–11, 1814[c] Jacob Hufty [j] (F) Thomas Bines (DR) Died May 20, 1814.
Ohio 6 13th October 11, 1814[c][f] Reasin Beall (DR) David Clendenin (DR) Resigned June 7, 1814.
Pennsylvania 2 13th October 11, 1814[c][f] Jonathan Roberts (DR) Samuel Henderson (F) Resigned February 24, 1814, after election as U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 3 13th October 12, 1814[c][f] James Whitehill (DR) Amos Slaymaker (F) Resigned September 1, 1814, to engage in mercantile pursuits.
New York 6 14th April 1815 Jonathan Fisk (DR) James W. Wilkin (DR) Resigned to become U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York.
New York 12 14th April 1815 Benjamin Pond (DR) Asa Adgate (DR) Died October 14, 1814.
Virginia 15 14th October 1815 Matthew Clay (DR) John Kerr (DR) Died May 27, 1815.
Pennsylvania 1 14th October 10, 1815 Jonathan Williams (DR) John Sergeant (F) Died May 16, 1815.
Pennsylvania 3 14th October 10, 1815 Amos Ellmaker (DR) James M. Wallace (DR) Resigned July 3, 1815, before qualifying, to become President Judge of the 12th Judicial District.
Pennsylvania 9 14th October 10, 1815 David Bard (DR) Thomas Burnside (DR) Died March 12, 1815.
Tennessee 2 14th December 7–8, 1815 John Sevier (DR) William G. Blount (DR) Died September 24, 1815.
North Carolina 6 14th January 22, 1816 Nathaniel Macon (DR) Weldon N. Edwards (DR) Resigned after being elected to the Senate.
Maryland 5 14th January 27, 1816 Nicholas R. Moore (DR) Samuel Smith (DR) Resigned in 1815 before the start of the 15th Congress.
New York 20 14th September 1816 Enos T. Throop (DR) Daniel Avery (DR) Resigned after losing re-election campaign.
Maryland 5 14th September 3, 1816 William Pinkney (DR) Peter Little (DR) Pinkney was named Minister to Russia
Pennsylvania 9 14th October 8, 1816 Thomas Burnside (DR) William P. Maclay (DR) Resigned in April 1816 to become a judge.
Virginia 18 14th October 10–28, 1816 Thomas Gholson Jr. (DR) Thomas M. Nelson (DR) Died July 4, 1816.
Kentucky 1 14th December 2, 1816 James Clark (DR) Thomas Fletcher (DR) Resigned to become circuit court judge.
Maryland 3 14th December 2, 1816 Alexander C. Hanson (F) George Peter (F) Resigned after being elected to the Senate.
Massachusetts 11 14th December 2, 1816 Elijah Brigham (F) Benjamin Adams (F) Died.
North Carolina 8 14th December 2, 1816 Richard Stanford (DR) Samuel Dickens (DR) Died April 16, 1816.
Ohio 1 14th October 8, 1816 John McLean (DR) William Henry Harrison (DR) Resigned in April 1816 to become Judge of the Supreme Court of Ohio.
Georgia at-large 14th December 1816 Alfred Cuthbert (DR) Zadock Cook (DR) Resigned.
Pennsylvania 10 15th October 14, 1817 David Scott (DR) John Murray (DR) Resigned to become a judge.
Connecticut at-large 15th December 1, 1817 Sylvanus Blackus (F)
Charles Dennison (F)
Ebenezer Huntington (F)
Nathaniel Terry (F)
Died February 15, 1817.
New York 4 15th December 1, 1817 Henry B. Lee (DR) James Tallmadge Jr. (DR) Representative-elect died February 18, 1817
North Carolina 7 15th January 1, 1818 Alexander McMillan (F) James Stewart (F) Representative-elect McMillan died some time before Congress assembled.
South Carolina 6 15th February 9, 1818 John C. Calhoun (DR) Eldred Simkins (DR) Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of War.
Pennsylvania 6 15th March 3, 1818 John Ross (DR) Thomas J. Rogers (DR) Resigned February 24, 1818, to become President Judge of the 7th Judicial District of Pennsylvania.
Pennsylvania 6 15th October 13, 1818 Samuel D. Ingham (DR) Samuel Moore (DR) Resigned July 6, 1818.
Massachusetts 20 15th November 4, 1818 Albion Parris (DR) Enoch Lincoln (DR) Resigned to become a judge of the United States District Court for the District of Maine.
North Carolina 11 15th November 7, 1818 Daniel M. Forney (DR) William Davidson (F) Resigned.
Connecticut at-large 15th November 16, 1818 Uriel Holmes (F) Sylvester Gilbert (DR) Resigned.
Pennsylvania 4 15th November 16, 1818 Jacob Spangler (DR) Jacob Hostetter (DR) Resigned April 20, 1818, to become Surveyor General of Pennsylvania.
Louisiana at-large 15th November 16, 1818 Thomas B. Robertson (DR) Thomas Butler (DR) Resigned.
Virginia 19 15th November 16, 1818 Peterson Goodwyn (DR) John Pegram (DR) Died February 21, 1818.
Georgia at-large 15th January 4, 1819 John Forsyth (DR) Robert R. Reid (DR) Resigned upon being elected to the Senate.
Georgia at-large 16th January 4, 1819 John Forsyth (DR) Robert R. Reid (DR) Resigned upon being elected to the Senate.
New Jersey at-large 16th February 1–2, 1820 John Condit (DR) Charles Kinsey (DR) Resigned November 4, 1819 to become Assistant Collector of the Port of New York.
Massachusetts 13 16th August 21, 1820 Edward Dowse (DR) William Eustis (DR) Resigned.
Pennsylvania 5 16th October 10, 1820 David Fullerton (DR) Thomas G. McCullough (F) Resigned May 15, 1820.
Maine 1 16th November 7, 1820 John Holmes (DR) Joseph Dane (F) Holmes was elected as one of the first two Senators from Maine.
Virginia 1 16th November 13, 1820 James Pindall (F) Edward B. Jackson (DR) Resigned.
Virginia 10 16th November 13, 1820 George F. Strother (DR) Thomas L. Moore (DR) Resigned.
Virginia 20 16th November 13, 1820 James Johnson (DR) John C. Gray (DR) Resigned to become collector of customs in Norfolk.
Pennsylvania 7 16th December 26, 1820 Joseph Hiester (DR) Daniel Udree (DR) Resigned in December 1820 after elected Governor of Pennsylvania.
North Carolina 4 16th February 7, 1821 Jesse Slocumb (DR) William S. Blackledge (DR) Died December 20, 1820.
New Jersey at-large 17th October 8–9, 1821 John Linn (DR) Lewis Condict (DR) Died January 5, 1821.
Ohio 4 17th October 9, 1821 John C. Wright (DR) David Chambers (DR) Resigned March 3, 1821.
Pennsylvania 5 17th October 9, 1821 James Duncan (DR) John Findlay (DR) Resigned in April 1821.
Pennsylvania 10 17th October 9, 1821 William Cox Ellis (F) Thomas Murray Jr. (DR) Resigned July 20, 1821.
New York 6 17th November 6–8, 1821 Selah Tuthill (DR) Charles Borland Jr. (DR) Died September 7, 1821.
South Carolina 9 17th December 3, 1821 John S. Richards (DR) James Blair (DR) Representative-elect Richards declined to serve.
Kentucky 8 17th January 2, 1822 Wingfield Bullock (DR) James D. Breckinridge (DR) Died October 13, 1821.
New York 9 17th February 25–27, 1822 Solomon Van Rensselaer (DR) Stephen Van Rensselaer (F) Resigned.
Delaware at-large 17th October 1, 1822 Caesar A. Rodney (DR) Daniel Rodney (F) Resigned January 24, 1822, after election as U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 1 17th October 1, 1822 William Milnor (F) Thomas Forrest (F) Resigned May 8, 1822.
Pennsylvania 6 17th October 1, 1822 Samuel Moore (DR) Samuel D. Ingham (DR) Resigned May 20, 1822.
Pennsylvania 14 17th October 1, 1822 Henry Baldwin (DR) Walter Forward (DR) Died May 8, 1822.
Indiana at-large 17th December 2, 1822 William Hendricks (DR) Jonathan Jennings (DR) Resigned to run for Governor of Indiana.
Maine 2 17th December 2, 1822 Ezekiel Whitman (F) Mark Harris (DR) Resigned June 1, 1822.
Pennsylvania 7 17th December 10, 1822 Ludwig Worman (F) Daniel Udree (F) Died October 17, 1822.
South Carolina 9 17th December 11, 1822 James Blair (DR) John Carter (DR) Resigned.
South Carolina 2 17th January 6, 1823 William Lowndes (DR) James Hamilton Jr. (DR) Resigned May 8, 1822, due to ill health.
Maryland 5 17th January 8, 1823 Samuel Smith (DR) Isaac McKim (DR) Resigned December 22, 1822, after being elected to the Senate.
Maryland 5 18th January 8, 1823 Samuel Smith (DR) Isaac McKim (Jackson Republican) Resigned December 22, 1822, after being elected to the Senate.
New York 28 18th December 1, 1823 William B. Rochester (Adams Republican) William Woods (Adams Republican) Resigned to become Judge of New York's Eighth Circuit Court.
Virginia 13 18th April 8, 1824[k] William Lee Ball (Crawford Republican) John Taliaferro (Crawford Republican) Died February 29, 1824.
Pennsylvania 8 18th October 12, 1824 Thomas J. Rogers (Jackson Republican) George Wolf (Jackson Republican) Resigned April 20, 1824.
Pennsylvania 13 18th October 12, 1824 John Tod (Jackson Republican) Alexander Thomson (Jackson Republican) Resigned due to becoming the Presiding Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Dauphin County.
Massachusetts 10 18th December 13, 1824 None[l] John Bailey (DR) (See note.)
Vermont at-large 18th December 13, 1824[f] Charles Rich (DR) Henry Olin (DR) Died October 15, 1824.
Indiana 1 18th December 23, 1824[f] William Prince (DR) Jacob Call (Jackson Republican) Died September 8, 1824.
North Carolina 2 18th January 6, 1825 Hutchins Gordon Burton (Crawford Republican) George Outlaw (Crawford Republican) Resigned after being elected Governor of North Carolina.
Georgia at-large 18th February 7, 1825 Thomas W. Cobb (Crawford Republican) Richard Henry Wilde (Crawford Republican) Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 16 19th October 11, 1825 James Allison Jr. (J) Robert Orr Jr. (J) Resigned.
Pennsylvania 18 19th March 14, 1826 Patrick Farrelly (J) Thomas H. Sill (Anti-J) Died January 12, 1826.
Maine 5 19th September 11, 1826 Enoch Lincoln (DR) James W. Ripley (J) Resigned.
Ohio 10 19th October 10, 1826 David Jennings (Anti-J) Thomas Shannon (Anti-J) Resigned May 25, 1826.
Pennsylvania 2 19th October 10, 1826 Joseph Hemphill (J) Thomas Kittera (Anti-J) Resigned May 1, 1826.
Pennsylvania 7 19th October 10, 1826 Henry Wilson (J) Jacob Krebs (J) Died August 14, 1826.
Pennsylvania 13 19th October 10, 1826 Alexander Thomson (J) Chauncey Forward (J) Resigned May 1, 1826.
Maine 1 20th September 10, 1827 William Burleigh (Anti-J) Rufus McIntire (J) Died July 2, 1827.
Georgia 1 20th October 1, 1827 Edward Fenwick Tattnall[m] (J) George Rockingham Gilmer (J) (See note.)
Delaware at-large 20th October 2, 1827 Louis McLane (F) Kensey Johns Jr. (F) Resigned after election as U.S. Senator.
Ohio 8 20th October 9, 1827 William Wilson (Anti-J) William Stanbery (J) Died June 6, 1827.
Pennsylvania 2 20th October 9, 1827 None[n] John Sergeant (Anti-J) The vote in the previous general election was tied.
Georgia 2 20th November 17, 1827 John Forsyth (J) Richard Henry Wilde (J) Resigned to serve as Governor of Georgia.
New Jersey at-large 20th November 3–4, 1828 George Holcombe (J) James F. Randolph (Anti-J) Died January 4, 1828.
New Jersey at-large 20th November 3–4, 1828 Hedge Thompson (Anti-J) Thomas Sinnickson (Anti-J) Died July 23, 1828.
Ohio 6 20th December 2, 1828 William Creighton (Anti-J) Francis Swaine Muhlenberg (Anti-J) Resigned.

21st through 30th congresses

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
Maine 4 21st July 20, 1829 Peleg Sprague (Anti-J) George Evans (Anti-J) Resigned after election to U.S. Senate
Pennsylvania 8 21st October 13, 1829 Samuel D. Ingham (J)
George Wolf (J)
Peter Ihrie Jr. (J)
Samuel A. Smith (J)
Ingham became U.S. Treasury Secretary March 6, 1829
Wolf was elected Governor of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania 16 21st December 15, 1829 William Wilkins (J) Harmar Denny (Anti-M) Resigned.
Ohio 11 21st October 11, 1830 John M. Goodenow (J) Humphrey H. Leavitt (J) Resigned April 9, 1830; chosen to be a Judge of the Supreme Court of Ohio.
Maine 5 21st December 6, 1830 James W. Ripley (J) Cornelius Holland (J) Resigned to resume practice of law.
Vermont 2 22nd November 1, 1831 Rollin Carolas Mallary (Anti-J) William Slade (Anti-M) Died April 15, 1831.
Pennsylvania 11 22nd November 22, 1831 William Ramsey (J) Robert McCoy (J) Died September 29, 1831.
Vermont 1 22nd January 1, 1833 Jonathan Hunt (Anti-J) Hiland Hall (Anti-J) Died May 15, 1832.
Pennsylvania 1 23rd October 8, 1833 Joel B. Sutherland (J) Joel B. Sutherland (J)[o] Resigned March 5, 1833, to become Associate Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Philadelphia.
Ohio 19 23rd October 14, 1834 Humphrey H. Leavitt (J) Daniel Kilgore (J) Resigned July 10, 1834, to become Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Ohio.
Ohio 1 23rd November 8, 1834 Robert T. Lytle (J) Robert T. Lytle (J) Resigned March 10, 1834.
Vermont 5 23rd November 10, 1834 Benjamin F. Deming (Anti-M) Henry Fisk Janes (Anti-M) Died July 11, 1834.
Connecticut at-large
Seat A
23rd December 1, 1834 William W. Ellsworth (Anti-J) Joseph Trumbull (Anti-J) Resigned July 8, 1834.
Connecticut at-large
Seat B
23rd December 1, 1834 Jabez W. Huntington (Anti-J) Phineas Miner (Anti-J) Resigned August 16, 1834 to become judge of the Connecticut Supreme Court of Errors.
Connecticut at-large
Seat C
23rd December 1, 1834 Samuel A. Foot (Anti-J) Ebenezer Jackson Jr. (Anti-J) Resigned May 9, 1834 to become Governor of Connecticut.
Pennsylvania 24 24th October 11, 1836 John Banks (Anti-M) John J. Pearson (Anti-J) Resigned April 2, 1836.
Pennsylvania 13 24th November 4, 1836 Jesse Miller (J) James Black (J) Resigned October 30, 1836.
New Jersey at-large 24th November 15–16, 1836 Philemon Dickerson (J) William Chetwood (W) Resigned November 3, 1836 to become Governor of New Jersey.
Pennsylvania 3 25th June 29, 1837 Francis J. Harper (D) Charles Naylor (W) Died March 18, 1837.
Ohio 17 25th November 30, 1837 Andrew W. Loomis (W) Charles D. Coffin (W) Resigned October 20, 1837.
Pennsylvania 9 25th March 8, 1838 Henry A. P. Muhlenberg (D) George M. Keim (D) Resigned February 9, 1838 to become U.S. Minister to Austria.
Maine 3 25th April 28, 1838 Jonathan Cilley (D) Edward Robinson (W) Killed February 24, 1838.
Maine 5 25th May 29, 1838 Timothy J. Carter (D) Virgil D. Parris (D) Died March 14, 1838.
Ohio 16 25th October 9, 1838 Elisha Whittlesey (W) Joshua Reed Giddings (W) Resigned July 9, 1838.
Ohio 19 25th November 5, 1838 Daniel Kilgore (D) Henry Swearingen (D) Resigned July 4, 1838.
Pennsylvania 14 26th November 20, 1839 William W. Potter (D) George McCulloch (D) Died October 28, 1839.
Ohio 4 26th October 13, 1840 Thomas Corwin (W) Jeremiah Morrow (W) Resigned May 30, 1840, to run for Governor of Ohio.
Pennsylvania 22 26th October 13, 1840 Richard Biddle (Anti-M) Henry M. Brackenridge (W) Resigned May 13, 1840.
Pennsylvania 13 26th November 20, 1840 William S. Ramsey (D) Charles McClure (D) Died October 17, 1840.
Pennsylvania 13 27th May 4, 1841 William S. Ramsey (D) Amos Gustine (D) Died October 17, 1840.
Pennsylvania 20 27th May 25, 1841 Enos Hook (D) Henry W. Beeson (D) Resigned April 18, 1841.
Maine 4 27th May 31, 1841 George Evans (W) David Bronson (W) Resigned to serve as U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 18 27th June 8, 1841 Charles Ogle (W) Henry Black (W) Died May 10, 1841.
Pennsylvania 2 27th October 12, 1841 John Sergeant (W) Joseph Reed Ingersoll (W) Resigned September 15, 1841.
Pennsylvania 18 27th December 21, 1841 Henry Black (W) James M. Russell (W) Died November 28, 1841.
Pennsylvania 17 27th March 1, 1842 Davis Dimock Jr. (D) Almon Heath Read (D) Died January 13, 1842.
Ohio 16 27th April 26, 1842 Joshua Reed Giddings (W) Joshua Reed Giddings (W) Resigned March 22, 1842, in response to being censured for his work against slavery.
Pennsylvania 21 27th May 20, 1842 Joseph Lawrence (W) Thomas M. T. McKennan (W) Died April 17, 1842.
Massachusetts 1 27th June 3, 1842 Robert C. Winthrop (W) Nathan Appleton (W) Resigned when he was widowed.
November 14, 1842 Robert C. Winthrop (W) Nathan Appleton (W) Resigned September 28, 1842.
Pennsylvania 21 28th March 15, 1844 William Wilkins (D) Cornelius Darragh (W) Resigned February 14, 1844 to become U.S. Secretary of War.
Pennsylvania 13 28th April 9, 1844 Henry Frick (W) James Pollock (W) Died March 1, 1844.
Ohio 10 28th October 8, 1844 Heman A. Moore (D) Alfred P. Stone (D) Died April 3, 1844.
Ohio 21 28th October 8, 1844 Henry R. Brinkerhoff (D) Edward S. Hamlin (D) Died April 30, 1844.
Pennsylvania 12 28th October 8, 1844 Almon Heath Read (D) George Fuller (D) Died June 3, 1844.
New Jersey 2 29th October 7–8, 1845 Samuel G. Wright (W) George Sykes (D) Died July 30, 1845.
Georgia 3 29th January 5, 1846 None[p] George W. Towns (D) (See note.)
Ohio 7 30th November 8, 1847 Thomas L. Hamer (D) Jonathan D. Morris (D) Died December 2, 1846.
Pennsylvania 6 30th February 23, 1848 John W. Hornbeck (W) Samuel A. Bridges (D) Died June 16, 1848.

31st through 40th congresses

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
Ohio 6 31st October 9, 1849 Rodolphus Dickinson (D) Amos E. Wood (D) Died March 20, 1849.
Vermont 3 31st November 7, 1849 George Perkins Marsh (W) James Meacham (W) Resigned to become U.S. Minister Resident to the Ottoman Empire.
Georgia 1 31st February 4, 1850 Thomas Butler King (W) Joseph Webber Jackson (D) Resigned.
Massachusetts 1 31st August 22, 1850 Robert C. Winthrop (W) Samuel A. Eliot (W) Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
New Hampshire 3 31st October 8, 1850 James Wilson II (W) George W. Morrison (D) Resigned September 9, 1850.
Pennsylvania 15 31st October 8, 1850 Henry Nes (W) Joel B. Danner (D) Died September 10, 1850.
Ohio 6 31st December 23, 1850 Amos E. Wood (D) John Bell (D) Died November 19, 1850.
Pennsylvania 11 31st December 31, 1850 Chester P. Butler (W) John Brisbin (W) Died October 5, 1850.
Maine 4 32nd June 25, 1852 Charles Andrews (D) Isaac Reed (W) Died April 30, 1852.
Pennsylvania 8 33rd February 4, 1854 Henry A. Muhlenberg (D) J. Glancy Jones (D) Died January 9, 1854.
Massachusetts 1 33rd April 17, 1854 Zeno Scudder (W) Thomas D. Eliot (W) Retired because of leg injury.
Vermont 1 34th September 2, 1856 James Meacham (O) George Tisdale Hodges (R) Died August 23, 1856.
Pennsylvania 12 35th October 13, 1857 John G. Montgomery (D) Paul Leidy (D) Died April 24, 1857.
Pennsylvania 8 35th November 30, 1858 J. Glancy Jones (D) William H. Keim (R) Resigned October 30, 1858.
Ohio 14 36th October 11, 1859 Cyrus Spink (R) Harrison G. O. Blake (R) Died May 31, 1859.
Pennsylvania 8 36th October 9, 1860 John Schwartz (ALD) Jacob K. McKenty (D) Died June 20, 1860.
Maine 5 36th November 6, 1860 Israel Washburn Jr. (R) Stephen Coburn (R) Resigned January 1, 1861, the day before serving as Governor of Maine.
Ohio 7 37th May 28, 1861 Thomas Corwin (R) Richard A. Harrison (U) Resigned March 12, 1861 to become U.S. Minister to Mexico.
Ohio 13 37th May 28, 1861 John Sherman (R) Samuel T. Worcester (R) Resigned March 21, 1861; elected U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 2 37th June 21, 1861 Edward Joy Morris (R) Charles J. Biddle (UD) Resigned June 8, 1861 to become Minister Resident to Turkey.
Pennsylvania 12 37th June 21, 1861 George W. Scranton (R) Hendrick Bradley Wright (UD) Died March 24, 1861.
Pennsylvania 7 37th May 24, 1862 Thomas B. Cooper (D) John D. Stiles (D) Died April 4, 1862.
Maine 2 37th December 1, 1862 Charles W. Walton (R) Thomas Fessenden (R) Resigned to become Associate Justice of the Maine Supreme Judicial Court.
Delaware at-large 38th November 19, 1863 William Temple (D) Nathaniel B. Smithers (U) Died May 28, 1863.
Ohio 2 40th October 8, 1867 Rutherford B. Hayes (R) Samuel Fenton Cary (IR) Resigned July 20, 1867, after being nominated for Governor of Ohio.
Pennsylvania 12 40th October 8, 1867 Charles Denison (D) George W. Woodward (D) Died June 27, 1867.
Ohio 8 40th January 27, 1868 Cornelius S. Hamilton (R) John Beatty (R) Killed December 22, 1867
Pennsylvania 9 40th October 13, 1868 Thaddeus Stevens (R) Oliver J. Dickey (R) Died August 11, 1868.
Pennsylvania 20 40th October 13, 1868 Darwin A. Finney (R) Solomon Newton Pettis (R) Died August 25, 1868.

41st through 50th congresses

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
Massachusetts 7 41st November 2, 1869 George S. Boutwell (R) George M. Brooks (R) Resigned to become U.S. Treasury Secretary.
Ohio 10 41st April 5, 1870 Truman H. Hoag (D) Erasmus D. Peck (R) Died February 5, 1870.
North Carolina 4 41st August 4, 1870 John T. Deweese (R) Robert B. Gilliam (D).[q] Resigned following censure for selling military academy appointments.
North Carolina 4 41st November 26, 1870 None John Manning Jr. (D) Representative-elect died (see note above).
South Carolina 1 41st December 12, 1870 Benjamin F. Whittemore (R) Joseph Rainey (R) Resigned before censure for selling military academy appointments.
Georgia 4 41st December 22, 1870 Samuel F. Gove (R) Jefferson F. Long (R) Elected, but not permitted to qualify.
Ohio 1 42nd October 8, 1872 Aaron F. Perry (R) Ozro J. Dodds (D) Resigned.
Georgia 4 42nd October 29, 1872 Thomas J. Speer (R) Erasmus W. Beck (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 13 42nd December 24, 1872 Ulysses Mercur (R) Frank C. Bunnell (R) Resigned December 2, 1872, to accept a judicial position.
Oregon 1 43rd October 13, 1873 Joseph G. Wilson (R) James Nesmith (D) Died July 2, 1873.
Georgia 8 43rd December 1, 1873 None[r] Alexander H. Stephens (D) (See note.)
Oregon at-large 43rd December 1, 1873 Joseph G. Wilson (R) James W. Nesmith (D) Died July 2, 1873.
Ohio 12 43rd October 13, 1874 Hugh J. Jewett (D) William E. Finck (D) Resigned June 23, 1874, to become president of the Erie Railroad Co..
Pennsylvania 23 43rd November 3, 1874 Ebenezer McJunkin (R) John M. Thompson (R) Resigned January 1, 1875.
Georgia 9 44th May 5, 1875 None[s] Benjamin Harvey Hill (D) (See note.)
Maine 4 44th September 13, 1875 Samuel F. Hersey (R) Harris M. Plaisted (R) Died February 3, 1875.
Oregon at-large 44th October 25, 1875 None[t] Lafayette Lane (D) Died May 1, 1875.
Pennsylvania 12 44th November 7, 1876 Winthrop W. Ketchum (R) William H. Stanton (D) Resigned July 19, 1876.
Maine 3 44th December 4, 1876 James G. Blaine (R) Edwin Flye (R) Resigned July 10, 1876 to become U.S. Senator.
Georgia 9 45th April 13, 1877 None Hiram Parks Bell (D) Benjamin Harvey Hill (D) resigned after being elected U.S. Senator during the preceding Congress.
Nebraska at-large 45th November 5, 1878 Frank Welch (R) Thomas Jefferson Majors (R) Died September 4, 1878.
Georgia 1 46th February 10, 1879 Julian Hartridge (D) William Bennett Fleming (D) Died January 8, 1879.
Ohio 19 46th November 30, 1880 James A. Garfield (R) Ezra B. Taylor (R) Resigned November 8, 1880, after being elected U.S. President.
New Hampshire 3 46th December 28, 1880 Evarts Worcester Farr (R) Ossian Ray (R) Died November 30, 1880. (Winner elected to finish term)
New Hampshire 3 47th December 28, 1880 Evarts Worcester Farr (R) Ossian Ray (R) Died November 30, 1880. (Winner elected to next term)
Maine 2 47th September 12, 1881 William P. Frye (R) Nelson Dingley Jr. (R) Resigned after being elected U.S. Senator.
Rhode Island 1 47th November 22, 1881 Nelson W. Aldrich (R) Henry J. Spooner (R) Resigned to serve as U.S. Senator.
Georgia 8 47th November 8, 1882 Alexander H. Stephens (D) Seaborn Reese (D) Resigned immediately before serving as Governor of Georgia.
Utah Territory at-large 47th November 8, 1882 George Q. Cannon (R) John Thomas Caine (D) Seat declared vacant by the enactment of the anti-Mormon Edmunds Act.
Ohio 16 47th January 2, 1883 Jonathan T. Updegraff (R) Joseph D. Taylor (R) Died November 30, 1882.
Ohio 17 48th January 2, 1883 Jonathan T. Updegraff (R) Joseph D. Taylor (R) Died November 30, 1882.
West Virginia 3 48th May 15, 1883 John E. Kenna (D) Charles P. Snyder (D) Resigned to serve as U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 19 48th December 23, 1884 William A. Duncan (D) John A. Swope (D) Died November 14, 1884.
Rhode Island 2 48th February 5, 1885 Jonathan Chace (R) Nathan F. Dixon III (R) Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 19 49th November 3, 1885 William A. Duncan (D) John A. Swope (D) Died November 14, 1884.
Rhode Island 2 49th February 21, 1887 None[u] Charles H. Page (D) (See note.)
Nebraska 2 50th November 5, 1889 James Laird (R) Gilbert L. Laws (R) Died August 17, 1889.

51st through 60th congresses

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
Pennsylvania 4 51st February 18, 1890 William D. Kelley (R) John E. Reyburn (R) Died January 9, 1890.
Pennsylvania 3 51st May 20, 1890 Samuel J. Randall (D) Richard Vaux (D) Died April 13, 1890.
Pennsylvania 27 51st November 4, 1890 Lewis F. Watson (R) Charles W. Stone (R) Died August 25, 1890.
South Dakota at-large 52nd November 3, 1891 John Rankin Gamble (R) John L. Jolley (R) Died August 14, 1891.
California 3 52nd November 8, 1892 Joseph McKenna (R) Samuel G. Hilborn (R) Resigned to become U.S. 9th Circuit Judge
Ohio 16 52nd November 8, 1892 John G. Warwick (D) Lewis P. Ohliger (D) Died August 14, 1892.
Pennsylvania 24 52nd November 8, 1892 Alexander K. Craig (D) William A. Sipe (D) Died July 29, 1892.
Rhode Island 2 53rd April 5, 1893 None[v] Charles H. Page (D) (See note.)
Pennsylvania 8 53rd June 23, 1893 William Mutchler (D) Howard Mutchler (D) Died June 23, 1893.
Ohio 10 53rd July 13, 1893 William H. Enochs (R) Hezekiah S. Bundy (R) Died July 13, 1893.
Pennsylvania 8 53rd July 25, 1893 William Mutchler (D) Howard Mutchler (D) Died June 23, 1893.
Michigan 1 53rd August 17, 1893 J. Logan Chipman (D) Levi T. Griffin (D) Died August 17, 1893.
Wisconsin 4 53rd August 27, 1893 None Peter J. Somers (D) John L. Mitchell (D) resigned at the end of the previous Congress after election as U.S. Senator.
Ohio 10 53rd November 5, 1893 William H. Enochs (R) Hezekiah S. Bundy (R) Died July 13, 1893.
Pennsylvania 2 53rd December 19, 1893 Charles O'Neill (R) Robert Adams Jr. (R) Died November 25, 1893.
New York 15 53rd December 26, 1893 Ashbel P. Fitch (D) Isidor Straus (D) Resigned having been elected Comptroller of New York.
New York 14 53rd December 31, 1893 John R. Fellows (D) Lemuel E. Quigg (R) Resigned having been elected New York County D. A.
Virginia 7 53rd December 31, 1893 Charles T. O'Ferrall (D) Smith S. Turner (D) Resigned having been elected Governor of Virginia.
Pennsylvania at-large 53rd January 20 or February 20, 1894 William Lilly (R) Galusha A. Grow (R) Died December 1, 1893.
Ohio 3 53rd May 1, 1894 George W. Houk (D) Paul J. Sorg (D) Died February 9, 1894.
South Carolina 1 53rd February 12, 1894 William H. Brawley (D) James F. Izlar (D) Resigned to become Judge of the U.S. District Court for the District of South Carolina.
Louisiana 4 53rd March 12, 1894 Newton C. Blanchard (D) Henry W. Ogden (D) Resigned having been elected U.S. Senator.
Missouri 11 53rd April 3, 1894 Charles F. Joy (R) John J. O'Neill (D) Lost contested election.
California 3 53rd April 4, 1894 Samuel G. Hilborn (R) Warren B. English (D) Lost contested election.
Maryland 1 53rd May 10, 1894 Robert F. Bratton (D) W. Laird Henry (D) Died.
Maryland 5 53rd May 15, 1894 Barnes Compton (D) Charles E. Coffin (R) Resigned.
Kentucky 10 53rd July 7, 1894 Marcus C. Lisle (D) William M. Beckner (D) Died July 7, 1894.
Kansas 2 53rd August 2, 1894 Edward H. Funston (R) Horace L. Moore (D) Lost contested election.
Wisconsin 7 53rd August 27, 1894 George B. Shaw (R) Michael Griffin (R) Died August 27, 1894.
Arkansas 2 53rd November 1, 1894 Clifton R. Breckinridge (D) John S. Little (D) Resigned to become Minister to Russia.
Ohio 2 53rd November 6, 1894 John A. Caldwell (R) Jacob H. Bromwell (R) Resigned May 4, 1894, having been elected Mayor of Cincinnati.
Alabama 3 53rd November 30, 1894 William C. Oates (D) George P. Harrison (D) Resigned to become Governor of Alabama.
Kentucky 9 53rd January 5, 1895 Thomas H. Paynter (D) Vacant Resigned having been elected to the Kentucky Court of Appeals.
Illinois 10 53rd December 2, 1895 Philip S. Post (R) George W. Prince (R) Died January 6, 1895.
Michigan 3 53rd January 13, 1895 Julius C. Burrows (R) Vacant Resigned having been elected U.S. Senator.
Pennsylvania 15 53rd February 19, 1895 Myron B. Wright (R) Edwin J. Jorden (R) Died November 13, 1894.
Pennsylvania 15 54th February 19, 1895 Myron B. Wright (R) James H. Codding (R) Died November 13, 1894.
Georgia 10 54th October 2, 1895 James C. C. Black (D) James C. C. Black (D) Succeeded himself to fill a vacancy he caused.[5]
Massachusetts 6 54th November 5, 1895 William Cogswell (R) William Henry Moody (R) Died May 22, 1895.
New York 10 54th November 5, 1895 None Amos J. Cummings (D) Representative-elect Andrew J. Campbell (R) died December 6, 1894.
Illinois 10 54th December 2, 1895 None George W. Prince (R) Philip S. Post (R) died January 6, 1895.
Illinois 18 54th December 2, 1895 Frederick Remann (R) William F. L. Hadley (R) Died July 14, 1895.
Michigan 3 54th December 2, 1895 Julius C. Burrows (R) Alfred Milnes (R) Resigned after being elected U.S. Senator.
Illinois 3 54th December 27, 1895 Lawrence E. McGann (D) Hugh R. Belknap (R) Lost contested election.
Texas 11 54th April 7, 1896 William H. Crain (D) Rudolph Kleberg (D) Died February 10, 1896.
Missouri 5 54th February 27, 1896 John C. Tarsney (D) Robert T. Van Horn (R) Lost contested election.
Alabama 4 54th March 12, 1896 Gaston A. Robbins (D) William F. Aldrich (R) Lost contested election.
Virginia 5 54th May 2, 1896 William R. McKenney (D) Robert T. Thorp (R) Lost contested election.
Alabama 5 54th April 21, 1896 James E. Cobb (D) Albert T. Goodwyn (P) Lost contested election.
South Carolina 7 54th June 1, 1896 None J. William Stokes (D) Seat declared vacant after election was contested because of Democratic fraud.
New York 8 54th June 2, 1896 James J. Walsh (D) John M. Mitchell (R) Lost contested election.
South Carolina 1 54th June 4, 1896 William Elliott (D) George W. Murray (R) Lost contested election.
Illinois 16 54th June 5, 1896 Finis E. Downing (D) John I. Rinaker (R) Lost contested election.
North Carolina 6 54th June 5, 1896 James A. Lockhart (D) Charles H. Martin (P) Lost contested election.
Alabama 9 54th June 9, 1896 Oscar W. Underwood (D) Truman H. Aldrich (R) Lost contested election.
Louisiana 5 54th June 10, 1896 None Charles J. Boatner (D) Seat declared vacant after election on March 11 was contested.
Georgia 3 54th December 19, 1896 Charles Frederick Crisp (D) Charles R. Crisp (D) Died October 23, 1896.
New York 19 54th January 7, 1897 Frank S. Black (R) Vacant Resigned having been elected Governor of New York.
Kentucky 10 54th February 18, 1897 Joseph M. Kendall (D) Nathan T. Hopkins (R) Lost contested election.
Pennsylvania 25 55th April 20, 1897 James J. Davidson (R) Joseph B. Showalter (R) Died January 2, 1897.
Maine 3 55th June 21, 1897 Seth L. Milliken (R) Edwin C. Burleigh (R) Died April 18, 1897.
Indiana 4 55th December 6, 1897 William S. Holman (D) Francis M. Griffith (D) Died April 22, 1896.
South Carolina 6 55th December 6, 1897 John L. McLaurin (D) James Norton (D) Resigned having been elected U.S. Senator.
Missouri 1 55th June 1, 1897 None James T. Lloyd (D) Representative-elect Richard P. Giles (D) died November 17, 1896.
Illinois 6 55th November 23, 1897 Edward D. Cooke (R) Henry S. Boutell (R) Died June 24, 1897.
Massachusetts 1 55th November 2, 1897 Ashley B. Wright (R) George P. Lawrence (R) Died August 14, 1897.
New York 3 55th December 5, 1897 Francis H. Wilson (R) Edmund H. Driggs (D) Resigned to become Postmaster of Brooklyn, New York.
Alabama 4 55th February 9, 1898 Thomas S. Plowman (D) William F. Aldrich (R) Lost contested election.
Pennsylvania 23 55th November 29, 1898 William A. Stone (R) William H. Graham (R) Resigned having been elected Governor of Pennsylvania.
Virginia 4 55th March 23, 1898 Sydney P. Epes (D) Robert T. Thorp (R) Lost contested election.
Massachusetts 13 55th May 31, 1898 John Simpkins (R) William S. Greene (R) Died March 27, 1898.
Virginia 2 55th April 26, 1898 William A. Young (D) Richard A. Wise (R) Lost contested election.
Mississippi 2 55th July 5, 1898 William V. Sullivan (D) Thomas Spight (D) Resigned having been elected U.S. Senator.
Ohio 19 55th November 8, 1898 Stephen A. Northway (R) Charles W. F. Dick (R) Died September 8, 1898.
Mississippi 6 55th December 12, 1898 William F. Love (D) Frank A. McLain (D) Died October 16, 1898.
New York 34 55th November 10, 1898 Warren B. Hooker (R) Vacant Resigned to become Justice of the New York Supreme Court.
Tennessee 4 55th January 6, 1899 Benton McMillin (D) Vacant Resigned having been elected Governor of Tennessee.
New York 2 55th February 26, 1899 Denis M. Hurley (R) Redistricted to New York 7 Died.
Maine 2 56th June 19, 1899 Nelson Dingley Jr. (R) Charles E. Littlefield (R) Died.
Maine 1 56th November 6, 1899 Thomas Brackett Reed (R) Amos L. Allen (R) Resigned due to intra-party feud that saw him at odds with the foreign policy of President McKinley.
Nebraska 6 56th November 7, 1899 William Laury Greene (Pop) William Neville (Pop) Died.
Ohio 16 56th November 7, 1899 Lorenzo Danford (R) Joseph J. Gill (R) Died June 19, 1899.
Pennsylvania 9 56th November 7, 1899 Daniel Ermentrout (D) Henry D. Green (D) Died September 7, 1899.
Utah at-large 56th April 25, 1900 None[w] William H. King (D) Disputed election (see note).
California 2 56th November 6, 1900 Marion De Vries (D) Samuel D. Woods (R) Resigned upon appointment to the Board of General Appraisers.
Delaware at-large 56th November 6, 1900 John H. Hoffecker (R) Walter O. Hoffecker (R) Died June 16, 1900.
New Jersey 7 56th November 6, 1900 William D. Daly (D) Allan L. McDermott (D) Died July 31, 1900.
Pennsylvania 5 56th November 6, 1900 Alfred C. Harmer (R) Edward de Veaux Morrell (R) Died March 6, 1900.
Maine 4 57th April 8, 1901 Charles A. Boutelle (R) Llewellyn Powers (R) Died.
Pennsylvania 10 57th November 5, 1901 Marriott Brosius (R) Henry B. Cassel (R) Died March 16, 1901.
New Jersey 4 57th June 18, 1902 Joshua S. Salmon (D) De Witt C. Flanagan (D) Died May 6, 1902.
Pennsylvania 17 57th November 4, 1902 Rufus King Polk (D) Alexander Billmeyer (D) Died March 5, 1902.
Oregon 1 58th June 1, 1903 Thomas H. Tongue (R) Binger Hermann (R) Died.
Ohio 16 58th November 3, 1903 Joseph J. Gill (R) Capell L. Weems (R) Resigned October 31, 1903.
Pennsylvania 4 58th November 3, 1903 Robert H. Foerderer (R) Reuben Moon (R) Died July 26, 1903.
Pennsylvania 3 58th February 16, 1904 Henry Burk (R) George A. Castor (R) Died December 5, 1903.
Ohio 14 58th May 19, 1904 William W. Skiles (R) Amos R. Webber (R) Died January 9, 1904.
Ohio 19 58th May 19, 1904 Charles W. F. Dick (R) W. Aubrey Thomas (R) Resigned March 23, 1904, after being elected U.S. Senator.
California 3 58th November 8, 1904 Victor H. Metcalf (R) Joseph R. Knowland (R) Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of Commerce and Labor.
New Jersey 4 58th November 8, 1904 William M. Lanning (R) Ira W. Wood (R) Resigned June 6, 1904 to become Judge of the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey.
West Virginia 2 59th June 6, 1905 Alston G. Dayton (R) Thomas Beall Davis (D) Resigned to become Judge for the United States District Court for the Northern District of West Virginia.
Nebraska 1 59th July 18, 1905 Elmer Burkett (R) Ernest M. Pollard (R) Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
California 1 59th November 6, 1906 James Gillett (R) William F. Englebright (R) Resigned to become Governor of California.
Georgia 1 59th November 6, 1906 Rufus E. Lester (D) James W. Overstreet (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 2 59th November 6, 1906 Robert Adams Jr. (R) John E. Reyburn (R) Died June 1, 1906.
Pennsylvania 3 59th November 6, 1906 George A. Castor (R) J. Hampton Moore (R) Died February 19, 1906.
Pennsylvania 12 59th November 6, 1906 George R. Patterson (R) Charles N. Brumm (R) Died March 21, 1906.
Pennsylvania 2 60th November 5, 1907 John E. Reyburn (R) Joel Cook (R) Resigned March 31, 1907, after being elected Mayor of Philadelphia.
Maine 2 60th November 3, 1908 Charles E. Littlefield (R) John P. Swasey (R) Resigned to open a corporate law firm.
Maine 4 60th November 3, 1908 Llewellyn Powers (R) Frank E. Guernsey (R) Died.
South Dakota at-large 60th November 3, 1908 William H. Parker (R) Eben Martin (R) Died.

61st through 70th congresses

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
Ohio 21 61st April 20, 1909 Theodore E. Burton (R) James H. Cassidy (R) Resigned March 3, 1909.
Georgia 2 61st February 6, 1910 James M. Griggs (D) Seaborn Roddenbery (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 2 62nd May 23, 1911 Joel Cook (R) William S. Reyburn (R) Died December 15, 1910.
Nebraska 3 62nd November 7, 1911 James P. Latta (D) Dan V. Stephens (D) Died.
New Jersey 1 62nd November 7, 1911 Henry C. Loudenslager (R) William J. Browning (R) Died August 12, 1911.
Pennsylvania 14 62nd November 7, 1911 George W. Kipp (D) William D. B. Ainey (R) Died July 24, 1911.
Pennsylvania 1 62nd July 30, 1912 Henry H. Bingham (R) William Scott Vare (R) Died March 22, 1912.
Vermont 1 62nd July 30, 1912 David J. Foster (R) Frank L. Greene (R) Died.
New Jersey 6 62nd November 5, 1912 William Hughes (D) Archibald C. Hart (D) Resigned September 12, 1912 to become judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Passaic County.
New Jersey 6 63rd July 22, 1913 Lewis J. Martin (D) Archibald C. Hart (D) Died May 5, 1913.
Maine 3 63rd September 9, 1913 Forrest Goodwin (R) John A. Peters (R) Died.
West Virginia 1 63rd October 14, 1913 John W. Davis (D) Matthew M. Neely (D) Resigned to become U.S. Solicitor General.
Georgia 2 63rd November 4, 1913 Seaborn Roddenbery (D) Frank Park (D) Died.
New Jersey 7 63rd April 7, 1914 Robert G. Bremner (D) Dow H. Drukker (R) Died February 5, 1914.
Georgia 10 63rd November 3, 1914 Thomas W. Hardwick (D) Carl Vinson (D) Resigned upon election as United States Senator from Georgia.
New Jersey 9 63rd December 1, 1914 Walter I. McCoy (R) Richard W. Parker (R) Resigned October 3, 1914.
Pennsylvania 24 64th November 2, 1915 William M. Brown (R) Henry W. Temple (R) Died January 31, 1915.
West Virginia 2 64th May 9, 1916 William Gay Brown Jr. (D) George Meade Bowers (R) Died.
California 10 64th November 7, 1916 William Stephens (R) Henry S. Benedict (R) Resigned to become Lieutenant Governor of California.
West Virginia 4 64th November 7, 1916 Hunter Holmes Moss Jr. (R) Harry C. Woodyard (R) Died.
Georgia 8 64th January 11, 1917 Samuel Joelah Tribble (D) Tinsley W. Rucker Jr. (D) Died.
65th Charles H. Brand (D)
South Carolina 5 64th February 21, 1917 David E. Finley (D) Paul G. McCorkle (D) Died.
65th William F. Stevenson (D)
New Hampshire 1 65th May 29, 1917 Cyrus A. Sulloway (R) Sherman Everett Burroughs (R) Died.
North Dakota 1 65th July 10, 1917 Henry Thomas Helgesen (R) John Miller Baer (R) Died.
Pennsylvania 28 65th November 6, 1917 Orrin D. Bleakley (R) Earl H. Beshlin (D) Resigned April 3, 1917.
Georgia 4 65th January 16, 1918 William C. Adamson (D) William C. Wright (D) Resigned upon appointment to the Board of General Appraisers.
New Jersey 5 65th November 5, 1918 John H. Capstick (R) William F. Birch (R) Died March 17, 1918.
Ohio 14 65th November 5, 1918 Ellsworth Raymond Bathrick (D) Martin L. Davey (D) Died December 23, 1917.
Pennsylvania 22 65th March 4, 1919 Edward E. Robbins (R) John H. Wilson (D) Died January 25, 1919.
Alaska Territory at-large 66th June 5, 1919 Disputed[x] George Barnes Grigsby (D) Died during electoral recount.
Oklahoma 5 66th November 8, 1919 Joseph Bryan Thompson (D) John W. Harreld (R) Died September 18, 1919.
New Jersey 1 66th November 2, 1920 William J. Browning (R) Francis F. Patterson Jr. (R) Died March 24, 1920.
Oklahoma 8 66th November 2, 1920 Dick Thompson Morgan (R) Charles Swindall (R) Died July 4, 1920.
Pennsylvania 3 66th November 2, 1920 J. Hampton Moore (R) Harry C. Ransley (R) Resigned January 4, 1920, to become Mayor of Philadelphia.
California 9 67th February 15, 1921 Charles F. Van de Water (R) Walter F. Lineberger (R) Died.
Pennsylvania at-large 67th September 20, 1921 Mahlon M. Garland (R) Thomas S. Crago (R) Died November 19, 1920.
Maine 3 67th March 20, 1922 John A. Peters (R) John E. Nelson (R) Resigned to become judge for the United States District Court for the District of Maine.
Hawaii Territory at-large 67th March 25, 1922 Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana'ole (R) Henry Alexander Baldwin (R) Died.
California 6 67th November 7, 1922 John A. Elston (R) James H. MacLafferty (R) Died.
Illinois at-large 67th November 7, 1922 William E. Mason (R) Winnifred Huck (R) Died June 16, 1921.
Nebraska 1 67th November 7, 1922 C. Frank Reavis (R) Roy H. Thorpe (R) Resigned to become U.S. Assistant Attorney General.
Nebraska 6 67th November 7, 1922 Moses Kinkaid (R) Augustin Reed Humphrey (R) Died.
California 5 68th January 23, 1923 John I. Nolan (R) Mae Nolan (R) Died.
California 10 68th May 1, 1923 Henry Z. Osborne (R) John D. Fredericks (R) Died.
Vermont 2 68th November 6, 1923 Porter H. Dale (R) Ernest Willard Gibson (R) Resigned upon election as United States Senator from Vermont.
Illinois 2nd 68th April 3, 1923 Vacant Morton D. Hull (R) Rep. James R. Mann died during previous congress
California 10th 68th May 1, 1923 Vacant John D. Fredericks (R) Rep. Henry Z. Osborne died during previous congress
New York 16th 68th November 6, 1923 Vacant John J. O'Connor (D) Rep. William Bourke Cockran died during previous congress
Alabama 2nd 68th August 14, 1923 John R. Tyson (D) Lister Hill (D)
Michigan 3rd 68th June 19, 1923 John M. C. Smith (R) Arthur B. Williams (R)
Iowa 8th 68th June 4, 1923 Horace M. Towner (R) Hiram K. Evans (R) Resigned April 1, 1923, after being appointed Governor of Puerto Rico
New York 11th 68th November 6, 1923 Daniel J. Riordan (D) Anning S. Prall (D) Died April 28, 1923
Illinois 4th 68th November 6, 1923 John W. Rainey (D) Thomas A. Doyle (D) Died May 4, 1923
Arkansas 6th 68th October 6, 1923 Lewis E. Sawyer (D) James B. Reed (D) Died May 5, 1923
Washington 5th 68th September 25, 1923 J. Stanley Webster (R) Samuel B. Hill (D) Resigned May 8, 1923, after being appointed to United States District Court for the Eastern District of Washington
North Carolina 2nd 68th November 6, 1923 Claude Kitchin (D) John H. Kerr (D) Died May 31, 1923
New York 32nd 68th November 6, 1923 Luther W. Mott (R) Thaddeus C. Sweet (R) Died July 10, 1923
Vermont 2nd 68th November 6, 1923 Porter H. Dale (R) Ernest Willard Gibson (R) Resigned August 11, 1923, after becoming a candidate for the US Senate
Kentucky 7th 68th November 30, 1923 J. Campbell Cantrill (D) Joseph W. Morris (D) Died September 2, 1923
New York 24th 68th November 6, 1923 James V. Ganly (D) Benjamin L. Fairchild (R) Died September 7, 1923
Mississippi 3rd 68th November 27, 1923 Benjamin G. Humphreys II (D) William Y. Humphreys (D) Died October 16, 1923
North Dakota 2 68th November 4, 1924 George M. Young (R) Thomas Hall (R) Resigned upon appointment to the Board of General Appraisers.
Massachusetts 5 69th June 30, 1925 John Jacob Rogers (R) Edith Nourse Rogers (R) Died.
New Jersey 3 69th November 3, 1925 T. Frank Appleby (R) Stewart H. Appleby (R) Died December 15, 1924.
Kentucky 10 69th February 13, 1926 John W. Langley (R) Andrew J. Kirk (R) Resigned after being convicted of illegally selling alcohol.
California 2 69th August 31, 1926 John Raker (D) Harry Englebright (R) Died.
California 5 69th August 31, 1926 Lawrence Flaherty (R) Richard Welch (R) Died.
Oregon 3 70th October 18, 1927 Maurice Crumpacker (R) Franklin Korell (R) Died.
Ohio 2 70th November 8, 1927 Ambrose E. B. Stephens (R) Charles Tatgenhorst Jr. (R) Died February 12, 1927.
Pennsylvania 1 70th November 8, 1927 James M. Hazlett (R) James M. Beck (R) Resigned October 20, 1927.
Oregon 2 70th November 6, 1928 Nicholas Sinnott (R) Robert Butler (R) Resigned to become judge for the United States Court of Claims.
Pennsylvania 8 70th November 6, 1928 Thomas S. Butler (R) James Wolfenden (R) Died May 26, 1928.

71st through 80th congresses

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
Alabama 2 71st January 9, 1929 William Allan Oldfield (D) Pearl Oldfield (D) Died November 19, 1928.
Pennsylvania 12 71st June 4, 1929 John J. Casey (D) C. Murray Turpin (R) Died May 5, 1929.
Georgia 5 71st October 2, 1929 Leslie Steele (D) Robert Ramspeck (D) Died.
Arkansas 4 71st November 4, 1930 Otis Wingo (D) Effiegene Wingo (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 32 71st November 4, 1930 Stephen G. Porter (R) Edmund F. Erk (R) Died June 27, 1930.
Rhode Island 3 71st November 4, 1930 Jeremiah O'Connell (D) Francis Condon (D) Resigned to become judge for the Rhode Island Superior Court.
Utah 2 71st November 4, 1930 Elmer Leatherwood (R) Frederick Loofbourow (R) Died.
West Virginia 4 71st November 4, 1930 James Hughes (R) Robert Hogg (R) Died.
New York 7 72nd February 17, 1931 John Quayle (D) Matthew V. O'Malley[y] (D). Died November 27, 1930.
Georgia 1 72nd September 9, 1931 Charles Edwards (D) Homer Parker (D) Died.
New York 7 72nd November 3, 1931 Matthew V. O'Malley (D) John J. Delaney (D) Died May 26, 1931.
Ohio 1 72nd November 3, 1931 Nicholas Longworth (R) John B. Hollister (R) Died April 9, 1931.
Ohio 20 72nd November 3, 1931 Charles A. Mooney (D) Martin L. Sweeney (D) Died May 29, 1931.
Pennsylvania 2 72nd November 3, 1931 George Scott Graham (R) Edward L. Stokes (R) Died July 4, 1931.
New Jersey 5 72nd December 1, 1931 Ernest R. Ackerman (R) Percy Hamilton Stewart (D) Died October 18, 1931.
New Hampshire 1 72nd January 5, 1932 Fletcher Hale (R) William Rogers (D) Died.
Georgia 6 72nd March 2, 1932 Samuel Rutherford (D) Carlton Mobley (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 20 72nd April 26, 1932 J. Russell Leech (R) Howard W. Stull (R) Resigned January 29, 1932, after appointment to the U.S. Board of Tax Appeals.
Tennessee 7 72nd August 14, 1932 Edward E. Eslick (D) Willa Eslick (D) Died June 14, 1932.
Georgia 3 72nd November 8, 1932 Charles Crisp (D) Bryant Castellow (D) Resigned upon appointment to the United States Tariff Commission.
Pennsylvania 6 72nd November 8, 1932 George A. Welsh (R) Robert L. Davis (R) Resigned May 31, 1932, after appointment as Judge of the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.
Pennsylvania 18 72nd November 8, 1932 Edward M. Beers (R) Joseph F. Biddle (R) Died April 21, 1932.
Georgia 10 73rd July 5, 1933 Charles Brand (D) Paul Brown (D) Died.
Arizona at-large 73rd October 3, 1933 Lewis Douglas (D) Isabella Greenway (D) Resigned to become director of the Bureau of the Budget.
Pennsylvania 9 73rd November 7, 1933 Henry W. Watson (R) Oliver W. Frey (D) Died August 27, 1933.
West Virginia 3 73rd November 28, 1933 Lynn Hornor (D) Andrew Edmiston (D) Died.
New York 34 73rd December 28, 1933 John D. Clarke (R) Marian W. Clarke (R) Died November 5, 1933.
Vermont at-large 73rd January 16, 1934 Ernest Gibson (R) Charles Plumley (R) Resigned to become United States Senator from Vermont.
Louisiana 6 73rd May 1, 1934 Bolivar Kemp (D) Jared Sanders (D) Died.
Rhode Island 1 74th August 6, 1935 Francis Condon (D) Charles Risk (R) Resigned to become Judge of the Rhode Island Supreme Court.
Ohio at-large 74th November 3, 1936 Charles V. Truax (D) Daniel S. Earhart (D) Died August 9, 1935.
Ohio 11 74th November 3, 1936 Mell G. Underwood (D) Peter F. Hammond (D) Resigned April 10, 1936 to become a Judge for the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Ohio.
California 5 75th May 4, 1937 Henry Stubbs (D) Alfred Elliott (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 18 75th May 11, 1937 Benjamin K. Focht (R) Richard M. Simpson (R) Died March 27, 1937.
Oklahoma 5 75th December 10, 1937 Robert P. Hill (D) Gomer Griffith Smith (D) Died October 29, 1937.
South Carolina 6 75th September 13, 1938 Allard H. Gasque (D) Elizabeth Gasque (D) Died June 17, 1938.
Ohio 4 75th November 8, 1938 Frank Kloeb (D) Walter Albaugh (R) Resigned August 19, 1937 to become a judge for the United States District Court for the Northern District of Ohio.
Georgia 4 76th August 1, 1939 Emmett Owen (D) Albert Camp (D) Died.
South Carolina 1 76th November 7, 1939 Thomas S. McMillan (D) Clara G. McMillan (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 4 76th November 7, 1939 J. Burrwood Daly (D) John E. Sheridan (D) Died March 12, 1939.
Ohio 17 76th February 27, 1940 William A. Ashbrook (D) J. Harry McGregor (R) Died January 1, 1940.
Ohio 22 76th February 27, 1940 Chester C. Bolton (R) Frances P. Bolton (R) Died October 29, 1939.
Nebraska 1 76th April 19, 1940 George Heinke (R) John Sweet (R) Died.
Maine 2 76th June 3, 1940 Clyde Smith (R) Margaret Chase Smith (R) Died.
Georgia 8 76th October 1, 1940 Benjamin Gibbs (D) Florence Reville Gibbs (D) Died.
Oklahoma 7 77th April 1, 1941 Sam C. Massingale (D) Victor Wickersham (D) Died January 17, 1941.
Maryland 6 77th May 27, 1941 William D. Byron (D) Katharine Byron (D) Died in a plane crash February 27, 1941.
Pennsylvania 15 77th November 4, 1941 Albert G. Rutherford (R) Wilson D. Gillette (R) Died August 10, 1941.
Mississippi 2 77th November 4, 1941 Wall Doxey (D) Jamie Whitten (D) Resigned upon election as United States Senator from Mississippi.
Pennsylvania 12 77th May 19, 1942 J. Harold Flannery (D) Thomas B. Miller (R) Resigned January 3, 1942, to become a Judge of the Common Pleas Court of Luzerne County.
Pennsylvania 33 77th May 19, 1942 Joseph A. McArdle (D) Elmer J. Holland (D) Resigned January 5, 1942, to become a member of the Pittsburgh City Council.
California 17 77th August 25, 1942 Lee Guyer (D) Cecil King (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 11 77th November 3, 1942 Patrick J. Boland (D) Veronica Boland (D) Died May 18, 1942.
California 2 78th August 31, 1943 Harry Englebright (R) Clair Engle (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 23 78th November 2, 1943 James E. Van Zandt (R) D. Emmert Brumbaugh (R) Resigned September 24, 1943, to resume active duty with the U.S. Navy Reserve.
Pennsylvania 2 78th January 18, 1944 James McGranery (D) Joseph Pratt (R) Resigned November 17, 1943 to become Assistant Attorney General.
Pennsylvania 17 78th January 18, 1944 J. William Ditter (R) Samuel K. McConnell Jr. (R) Died in a plane crash November 21, 1943.
Oklahoma 2 78th March 28, 1944 John Conover Nichols (D) William G. Stigler (D) Resigned July 3, 1943, to become Vice President of Transcontinental & Western Air, Inc..
New York 11 78th June 6, 1944 James O'Leary (D) Ellsworth Buck (R) Died March 16, 1944.
South Carolina 2 78th November 7, 1944 Hampton P. Fulmer (D) Willa L. Fulmer (D) Died.
Montana 2 79th June 5, 1945 James O'Connor (D) Wesley D'Ewart (R) Died January 15, 1945.
New Jersey 4 79th November 6, 1945 D. Lane Powers (R) Frank A. Mathews Jr. (R) Resigned August 30, 1945, to become a member of the N.J. Public Utilities Commission.
Oregon 1 79th January 18, 1946 James Mott (R) Walter Norblad (R) Died November 12, 1945.
Georgia 5 79th February 12, 1946 Robert Ramspeck (D) Helen Douglas Mankin (D) Resigned after being hired as vice president of Eastern Airlines.
Pennsylvania 33 79th May 21, 1946 Samuel A. Weiss (D) Frank Buchanan (D) Resigned January 7, 1946, after election as a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Allegheny County.
North Carolina 8 79th May 25, 1946 William O. Burgin (D) Eliza Pratt (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 10 79th November 5, 1946 John W. Murphy (D) James P. Scoblick (R) Resigned July 17, 1946, to become a Judge of the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania.
Washington 3 80th June 7, 1947 Fred B. Norman (R) Russell V. Mack (R) Died April 18, 1947.
Pennsylvania 8 80th September 9, 1947 Charles L. Gerlach (R) Franklin H. Lichtenwalter (R) Died May 5, 1947.
Ohio 4 80th November 4, 1947 Robert Jones (R) William McCulloch (R) Resigned upon appointment to the Federal Communications Commission.
New York 24 80th February 17, 1948 Benjamin J. Rabin (D) Leo Isacson (AL) Resigned December 31, 1947 to become a justice of the New York Supreme Court.
Virginia 4 80th February 17, 1948 Patrick Drewry (D) Watkins Abbitt (D) Died December 21, 1947.
Kentucky 2 80th April 17, 1948 Earle Clements (D) John Whitaker (D) Resigned January 6, 1948 to become Governor of Kentucky.
Kentucky 9 80th April 24, 1948 John Robsion (R) William Lewis (R) Died February 17, 1948.
Missouri 10 80th November 2, 1948 Orville Zimmerman (D) Paul C. Jones (D) Died April 7, 1948.
Virginia 6 80th November 2, 1948 J. Lindsay Almond (D) Clarence G. Burton (D) Resigned April 17, 1948 to become Attorney General of Virginia.
Texas 15 80th December 4, 1948 Milton H. West (D) Lloyd Bentsen (D) Died October 28, 1948.

81st through 90th congresses

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
Pennsylvania 26 81st September 13, 1949 Robert L. Coffey (D) John P. Saylor (R) Died April 20, 1949.
California 5 81st November 8, 1949 Richard Welch (R) Jack Shelley (D) Died.
New York 10 81st November 8, 1949 Andrew Somers (D) Edna F. Kelly (D) Died.
New Jersey 7 81st February 6, 1950 J. Parnell Thomas (R) William B. Widnall (R) Resigned January 2, 1950, after conviction for salary fraud.
Texas 18 81st May 6, 1950 Eugene Worley (D) Ben Guill (R) Resigned April 3, 1950.
Kentucky 6 81st April 4, 1951 Thomas R. Underwood (D) John C. Watts (D) Resigned March 17, 1951.
West Virginia 5 82nd July 17, 1951 John Kee (D) Elizabeth Kee (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 33 82nd July 24, 1951 Frank Buchanan (D) Vera Buchanan (D) Died April 27, 1951.
Maine 3 82nd October 22, 1951 Frank Fellows (R) Clifford McIntire (R) Died.
New Jersey 9 82nd November 6, 1951 Harry L. Towe (R) Frank C. Osmers Jr. (R) Resigned September 7, 1951, to become N.J. Assistant Attorney General.
Ohio 3 82nd November 6, 1951 Ed Breen (D) Paul Schenck (R) Resigned October 1, 1951, due to ill health.
Pennsylvania 8 82nd November 6, 1951 Albert C. Vaughn (R) Karl C. King (R) Died September 1, 1951.
Pennsylvania 14 82nd November 6, 1951 Wilson D. Gillette (R) Joseph L. Carrigg (R) Died August 7, 1951.
Nebraska 3 82nd December 4, 1951 Karl Stefan (R) Bob Harrison (R) Died.
Georgia 2 83rd February 4, 1953 Eugene Cox (D) J. L. Pilcher (D) Died.
New Jersey 6 83rd November 3, 1953 Clifford P. Case (R) Harrison A. Williams (D) Resigned August 16, 1953, to become President of The Fund for the Republic.
California 24 83rd November 10, 1953 Norris Poulson (R) Glen Lipscomb (R) Resigned upon election as Mayor of Los Angeles.
Hawaii Territory at-large 83rd July 31, 1954 Joe Farrington (R) Elizabeth Farrington (R) Died.
Georgia 4 83rd November 2, 1954 Albert Camp (D) John Flynt (D) Died.
Florida 6 84th January 11, 1955 Dwight L. Rogers (D) Paul Rogers (D) Died December 1, 1954.
Michigan 15 84th December 13, 1955 John D. Dingell Sr. (D) John D. Dingell Jr. (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 30 84th January 24, 1956 Vera Buchanan (D) Elmer J. Holland (D) Died November 26, 1955.
Pennsylvania 2 84th November 6, 1956 William T. Granahan (D) Kathryn E. Granahan (D) Died May 25, 1956.
New Mexico at-large 85th April 9, 1957 Antonio Fernández (D) Joseph Montoya (D) Died.
New Jersey 2 85th November 5, 1957 T. Millet Hand (R) Milton W. Glenn (R) Died December 26, 1956.
Pennsylvania 13 85th November 5, 1957 Samuel K. McConnell Jr. (R) John A. Lafore Jr. (R) Resigned September 1, 1957, to become Executive Director of United Cerebral Palsy.
Georgia 7 85th January 8, 1958 Henderson Lanham (D) Harlan Mitchell (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 21 85th January 21, 1958 Augustine Kelley (D) John H. Dent (D) Died November 20, 1957.
Pennsylvania 4 85th May 20, 1958 Earl Chudoff (D) Robert Nix (D) Resigned January 5, 1958, upon election as a judge for the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas.
Pennsylvania 17 86th April 26, 1960 Alvin Bush (R) Herman T. Schneebeli (R) Died November 5, 1959.
Pennsylvania 18 86th April 26, 1960 Richard M. Simpson (R) Douglas Elliott (R) Died January 7, 1960.
Ohio 6 86th November 8, 1960 James G. Polk (D) Ward Miller (R) Died April 28, 1959.
Pennsylvania 18 86th November 8, 1960 Douglas Elliott (R) J. Irving Whalley (R) Died June 19, 1960.
Washington 3 86th November 8, 1960 Russell V. Mack (R) Julia Butler Hansen (D) Died March 28, 1960.
Arkansas 6 87th April 19, 1961 William F. Norrell (D) Catherine Norrell (D) Died.
Arizona 2 87th May 2, 1961 Stewart Udall (D) Mo Udall (D) Resigned to become United States Secretary of the Interior.
Pennsylvania 16 87th May 16, 1961 Walter M. Mumma (R) John C. Kunkel (R) Died February 25, 1961.
Tennessee 1 87th May 16, 1961 B. Carroll Reece (R) Louise Goff Reece (R) Died March 19, 1961.
Louisiana 4 87th December 19, 1961 Overton Brooks (D) Joe Waggonner (D) Died.
Texas 4 87th January 30, 1962 Sam Rayburn (D) Ray Roberts (D) Died.
South Carolina 2 87th April 10, 1962 John J. Riley (D) Corinne Riley (D) Died.
California 1 88th January 22, 1963 Clement Miller (D) Don Clausen (R) Died.
California 23 88th June 11, 1963 Clyde Doyle (D) Del Clawson (R) Died.
Pennsylvania 15 88th July 30, 1963 Francis E. Walter (D) Fred B. Rooney (D) Died May 31, 1963.
North Dakota 1 88th October 22, 1963 Hjalmar Carl Nygaard (R) Mark Andrews (R) Died.
Pennsylvania 23 88th November 5, 1963 Leon H. Gavin (R) Albert W. Johnson (R) Died September 15, 1963.
California 37 88th February 18, 1964 Jack Shelley (D) Phillip Burton (D) Resigned upon election as Mayor of San Francisco.
Tennessee 2 82nd March 10, 1964 Howard Baker Sr. (R) Irene Baker (R) Died.
Pennsylvania 5 88th April 28, 1964 William J. Green Jr. (D) William J. Green III (D) Died December 21, 1963.
Oregon 1 88th November 3, 1964 Walter Norblad (R) Wendell Wyatt (R) Died.
Louisiana 7 89th October 2, 1965[6] Ashton Thompson (D) Edwin Edwards (D) Died.
Ohio 7 89th November 2, 1965 Clarence J. Brown (R) Bud Brown (R) Died August 23, 1965.
California 26 89th December 15, 1965 James Roosevelt (D) Tom Rees (D) Resigned to unsuccessfully run for Mayor of Los Angeles.
Texas 8 89th March 26, 1966 Albert Thomas (D) Lera Thomas (D) Died.
California 14 89th June 7, 1966 John Baldwin (R) Jerry Waldie (D) Died.
Rhode Island 2 90th March 28, 1967 John Fogarty (D) Robert Tiernan (D) Died.
California 11 90th December 12, 1967 Arthur Younger (R) Pete McCloskey (R) Died.
New York 13 90th February 20, 1968 Abraham Multer (D) Bert Podell (D) Resigned to become a judge for the New York Supreme Court.
Mississippi 3 90th March 12, 1968 John Williams (D) Charles Griffin (D) Resigned upon election as Governor of Mississippi.
Texas 3 90th August 24, 1968 Joe Pool (D) Jim Collins (R) Died.
Pennsylvania 20 90th November 5, 1968 Elmer Holland (D) Joe Gaydos (D) Died August 9, 1968.

91st through 100th congresses

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
Tennessee 8 91st March 25, 1969 Fats Everett (D) Ed Jones (D) Died.
Wisconsin 7 91st April 1, 1969 Melvin Laird (R) Dave Obey (D) Resigned to become United States Secretary of Defense.
California 27 91st April 29, 1969 Ed Reinecke (R) Barry Goldwater Jr. (R) Resigned upon election as Lieutenant Governor of California.
Montana 2 91st June 24, 1969 James Battin (R) John Melcher (D) Resigned to become judge for the United States District Court for the District of Montana.
Massachusetts 6 91st September 30, 1969 Bill Bates (R) Mike Harrington (D) Died.
New Jersey 8 91st November 4, 1969 Charles Joelson (D) Bob Roe (D) Resigned to become judge for the New Jersey Superior Court.
Illinois 13 91st November 25, 1969 Donald Rumsfeld (R) Phil Crane (R) Resigned to become director of the Office of Economic Opportunity.
California 35 91st June 30, 1970 Jim Utt (R) John Schmitz (R) Died.
California 24 91st June 30, 1970 Glen Lipscomb (R) John Rousselot (R) Died.
Connecticut 2 91st November 3, 1970 Bill St. Onge (D) Robert Steele (R) Died.
New Jersey 6 91st November 3, 1970 Bill Cahill (R) Edwin Forsythe (R) Resigned upon election as Governor of New Jersey.
Ohio 19 91st November 3, 1970 Mike Kirwan (D) Charles Carney (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 9 91st November 3, 1970 Robert Watkins (R) John Ware (R) Died August 7, 1970 (heart attack).
Illinois 6 91st December 3, 1970 Dan Ronan (D) George Collins (D) Died.
South Carolina 1 92nd April 27, 1971 Mendel Rivers (D) Mendel Davis (D) Died.
Maryland 1 92nd May 25, 1971 Rogers Morton (R) Bill Mills (R) Resigned to become United States Secretary of the Interior.
Pennsylvania 18 92nd November 2, 1971 Bob Corbett (R) John Heinz (R) Died April 25, 1971.
Kentucky 6 92nd December 4, 1971 John Watts (D) Bill Curlin (D) Died.
Vermont at-large 92nd January 7, 1972 Robert Stafford (R) Richard Mallary (R) Resigned to become U.S. Senator from Vermont.
Alabama 3 92nd April 4, 1972 George Andrews (D) Elizabeth Andrews (D) Died December 25, 1971.
Illinois 15 92nd April 4, 1972 Charlotte Reid (R) Cliffard Carlson (R) Resigned upon appointment to the Federal Communications Commission.
Pennsylvania 27 92nd April 25, 1972 Jim Fulton (R) Bill Conover (R) Died October 6, 1971 (heart attack).
Louisiana 7 92nd September 30, 1972 Edwin Edwards (D) John Breaux (D) Resigned upon election as Governor of Louisiana.
Virginia 6 92nd November 7, 1972 Richard Poff (R) Caldwell Butler (R) Resigned upon appointment to the Supreme Court of Virginia.
Alaska at-large 93rd March 6, 1973 Nick Begich (D) Don Young (R) Died.
Louisiana 2 93rd March 20, 1973 Hale Boggs (D) Lindy Boggs (D) Died.
Illinois 7 93rd June 5, 1973 George Collins (D) Cardiss Collins (D) Died.
Maryland 1 93rd August 21, 1973 Bill Mills (R) Bob Bauman (R) Died.
Pennsylvania 12 93rd February 25, 1974 John Saylor (R) John Murtha (D) Died October 28, 1973 (complications from surgery).
Michigan 5 93rd February 18, 1974 Gerald Ford (R) Richard VanderVeen (D) Resigned to become Vice President of the United States.
Ohio 1 93rd March 5, 1974 Bill Keating (R) Tom Luken (D) Resigned to take a position as president of The Cincinnati Enquirer.
Michigan 8 93rd April 16, 1974 James Harvey (R) Bob Traxler (D) Resigned to become judge for the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan.
California 6 93rd June 4, 1974 Bill Mailliard (R) John Burton (D) Resigned to become United States Ambassador to the Organization of American States.
California 13 93rd June 4, 1974 Charles Teague (R) Bob Lagomarsino (R) Died.
Louisiana 6 94th January 7, 1975 John Rarick (D) W. Henson Moore (R) Re-run of the preceding general election because of claimed irregularities in the tabulation; Moore defeated the Democrat Jeffrey D. LaCaze, who had unseated John Rarick in the Democratic runoff election of 1974.
California 37 94th April 29, 1975 Jerry Pettis (R) Shirley Pettis (R) Died.
Illinois 5 94th July 8, 1975 John Kluczynski (D) John Fary (D) Died.
Tennessee 5 94th November 25, 1975 Dick Fulton (D) Clifford Allen (D) Resigned upon election as Mayor of Nashville.
New York 39 94th March 2, 1976 Jim Hastings (R) Stan Lundine (D) Resigned upon conviction of bribery and mail fraud.
Texas 22 94th April 3, 1976 Bob Casey (D) Ron Paul (R) Resigned upon appointment to the Federal Maritime Commission.
Texas 1 94th June 19, 1976 Wright Patman (D) Sam Hall (D) Died.
Massachusetts 7 94th November 2, 1976 Torbert MacDonald (D) Ed Markey (D) Died.
Missouri 6 94th November 2, 1976 Jerry Litton (D) Earl Coleman (R) Died.
Pennsylvania 1 94th November 2, 1976 Bill Barrett (D) Ozzie Myers (D) Died April 12, 1976.
Minnesota 7 95th February 22, 1977 Bob Bergland (D) Arlan Stangeland (R) Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of Agriculture.
Georgia 5 95th April 6, 1977 Andrew Young (D) Wyche Fowler (D) Resigned to become United States Ambassador to the United Nations.
Washington 7 95th May 17, 1977 Brock Adams (D) John Cunningham (R) Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of Transportation.
Louisiana 1 95th August 27, 1977 Rick Tonry (D) Bob Livingston (R) Resigned upon conviction of taking illegal campaign contributions.
New York 18 95th February 14, 1978 Ed Koch (D) Bill Green (R) Resigned upon election as Mayor of New York City.
New York 21 95th February 14, 1978 Herman Badillo (D) Robert Garcia (D) Resigned to become deputy mayor of New York City.
California 11 96th April 3, 1979 Leo Ryan (D) Bill Royer (R) Died.
Illinois 10 96th January 22, 1980 Abner Mikva (D) John Porter (R) Resigned to become judge for the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
West Virginia 3 96th April 9, 1980 John Slack (D) John Hutchinson (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 11 96th April 9, 1980 Dan Flood (D) Raphael Musto (D) Resigned after being investigated for bribery.
Louisiana 3 96th May 17, 1980 Dave Treen (R) Billy Tauzin (D) Resigned upon election as Governor of Louisiana.
Michigan 13 96th November 4, 1980 Charles Diggs (D) George Crockett (D) Resigned after being convicted of mail fraud.
Michigan 4 97th April 21, 1981 David Stockman (R) Mark Siljander (R) Resigned to become Director of the Office of Management and Budget.
Maryland 5 97th May 19, 1981 Gladys Spellman (D) Steny Hoyer (D) Fell into a permanent coma, resulting in the seat being declared vacant.
Ohio 4 97th June 25, 1981 Tennyson Guyer (R) Mike Oxley (R) Died.
Mississippi 4 97th July 7, 1981 Jon Hinson (R) Wayne Dowdy (D) Resigned after being charged with sodomy for participating in consensual gay sex.
Pennsylvania 3 97th July 21, 1981 Ray Lederer (D) Joe Smith (D) Resigned April 29, 1981, upon indictment for his role in the Abscam sting.
Connecticut 1 97th January 12, 1982 Bill Cotter (D) Barbara Kennelly (D) Died.
Ohio 17 97th June 29, 1982 John Ashbrook (R) Jean Ashbrook (R) Died.
California 30 97th July 13, 1982 George Danielson (D) Marty Martinez (D) Resigned to become Judge of the Fourth District of the California Courts of Appeal.
Indiana 1 97th November 2, 1982 Adam Benjamin (D) Katie Hall (D) Died.
Texas 6 98th February 12, 1983 Phil Gramm (D) Phil Gramm (R) Resigned upon leaving the Democratic Party and won reelection as a Republican.
New York 7 98th March 1, 1983 Ben Rosenthal (D) Gary Ackerman (D) Died.
Colorado 6 98th March 29, 1983 None[z] Dan Schaefer (R) (See note.)
California 5 98th June 21, 1983 Phillip Burton (D) Sala Burton (D) Died.
Illinois 1 98th August 23, 1983 Harold Washington (D) Charles Hayes (D) Resigned upon election as Mayor of Chicago.
Georgia 7 98th November 8, 1983 Larry McDonald (D) Buddy Darden (D) Died September 1, 1983 (airliner shootdown incident).
Wisconsin 4 98th April 3, 1984 Clement Zablocki (D) Jerry Kleczka (D) Died.
Kentucky 7 98th November 6, 1984 Carl Perkins (D) Chris Perkins (D) Died.
New Jersey 13 98th November 6, 1984 Edwin Forsythe (R) Jim Saxton (R) Died March 29, 1984 (lung cancer).
Louisiana 8 99th March 30, 1985 Gillis Long (D) Catherine Small Long (D) Died.
Texas 1 99th September 4, 1985 Sam Hall (D) Jim Chapman (D) Resigned to become Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas.
New York 6 99th July 10, 1986 Joe Addabbo (D) Alton Waldon (D) Died.
Hawaii 1 99th September 20, 1986 Cec Heftel (D) Neil Abercrombie (D) Resigned to unsuccessfully run for Governor of Hawaii.
North Carolina 10 99th November 4, 1986 Jim Broyhill (R) Cass Ballenger (R) Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
California 5 100th June 2, 1987 Sala Burton (D) Nancy Pelosi (D) Died.
Connecticut 4 100th August 18, 1987 Stewart McKinney (R) Chris Shays (R) Died.
Louisiana 4 100th April 16, 1988 Buddy Roemer (D) Jim McCrery (R) Resigned upon election as Governor of Louisiana.
Tennessee 5 100th January 19, 1988 Bill Boner (D) Bob Clement (D) Resigned upon election as Mayor of Nashville.
Virginia 5 100th June 14, 1988 Dan Daniel (D) Lewis Payne (D) Died.
Illinois 21 100th August 9, 1988 Melvin Price (D) Jerry Costello (D) Died.
New Jersey 3 100th November 8, 1988 James Howard (D) Frank Pallone (D) Died March 25, 1988 (heart attack).
Tennessee 2 100th November 8, 1988 John Duncan (R) Jimmy Duncan (R) Died.

101st through 110th congresses

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
Indiana 4 101st March 28, 1989 Dan Coats (R) Jill Long (D) Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
Alabama 3 101st April 4, 1989 Bill Nichols (D) Glen Browder (D) Died.
Wyoming at-large 101st April 26, 1989 Dick Cheney (R) Craig Thomas (R) Resigned to become United States Secretary of Defense.
Florida 18 101st August 29, 1989 Claude Pepper (D) Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R) Died.
California 15 101st September 12, 1989 Tony Coelho (D) Gary Condit (D) Resigned due to an investigation on his involvement in the savings and loan crisis.
Texas 12 101st September 12, 1989 Jim Wright (D) Pete Geren (D) Resigned due to an investigation on his involvement in the savings and loan crisis.
Mississippi 5 101st October 17, 1989 Larkin Smith (R) Gene Taylor (D) Died.
Texas 18 101st December 9, 1989 Mickey Leland (D) Craig Washington (D) Died.
New York 14 101st March 20, 1990 Guy Molinari (R) Susan Molinari (R) Resigned upon election as Borough President of Staten Island.
New York 18 101st March 20, 1990 Robert Garcia (D) Jose Serrano (D) Resigned upon his indictment for involvement in the Wedtech scandal.
Hawaii 2 101st September 22, 1990 Daniel Akaka (D) Patsy Mink (D) Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
New Jersey 1 101st November 6, 1990 Jim Florio (D) Rob Andrews (D) Resigned upon election as Governor of New Jersey.
Texas 3 102nd May 18, 1991 Steve Bartlett (R) Sam Johnson (R) Resigned upon election as Mayor of Dallas.
Massachusetts 1 102nd June 4, 1991 Silvio Conte (R) John Olver (D) Died.
Illinois 15 102nd July 2, 1991 Ed Madigan (R) Tom Ewing (R) Resigned to become United States Secretary of Agriculture.
Pennsylvania 2 102nd November 5, 1991 Bill Gray (D) Lucien Blackwell (D) Resigned to become director of the United Negro College Fund.
Virginia 7 102nd November 5, 1991 D. French Slaughter (R) George Allen (R) Resigned due to ill health (stroke).
Arizona 2 102nd September 24, 1991 Mo Udall (D) Ed Pastor (D) Resigned due to ill health (Parkinson's disease).
New York 17 102nd November 3, 1992 Ted Weiss (D) Jerrold Nadler (D) Died.
North Carolina 1 102nd November 3, 1992 Walter Jones Sr. (D) Eva Clayton (D) Died.
Mississippi 2 103rd April 13, 1993 Mike Espy (D) Bennie Thompson (D) Resigned to become United States Secretary of Agriculture.
Wisconsin 1 103rd May 4, 1993 Les Aspin (D) Peter Barca (D) Resigned to become United States Secretary of Defense.
Ohio 2 103rd May 4, 1993 Bill Gradison (R) Rob Portman (R) Resigned to become president of the Health Insurance Association of America.
California 17 103rd June 8, 1993 Leon Panetta (D) Sam Farr (D) Resigned to become Director of the Office of Management and Budget.
Michigan 3 103rd December 7, 1993 Paul Henry (R) Vern Ehlers (R) Died.
Oklahoma 6 103rd May 10, 1994 Glenn English (D) Frank Lucas (R) Resigned to become vice president of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association.
Kentucky 2 103rd May 24, 1994 William Natcher (D) Ron Lewis (R) Died.
Oklahoma 1 103rd November 8, 1994 Jim Inhofe (R) Steve Largent (R) Resigned upon election as U.S. Senator.
California 15 104th December 12, 1995 Norman Mineta (D) Tom Campbell (R) Resigned to become vice president of Lockheed Martin.
Illinois 2 104th December 12, 1995 Mel Reynolds (D) Jesse Jackson Jr. (D) Resigned after being convicted of statutory rape.
California 37 104th March 26, 1996 Walter Tucker (D) Juanita Millender-McDonald (D) Resigned due to investigations over extortion and tax evasion.
Maryland 7 104th April 16, 1996 Kweisi Mfume (D) Elijah Cummings (D) Resigned to become director of the NAACP.
Oregon 3 104th May 21, 1996 Ron Wyden (D) Earl Blumenauer (D) Resigned upon election as U.S. Senator.
Kansas 2 104th November 5, 1996 Sam Brownback (R) Jim Ryun (R) Resigned upon election as U.S. Senator.
Missouri 8 104th November 5, 1996 Bill Emerson (R) Jo Ann Emerson (R) Died.
Texas 28 105th April 12, 1997 Frank Tejeda (D) Ciro Rodriguez (D) Died.
New Mexico 3 105th May 13, 1997 Bill Richardson (D) Bill Redmond (R) Resigned to become United States Ambassador to the United Nations.
New York 13 105th November 4, 1997 Susan Molinari (R) Vito Fossella (R) Resigned to become anchor of CBS This Morning.
New York 6 105th February 3, 1998 Floyd Flake (D) Gregory Meeks (D) Resigned to focus on his ministerial career.
California 22 105th March 10, 1998 Walter Capps (D) Lois Capps (D) Died.
California 9 105th April 7, 1998 Ron Dellums (D) Barbara Lee (D) Resigned to take a position as a lobbyist.
California 44 105th April 7, 1998 Sonny Bono (R) Mary Bono (R) Died.
Pennsylvania 1 105th May 19, 1998 Tom Foglietta (D) Bob Brady (D) Resigned to become United States Ambassador to Italy.
New Mexico 1 105th June 23, 1998 Steven Schiff (R) Heather Wilson (R) Died.
Georgia 6 106th February 23, 1999 Newt Gingrich (R) Johnny Isakson (R) Resigned after the Republican caucus attempted to defeat him for another term as Speaker of the House due to his party's poor electoral showing.
Louisiana 1 106th May 29, 1999 Bob Livingston (R) David Vitter (R) Resigned upon the discovery of an extramarital affair.
California 42 106th November 16, 1999 George Brown Jr. (D) Joe Baca (D) Died.
Pennsylvania 9 107th May 15, 2001 Bud Shuster (R) Bill Shuster (R) Resigned after failing to be reappointed as chair of the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee.
California 32 107th June 5, 2001 Julian Dixon (D) Diane Watson (D) Died.
Virginia 4 107th June 19, 2001 Norman Sisisky (D) Randy Forbes (R) Died.
Massachusetts 9 107th October 16, 2001 Joe Moakley (D) Stephen Lynch (D) Died.
Florida 1 107th October 16, 2001 Joe Scarborough (R) Jeff Miller (R) Resigned to spend more time with his children.
Arkansas 3 107th November 20, 2001 Asa Hutchinson (R) John Boozman (R) Resigned to become Director of the Drug Enforcement Administration.
South Carolina 2 107th December 18, 2001 Floyd Spence (R) Joe Wilson (R) Died.
Oklahoma 1 107th January 8, 2002 Steve Largent (R) John Sullivan (R) Resigned to run for Governor of Oklahoma.
Hawaii 2 107th November 30, 2002 Patsy Mink (D) Ed Case (D) Died.
Hawaii 2 108th January 4, 2003 Ed Case (D) Ed Case (D) Death of Patsy Mink, who had been reelected posthumously.
Texas 19 108th June 3, 2003 Larry Combest (R) Randy Neugebauer (R) Resigned after the sudden death of his daughter.
Kentucky 6 108th February 17, 2004 Ernie Fletcher (R) Ben Chandler (D) Resigned after being elected Governor of Kentucky.
South Dakota at-large 108th June 1, 2004 Bill Janklow (R) Stephanie Herseth (D) Resigned after being convicted of vehicular manslaughter.
North Carolina 1 108th July 20, 2004 Frank Ballance (D) G. K. Butterfield (D) Resigned due to health concerns and subsequent investigations over money laundering and mail fraud.
California 5 109th March 8, 2005 Bob Matsui (D) Doris Matsui (D) Died.
Ohio 2 109th August 2, 2005 Rob Portman (R) Jean Schmidt (R) Resigned to become United States Trade Representative.
California 48 109th December 6, 2005 Christopher Cox (R) John Campbell (R) Resigned to become Chairman of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
California 50 109th June 6, 2006 Duke Cunningham (R) Brian P. Bilbray (R) Resigned after pleading guilty to tax evasion, conspiracy to commit bribery, mail fraud, and wire fraud.
New Jersey 13 109th November 7, 2006 Bob Menendez (D) Albio Sires (D) Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
Texas 22 109th November 7, 2006 Tom DeLay (R) Shelley Sekula-Gibbs (R) Resigned after being indicted for conspiracy to commit election fraud.
Georgia 10 110th July 19, 2007 Charlie Norwood (R) Paul Broun Jr. (R) Died.
California 37 110th August 21, 2007 Juanita Millender-McDonald (D) Laura Richardson (D) Died.
Massachusetts 5 110th October 16, 2007 Marty Meehan (D) Niki Tsongas (D) Resigned to become chancellor of the University of Massachusetts Lowell.
Ohio 5 110th December 11, 2007 Paul Gillmor (R) Bob Latta (R) Died.
Virginia 1 110th December 11, 2007 Jo Ann Davis (R) Rob Wittman (R) Died.
Illinois 14 110th March 8, 2008 Dennis Hastert (R) Bill Foster (D) Resigned to become a lobbyist.
Indiana 7 110th March 11, 2008 Julia Carson (D) André Carson (D) Died.
California 12 110th April 8, 2008 Tom Lantos (D) Jackie Speier (D) Died.
Louisiana 1 110th May 3, 2008 Bobby Jindal (R) Steve Scalise (R) Resigned to run for Governor of Louisiana.
Louisiana 6 110th May 3, 2008 Richard Baker (R) Don Cazayoux (D) Resigned to take a lobbyist position with the Managed Funds Association.
Mississippi 1 110th May 13, 2008 Roger Wicker (R) Travis Childers (D) Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
Maryland 4 110th June 17, 2008 Albert Wynn (D) Donna Edwards (D) Resigned after losing renomination.
Ohio 11 110th November 18, 2008 Stephanie Tubbs Jones (D) Marcia Fudge (D) Died.

111th through 116th congresses

District Con-
gress[a]
Date[b] Original Winner Cause of vacancy
New York 20 111th March 31, 2009 Kirsten Gillibrand (D) Scott Murphy (D) Resigned to become United States Senator from New York.
Illinois 5 111th.[aa] April 7, 2009 Rahm Emanuel (D) Michael Quigley (D) Resigned to become White House Chief of Staff.
California 32 111th July 14, 2009 Hilda Solis (D) Judy Chu (D) Resigned to become United States Secretary of Labor.
California 10 111th November 3, 2009 Ellen Tauscher (D) John Garamendi (D) Resigned to become Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Affairs.
New York 23 111th November 3, 2009 John M. McHugh (R) Bill Owens (D) Resigned to become United States Secretary of the Army.
Florida 19 111th April 13, 2010 Robert Wexler (D) Ted Deutch (D) Resigned to become director of the S. Daniel Abraham Center for Middle East Peace.
Pennsylvania 12 111th May 18, 2010 John Murtha (D) Mark Critz (D) Died February 8, 2010 (surgical complications).
Hawaii 1 111th May 22, 2010 Neil Abercrombie (D) Charles Djou (R) Resigned to successfully run for Governor of Hawaii.
Georgia 9 111th June 8, 2010[ab] Nathan Deal (R) Tom Graves (R) Resigned to successfully run for Governor of Georgia.
Indiana 3 111th November 2, 2010 Mark Souder (R) Marlin Stutzman (R) Resigned after admitting to an affair with one of his part-time female staff members.[7]
New York 29 111th November 2, 2010 Eric Massa (D) Tom Reed (R) Resigned due to a pending House Ethics Committee investigation into allegations of sexual misconduct.
New York 26 112th May 24, 2011 Chris Lee (R) Kathy Hochul (D) Resigned after being found to have been sexually soliciting at least one woman on Craigslist and emailed a shirtless photo of himself.
California 36 112th July 12, 2011 Jane Harman (D) Janice Hahn (D) Resigned to become the director of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.[8]
Nevada 2 112th September 13, 2011 Dean Heller (R) Mark Amodei (R) Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
New York 9 112th September 13, 2011 Anthony Weiner (D) Bob Turner (R) Resigned due to the Anthony Weiner sexting scandal.
Oregon 1 112th January 31, 2012 David Wu (D) Suzanne Bonamici (D) Resigned due to accusations that he made unwanted sexual advances on the teenage daughter of a campaign donor and friend.
Arizona 8 112th June 12, 2012 Gabby Giffords (D) Ron Barber (D) Resigned due to injuries sustained in the 2011 Tucson shooting.
Kentucky 4 112th November 6, 2012 Geoff Davis (R) Thomas Massie (R) Resigned due to family health issues.
Michigan 11 112th November 6, 2012 Thad McCotter (R) David Curson (D) Resigned after failing to qualify for the 2012 Republican primary in his congressional district after massive fraud by his staff resulted in the rejection of approximately 85% of his petition signatures as invalid.[9][10]
New Jersey 10 112th November 6, 2012 Donald M. Payne (D) Donald Payne Jr. (D) Died (colon cancer).
Washington 1 112th November 6, 2012 Jay Inslee (D) Suzan DelBene (D) Resigned to successfully run for Governor of Washington.
Illinois 2 113th April 9, 2013 Jesse Jackson Jr. (D) Robin Kelly (D) Resigned, citing mental and physical health problems, and also acknowledged that he was under two separate investigations by the House Ethics Committee and the FBI.[11]
South Carolina 1 113th May 7, 2013 Tim Scott (R) Mark Sanford (R) Resigned to become U.S. Senator from South Carolina.
Missouri 8 113th June 4, 2013 Jo Ann Emerson (R) Jason Smith (R) Resigned to become the president of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association.
Louisiana 5 113th November 16, 2013 Rodney Alexander (R) Vance McAllister (R) Resigned to become secretary of the Louisiana Department of Veterans Affairs.
Massachusetts 5 113th December 10, 2013 Edward Markey (D) Katherine Clark (D) Resigned upon his election as United States Senator from Massachusetts.
Alabama 1 113th December 17, 2013 Jo Bonner (R) Bradley Byrne (R) Resigned to become the vice chancellor of The University of Alabama.
Florida 13 113th March 11, 2014 Bill Young (R) David Jolly (R) Died October 18, 2013.
Florida 19 113th June 24, 2014 Trey Radel (R) Curt Clawson (R) Resigned January 27, 2014, following conviction for cocaine possession.
North Carolina 12 113th November 4, 2014 Mel Watt (D) Alma Adams (D) Resigned January 6, 2014, to become director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency.
New Jersey 1 113th November 4, 2014 Rob Andrews (D) Donald Norcross (D) Resigned February 18, 2014, due to ethics investigation.
Virginia 7 113th November 4, 2014 Eric Cantor (R) Dave Brat (R) Resigned August 1, 2014, after being defeated in the primary by Dave Brat.
New York 11 114th May 5, 2015 Michael Grimm (R) Daniel M. Donovan Jr. (R) Resigned January 5, 2015, after guilty plea to felony tax evasion.
Mississippi 1 114th May 12, 2015 Alan Nunnelee (R) Trent Kelly (R) Died February 6, 2015 (brain cancer).
Illinois 18 114th September 10, 2015 Aaron Schock (R) Darin LaHood (R) Resigned March 31, 2015, due to ethics probe into office spending.
Ohio 8 114th June 7, 2016 John Boehner (R) Warren Davidson (R) Resigned October 29, 2015.
Pennsylvania 2 114th November 8, 2016 Chaka Fattah (D) Dwight Evans (D) Resigned June 23, 2016, after conviction of fraud and money laundering.
Hawaii 1 114th November 8, 2016 Mark Takai (D) Colleen Hanabusa (D) Died July 20, 2016 (pancreatic cancer).
Kentucky 1 114th November 8, 2016 Ed Whitfield (R) James Comer (R) Resigned September 6, 2016.
Kansas 4 115th April 11, 2017 Mike Pompeo (R) Ron Estes (R) Resigned January 23, 2017, to become Director of the Central Intelligence Agency.
Montana at-large 115th May 25, 2017 Ryan Zinke (R) Greg Gianforte (R) Resigned March 1, 2017, to become United States Secretary of the Interior.
California 34 115th June 6, 2017 Xavier Becerra (D) Jimmy Gomez (D) Resigned January 24, 2017, to become Attorney General of California.
Georgia 6 115th June 20, 2017 Tom Price (R) Karen Handel (R) Resigned February 10, 2017, to become United States Secretary of Health and Human Services.
South Carolina 5 115th June 20, 2017 Mick Mulvaney (R) Ralph Norman (R) Resigned February 16, 2017, to become director of the Office of Management and Budget.
Utah 3 115th November 7, 2017 Jason Chaffetz (R) John Curtis (R) Resigned June 30, 2017.
Pennsylvania 18 115th March 13, 2018 Tim Murphy (R) Conor Lamb (D) Resigned October 21, 2017, following extra-marital affair.[12]
Arizona 8 115th April 24, 2018 Trent Franks (R) Debbie Lesko (R) Resigned December 8, 2017, due to investigation into sexual harassment.
Texas 27 115th June 30, 2018 Blake Farenthold (R) Michael Cloud (R) Resigned April 6, 2018, due to ethics investigation into sexual harassment.
Ohio 12 115th August 7, 2018 Pat Tiberi (R) Troy Balderson (R) Resigned January 15, 2018.
Michigan 13 115th November 6, 2018 John Conyers (D) Brenda Jones (D)[13] Resigned December 5, 2017, following allegations of sexual harassment.
New York 25 115th November 6, 2018 Louise Slaughter (D) Joseph Morelle (D) Died March 16, 2018.
Pennsylvania 7 115th November 6, 2018 Pat Meehan (R) Mary Gay Scanlon (D) Resigned April 27, 2018.
Pennsylvania 15 115th November 6, 2018 Charlie Dent (R) Susan Wild (D) Resigned May 12, 2018.
Pennsylvania 12 116th May 21, 2019 Tom Marino (R) Fred Keller (R) Resigned January 23, 2019.
North Carolina 3 116th September 10, 2019 Walter B. Jones Jr. (R) Greg Murphy (R) Died February 10, 2019.
North Carolina 9 116th September 10, 2019 None[ac] Dan Bishop (R) In December 2018, North Carolina State Board of Elections refused to certify election results following allegations of election fraud and vote tampering.[14] They proceeded to investigate these allegations. On February 21, 2019, following a 3 day hearing on the allegations, the State Board of Elections unanimously ordered a special election.[15]
California 25 116th March 3, 2020 Katie Hill (D) TBD Resigned November 3, 2019 due to inappropriate sexual relationships.
Maryland 7 116th April 28, 2020 Elijah Cummings (D) TBD Died October 17, 2019.
Wisconsin 7 116th May 12, 2020 Sean Duffy (R) TBD Resigned September 23, 2019.
New York 27 116th TBA Chris Collins (R) TBD Resigned October 1, 2019 due to guilty plea to insider trading charges.

Summary

In a few instances more than one seat was filled in a single special election, but each seat is counted separately in the list below.

Cong
ress
Start End Special
elections
Cumulative
total
1st March 4, 1789 March 3, 1791 2 2
2nd March 4, 1791 March 3, 1793 6 8
3rd March 4, 1793 March 3, 1795 8 16
4th March 4, 1795 March 3, 1797 12 28
5th March 4, 1797 March 3, 1799 15 43
6th March 4, 1799 March 3, 1801 11 54
7th March 4, 1801 March 3, 1803 18 72
8th March 4, 1803 March 3, 1805 11 83
9th March 4, 1805 March 3, 1807 16 99
10th March 4, 1807 March 3, 1809 11 110
11th March 4, 1809 March 3, 1811 12 122
12th March 4, 1811 March 3, 1813 7 129
13th March 4, 1813 March 3, 1815 21 150
14th March 4, 1815 March 3, 1817 23 173
15th March 4, 1817 March 3, 1819 17 190
16th March 4, 1819 March 3, 1821 15 205
17th March 4, 1821 March 3, 1823 21 226
18th March 4, 1823 March 3, 1825 11 237
19th March 4, 1825 March 3, 1827 16 253
20th March 4, 1827 March 3, 1829 16 269
21st March 4, 1829 March 3, 1831 14 283
22nd March 4, 1831 March 3, 1833 9 292
23rd March 4, 1833 March 3, 1835 23 315
24th March 4, 1835 March 3, 1837 20 335
25th March 4, 1837 March 3, 1839 19 354
26th March 4, 1839 March 3, 1841 18 372
27th March 4, 1841 March 3, 1843 23 395
28th March 4, 1843 March 3, 1845 14 409
29th March 4, 1845 March 3, 1847 13 422
30th March 4, 1847 March 3, 1849 10 432
31st March 4, 1849 March 3, 1851 14 446
32nd March 4, 1851 March 3, 1853 6 452
33rd March 4, 1853 March 3, 1855 9 461
34th March 4, 1855 March 3, 1857 9 470
35th March 4, 1857 March 3, 1859 11 481
36th March 4, 1859 March 3, 1861 7 488
37th March 4, 1861 March 3, 1863 20 508
38th March 4, 1863 March 3, 1865 6 514
39th March 4, 1865 March 3, 1867 7 (+2 [16]) 523
40th March 4, 1867 March 3, 1869 11 534
41st March 4, 1869 March 3, 1871 16 550
42nd March 4, 1871 March 3, 1873 10 560
43rd March 4, 1873 March 3, 1875 13 573
44th March 4, 1875 March 3, 1877 16 589
45th March 4, 1877 March 3, 1879 6 595
46th March 4, 1879 March 3, 1881 8 603
47th March 4, 1881 March 3, 1883 16 619
48th March 4, 1883 March 3, 1885 15 634
49th March 4, 1885 March 3, 1887 11 645
50th March 4, 1887 March 3, 1889 8 653
51st March 4, 1889 March 3, 1891 17 670
52nd March 4, 1891 March 3, 1893 15 685
53rd March 4, 1893 March 3, 1895 21 706
54th March 4, 1895 March 3, 1897 11 717
55th March 4, 1897 March 3, 1899 13 730
56th March 4, 1899 March 3, 1901 20 750
57th March 4, 1901 March 3, 1903 17 767
58th March 4, 1903 March 3, 1905 14 781
59th March 4, 1905 March 3, 1907 17 798
60th March 4, 1907 March 3, 1909 13 811
61st March 4, 1909 March 3, 1911 13 824
62nd March 4, 1911 March 3, 1913 15 839
63rd March 4, 1913 March 3, 1915 19 858
64th March 4, 1915 March 3, 1917 12 870
65th March 4, 1917 March 3, 1919 23 893
66th March 4, 1919 March 3, 1921 24 917
67th March 4, 1921 March 3, 1923 20 937
68th March 4, 1923 March 3, 1925 24 961
69th March 4, 1925 March 3, 1927 11 972
70th March 4, 1927 March 3, 1929 15 987
71st March 4, 1929 March 3, 1931 27 1,014
72nd March 4, 1931 March 3, 1933 24 1,038
73rd March 4, 1933 January 3, 1935 15 1,053
74th January 3, 1935 January 3, 1937 10 1,063
75th January 3, 1937 January 3, 1939 15 1,078
76th January 3, 1939 January 3, 1941 24 1,102
77th January 3, 1941 January 3, 1943 19 1,121
78th January 3, 1943 January 3, 1945 18 1,139
79th January 3, 1945 January 3, 1947 16 1,155
80th January 3, 1947 January 3, 1949 19 1,174
81st January 3, 1949 January 3, 1951 11 1,185
82nd January 3, 1951 January 3, 1953 15 1,200
83rd January 3, 1953 January 3, 1955 9 1,209
84th January 3, 1955 January 3, 1957 5 1,214
85th January 3, 1957 January 3, 1959 10 1,224
86th January 3, 1959 January 3, 1961 10 1,234
87th January 3, 1961 January 3, 1963 12 1,246
88th January 3, 1963 January 3, 1965 12 1,258
89th January 3, 1965 January 3, 1967 10 1,268
90th January 3, 1967 January 3, 1969 6 1,274
91st January 3, 1969 January 3, 1971 14 1,288
92nd January 3, 1971 January 3, 1973 10 1,298
93rd January 3, 1973 January 3, 1975 10 1,308
94th January 3, 1975 January 3, 1977 10 1,318
95th January 3, 1977 January 3, 1979 6 1,324
96th January 3, 1979 January 3, 1981 7 1,331
97th January 3, 1981 January 3, 1983 9 1,340
98th January 3, 1983 January 3, 1985 9 1,349
99th January 3, 1985 January 3, 1987 5 1,354
100th January 3, 1987 January 3, 1989 8 1,362
101st January 3, 1989 January 3, 1991 12 1,374
102nd January 3, 1991 January 3, 1993 6 1,380
103rd January 3, 1993 January 3, 1995 7 1,387
104th January 3, 1995 January 3, 1997 6 1,393
105th January 3, 1997 January 3, 1999 9 1,402
106th January 3, 1999 January 3, 2001 3 1,405
107th January 3, 2001 January 3, 2003 9 1,414
108th January 3, 2003 January 3, 2005 5 1,419
109th January 3, 2005 January 3, 2007 6 1,425
110th January 3, 2007 January 3, 2009 13 1,438
111th January 3, 2009 January 3, 2011 11 1,449
112th January 3, 2011 January 3, 2013 10 1,459
113th January 3, 2013 January 3, 2015 11 1,470
114th January 3, 2015 January 3, 2017 7 1,477
115th January 3, 2017 January 3, 2019 14 1,491
116th January 3, 2019 January 3, 2021 3 1,494

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Congress during which election occurred
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l For elections prior to 1901, the date of election was not typically recorded, so the date the Representative was seated is provided.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek Date of election. Dubin, Michael J. (1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results. McFarland and Company.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Representative-elect, who served after the start of the Congress but vacated the seat without being sworn in.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Representative-elect, who vacated the seat before the start of the Congress.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Date given for the start of the term, of the person elected at the special election (source: Congressional Biographical Directory). In some cases this is clearly wrong as the date of the legal start of the Congress is given, even though the member was elected at a later date.
  7. ^ MD-7 12th C.: The vacancies, for the remainder of the 11th Congress and the whole of the 12th Congress, were both filled by one ballot. This was the first of three examples of this method being used in Congressional special elections
  8. ^ NY-15 13th C.: Bowers election was challenged by Isaac Williams Jr. (D-R). Williams was seated in place of Bowers December 20, 1813
  9. ^ NH-AL 13th C.: Samuel Smith resigned May 21, 1814 (although the resignation is not mentioned in the Congressional Biographical Directory). At the special election no candidate received the more than 50% of the votes required to be elected. The seat appears to have been left vacant for the remainder of the Congress
  10. ^ NJ-AL 13th C.: Jacob Hufty was elected from the 3rd District, but by the time of the special election the legislature had reinstated at-large elections. This was the second of three cases when the special election was held on a different basis than the general election
  11. ^ Date seated. Election date unknown.
  12. ^ MA-10 18th C.: Bailey had presented credentials as a Member-elect, but the election was contested on the ground that he was not a resident of the district he purported to represent, and the House declared he was not entitled to the seat. He returned to a home in the district and was subsequently elected.[4]
  13. ^ Edward Tattnall, who previously represented Georgia at-large in the U.S. House of Representatives, was re-elected in the First district, but resigned before the beginning of the next Congress
  14. ^ In the 1826 elections, there was a tie vote in the 2nd district, as a result, there was no winner and a second election was held in 1827.
  15. ^ After his initial election, Sutherland resigned to accept a judicial position, but then subsequently resigned from that position and ran, successfully, in the special election called as a result of his own resignation
  16. ^ George W. Towns was installed January 5, 1846, after Representative-elect Washington Poe never took seat. Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company
  17. ^ Died before taking office, necessitating the November 26 special election
  18. ^ Alexander H. Stephens was installed December 1, 1873, after Representative-elect Ambrose R. Wright died before taking seat. Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company
  19. ^ Benjamin Harvey Hill was installed May 5, 1875, after Representative-elect Garnett McMillan died before taking office. Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company
  20. ^ Democrat George A. La Dow was elected, but died before Congress convened.
  21. ^ William A. Pirce was declared the winner of the 1884 election, but his seat was later declared vacant due to election irregularities.
  22. ^ The seat was declared vacant due to failure of candidates to attain majority of the vote.
  23. ^ Democrat Brigham Henry Roberts was elected, but was not allowed to take office because he practiced polygamy
  24. ^ James Wickersham (R) contested Charles August Sulzer's (D) election to the 66th U.S. Congress, however Sulzer died April 28 before the issue was settled. Wickersham was later declared the winner of the 1918 election after a long drawn out recount and seated March 1, 1921
  25. ^ Died before taking the oath of office
  26. ^ District created following the 1980 Census. Republican Jack Swigert died before taking office.
  27. ^ Resigned in the 110th Congress, but the special election was not held until the 111th congress
  28. ^ The special election for Georgia's 9th district was scheduled for May 18, 2010, but since no candidate received 50% of the vote, a runoff was held June 8, 2010
  29. ^ North Carolina State Board of Elections refused to certify this election following allegations of election fraud. They proceeded to investigate the allegations.
  1. ^ Knotts, H. Gibbs; Ragusa, Jordan (2016). "The Nationalization of Special Elections for the U.S. House of Representatives". Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties. 26 (1): 22–39. doi:10.1080/17457289.2015.1063497.
  2. ^ Knotts, H. Gibbs; Ragusa, Jordan M. (January 2, 2016). "The Nationalization of Special Elections for the U.S. House of Representatives". Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties. 26 (1): 22–39. doi:10.1080/17457289.2015.1063497. ISSN 1745-7289.
  3. ^ "DAVENPORT, James - Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov.
  4. ^ Bioguide.
  5. ^ Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  6. ^ "LA District 7 Special Runoff Race".
  7. ^ Souder to resign, Goshen News, 2010 May 18 (accessed 2010 May 18).
  8. ^ "The Fix - Jane Harman to resign from Congress". Washington Post. February 7, 2011.
  9. ^ Spangler, Todd; Gray, Kathleen; Laitner, Bill (June 2, 2012). "McCotter ends write-in campaign for re-election". Detroit Free-Press. Retrieved June 2, 2012.
  10. ^ Lange, Amy. "AG announces charges against 4 after McCotter petition mess". WJBK Fox 2. Archived from the original on August 14, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  11. ^ Camia, Catalina; Davis, Susan (November 21, 2012). "Jesse Jackson Jr. to resign from Congress". USA Today. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
  12. ^ "Tim Murphy resigns from Congress". Politico. October 5, 2017. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  13. ^ https://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/politics/2018/11/13/brenda-jones-congress-swearing-thanksgiving/1989804002/
  14. ^ CNN, Adam Levy. "North Carolina elections board delays certification of congressional election results again". CNN. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
  15. ^ CNN, Veronica Stracqualursi, Dianne Gallagher and Kate Sullivan. "North Carolina elections board votes for new election in congressional race". CNN. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
  16. ^ The two additional special elections were held in states which had not then been re-admitted to representation in Congress, after the Civil War. Those elections were rejected by the House of Representatives.

Sources and external links

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