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List of socialist states

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a combined map of all countries that declared themselves Socialist states under any definition at some point in their history, color-coded for the number of years they said they were Socialist:   Over 70 years   60–70 years   50–60 years   40–50 years   30–40 years   20–30 years   Under 20 years Click on image to magnify
This is a combined map of all countries that declared themselves Socialist states under any definition at some point in their history, color-coded for the number of years they said they were Socialist:
  Over 70 years
  60–70 years
  50–60 years
  40–50 years
  30–40 years
  20–30 years
  Under 20 years
Click on image to magnify

The following is a list of self-declared Socialist states — that is to say, past and present states that have declared themselves Socialist or in the process of building Socialism. Self-identification is the only criterion used by the list, therefore the list includes all countries that have claimed to be Socialist, even if their claims are disputed. All countries that have not claimed to be Socialist are excluded, even in cases where certain outside observers regarded those countries as Socialist. This list includes countries that assert in their constitutions that they are based on Socialism, regardless of their economic or political system. As a result, this list is best understood as a list of countries that explicitly claim to be Socialist and it does not reflect the actual economic systems themselves.

The majority of self-declared Socialist countries have been Marxist–Leninist states, following the model of the Soviet Union or a variant of People's Democracy. They share a common definition of "Socialism" and they refer to themselves as Socialist states on the road to Communism with a leading vanguard party structure. For this reason, they are generally, called "Communist states". Meanwhile, the countries in the non-Marxist–Leninist category represent a wide variety of different interpretations of the word "Socialism"; in many cases the countries do not define what they mean by it. Modern uses of the term "Socialism" are wide in meaning and interpretation.

A sovereign state is a different entity from the political party that rules that state at any given time, thus a country may be ruled by a Socialist party, but without the country itself claiming to be Socialist. This has occurred in both one-party and multi-party political systems. In particular, there are numerous cases of Social Democratic and Democratic Socialist political parties winning elections in liberal democratic states and ruling for a number of terms until a different party wins the elections. For example, the Swedish Social Democratic Party has won most elections in Sweden since 1932, but the country never adopted Socialism or Social Democracy as its official ideology. This article does not list countries that do not have constitutional references to Socialism as Socialist states, even in cases where Socialist parties have governed those countries for a certain period of time.

On the other hand, countries that do maintain constitutional references to Socialism are always listed, even when those countries are ruled by non-Socialist parties. For example, India is a liberal democracy that has been ruled by non-Socialist parties on many occasions, but it is listed here because the Indian Constitution makes references to Socialism. Certain other countries, such as Hungary,[1] Myanmar,[2] Poland[3] and Croatia,[4] have constitutions that make references to their Communist and Socialist past by recognizing or condemning it, but without claiming to be Socialist in the present.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
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    1 646 101
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  • ✪ Capitalism and Socialism: Crash Course World History #33
  • ✪ How Socialism Ruined My Country
  • ✪ Is Denmark Socialist?
  • ✪ History of Communism (Every Year)
  • ✪ Capitalism vs. Socialism


Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course World History and today we’re going to talk about capitalism. [off we go then!] Yeah, Mr. Green, capitalism just turns men into wolves. Your purportedly free markets only make slaves of us all. Oh, God, Stan, it’s Me from College. Me from the Past has become Me from College. This is a disaster. The reason he’s so unbearable, Stan, is that he refuses to recognize the legitimacy of other people’s narratives and that means that he will never, ever be able to have a productive conversation with another human in his entire life. [harsh much, Mr. Green?] So, listen, Me from the Past, I’m going to disappoint you by being too capitalist. And I’m going to disappoint a lot of other people by not being capitalist enough. [100% guaranteed] And, I’m going to disappoint the historians by not using enough jargon. [and Stan. Stan loves jargon] But, what can I do? We only have 12 minutes. [ish] Fortunately capitalism is all about efficiency so let’s do this, Me from College. Randy Riggs becomes a bestselling author; [I love pictures & the word peculiar] Josh Radnor stars in a great sitcom; [Ted Mosby is super Rad(nor), Josh] it is NOT GOING TO WORK OUT with Emily, and DO NOT go to Alaska with a girl you’ve known for 10 days. [Shenanigans?] OKAY, LET’S TALK CAPITALISM. [Intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] So, capitalism is an economic system, but it’s also a cultural system. It’s characterized by innovation and investment to increase wealth. But today we’re going to focus on production and how industrial capitalism changed it. Stan, I can’t wear these emblems of the bourgeoisie while Karl Marx himself is looking at me. It’s ridiculous. I’m changing. Very hard to take off a shirt dramatically. [or unsuggestively] So let’s say it’s 1,200 CE and you’re a rug merchant. Just like merchants today, you sometimes need to borrow money in order to buy the rugs you want to resell at a profit, and then you pay that money back, often with interest, once you’ve resold the rugs. This is called mercantile capitalism, and it was a global phenomenon, from the Chinese to the Indian Ocean trade network to Muslim merchants who would sponsor trade caravans across the Sahara. But by the 17th century, merchants in the Netherlands and in Britain had expanded upon this idea to create joint stock companies. Those companies could finance bigger trade missions and also spread the risk of international trade. But the thing about international trade is sometimes boats sink or they get taken by pirates, [Aaarrr!] and while that’s bad if you’re a sailor because, you know, you lose your life, it’s really bad if you’re a mercantile capitalist because you lost all your money. But if you own one tenth of ten boats, your risk is much better managed. [but is mischief managed?] That kind of investment definitely increased wealth, but it only affected a sliver of the population, and it didn’t create a culture of capitalism. Industrial Capitalism was something altogether different, both in scale and in practice. Let’s use Joyce Appleby’s definition of industrial capitalism: "An economic system that relies on investment of capital in machines and technology that are used to increase production of marketable goods.” So, imagine that someone made a Stan Machine. [lots of Stantastic possibilities there] By the way, Stan, this is a remarkable likeness. And that Stan Machine could produce and direct ten times more episodes of Crash Course than a human Stan. [not super sure Stan's not a robot, btw] Well, of course, even if there are significant upfront costs, I’m going to invest in a Stan Machine, so I can start cranking out ten times the knowledge. Stan, are you focusing on the robot instead of me? I am the star of the show! [sounds like unemployment, Stanimal] Stan Bot, you’re going behind the globe. So, when most of us think of capitalism, especially when we think about its downsides (long hours, low wages, miserable working conditions, child labor, unemployed Stans) [doing yo-yo tricks on the Indy streets] that’s what we’re thinking about. Now admittedly this is just one definition of industrial capitalism among many, but it’s the definition we’re going with. Alright, let’s go to the Thought Bubble. Industrial capitalism developed first in Britain in the 19th century. Britain had a bunch of advantages: It was the dominant power on the seas and it was making good money off of trade with its colonies, including the slave trade. Also, the growth of capitalism was helped by the half-century of civil unrest that resulted from the 17th century English Civil War. Now, I’m not advocating for civil wars or anything, but in this particular case it was useful, because before the war the British crown had put a lot of regulations on the economy— complicated licenses, royal monopolies, etc. —but during the turmoil, it couldn’t enforce them, which made for freer markets. Another factor was a remarkable increase in agricultural productivity in the 16th century. As food prices started to rise, it became profitable for farmers, both large and small, to invest in agricultural technologies that would improve crop yields. Those higher prices for grain probably resulted from population growth, which in turn was encouraged by increased production of food crops. A number of these agricultural improvements came from the Dutch, who had chronic problems feeding themselves and discovered that planting different kinds of crops, like clover that added nitrogen to the soil and could be used to feed livestock at the same time, meant that more fields could be used at once. This increased productivity eventually brought down prices, and this encouraged further innovation in order to increase yield to make up for the drop in prices. Lower food prices had an added benefit – since food cost less and wages in England remained high, workers would have more disposable income, which meant that if there were consumer goods available, they would be consumed, which incentivized people to make consumer goods more efficiently, and therefore more cheaply. You can see how this positive feedback loop leads to more food and more stuff, culminating in a world where people have so much stuff that we must rent space to store it, and so much food that obesity has become a bigger killer than starvation. Thanks, Thought Bubble. So this increased productivity also meant that fewer people needed to work in agriculture in order to feed the population. To put this in perspective, in 1520, 80% of the English population worked the land. By 1800, only 36% of adult male laborers were working in agriculture, and by 1850, that percentage had dropped to 25. This meant that when the factories started humming, there were plenty of workers to hum along with them. [humming < obnoxious than whistling] Especially child laborers. So far all this sounds pretty good, right? I mean, except for the child labor. Who wouldn’t want more, cheaper food? Yeah, well, not so fast. One of the ways the British achieved all this agricultural productivity was through the process of enclosure. Whereby landlords would re-claim and privatize fields that for centuries had been held in common by multiple tenants. [they busted up hippie communes?] This increased agricultural productivity, but it also impoverished many tenant farmers, many of whom lost their livelihoods. Okay, for our purposes, capitalism is also a cultural system, rooted in the need of private investors to turn a profit. So the real change needed here was a change of mind. People had to develop the capitalist values of taking risks and appreciating innovation. And they had to come to believe that making an upfront investment in something like a Stan Machine [silent mode not optional] could pay for itself and then some. One of the reasons that these values developed in Britain was that the people who initially held them were really good at publicizing them. Writers like Thomas Mun, who worked for the English East India Company, exposed people to the idea that the economy was controlled by markets. And, other writers popularized the idea that it was human nature for individuals to participate in markets as rational actors. Even our language changed: the word “individuals” did not apply to persons until the 17th century. And in the 18th century, a “career” still referred only to horses’ racing lives. Perhaps the most important idea that was popularized in England [other than safety pin accessories later) was that men and women were consumers as well as producers and that this was actually a good thing because the desire to consume manufactured goods could spur economic growth. “The main spur to trade, or rather to industry and ingenuity, is the exorbitant appetite of men, which they will take pain to gratify,” So wrote John Cary, one of capitalism’s cheerleaders, in 1695. And in talking about our appetite, he wasn’t just talking about food. That doesn’t seem radical now, but it sure did back then. So here in the 21st century, it’s clear that industrial capitalism— at least for now— has won. Sorry, buddy. But, you know, you gave it a good run. You didn’t know about Stalin. [or the bright future of manscaping] But capitalism isn’t without its problems, or its critics, ["haters" in the parlance of our times] and there were certainly lots of shortcomings to industrial capitalism in the 19th century. Working conditions were awful. Days were long, arduous, and monotonous. Workers lived in conditions that people living in the developed world today would associate with abject poverty. One way that workers responded to these conditions was by organizing into labor unions. Another response was in many cases purely theoretical: socialism, [gasp, clutch the pearls] most famously Marxian socialism. I should probably point out here that socialism is an imperfect opposite to capitalism, even though the two are often juxtaposed. [consider that before commenting maybe?] Capitalism’s defenders like to point out that it’s “natural,” meaning that if left to our own devices, humans would construct economic relationships that resemble capitalism. Socialism, at least in its modern incarnations, makes fewer pretenses towards being an expression of human nature; it’s the result of human choice and human planning. So, socialism, as an intellectual construct, began in France. [he spins the whole world in his hand] How’d I do, Stan? Mm, in the border between Egypt and Libya. There were two branches of socialism in France, utopian and revolutionary. Utopian socialism is often associated with Comte de Saint Simon and Charles Fourier, both of whom rejected revolutionary action after having seen the disaster of the French Revolution. Both were critical of capitalism and while Fourier is usually a punchline in history classes because he believed that, in his ideal socialist world, the seas would turn to lemonade, [wut] he was right that human beings have desires that go beyond basic self interest, and that we aren’t always economically rational actors. [truth] The other French socialists were the revolutionaries, and they saw the French Revolution, even its violence, in a much more positive light. [Vive Goddard!] The most important of these revolutionaries was Auguste Blanqui, and we associate a lot of his ideas with communism, which is a term that he used. Like the utopians, he criticized capitalism, but he believed that it could only be overthrown through violent revolution by the working classes. However, while Blanqui thought that the workers would come to dominate a communist world, he was an elitist. [by which you mean an arugula eater?] And he believed that workers on their own could never, on their own, overcome their superstitions and their prejudices in order to throw off bourgeois oppression. [interesting] And that brings us to Karl Marx, whose ideas and beard cast a shadow over most of the 20th century. Oh, it’s time for the Open Letter? [roll all you want, i'm not looking] [aloha miss hand] An Open Letter to Karl Marx’s Beard. But, first, let’s see what’s in the secret compartment today. Oh, robots. Stan Bots! Two Stan Bots, one of them female! [a featured female, on Crash Course? ha] now I own all the means of production. [no evil laugh and/or mustache twisting?] You’re officially useless to me, Stan. Now, turn the camera off. Turn the ca-- I’m going to have to get up and turn the camera off? Stan Bot, go turn the camera off. Hey there, Karl Marx’s beard. Wow, you are intense. [and probably pretty grody] Karl Marx, these days there are a lot of young men who think beards are cool. Beard lovers, if you will. [beardos] Those aren’t beards, those are glorified milk mustaches. I mean, I haven’t shaved for a couple weeks, Karl Marx, but I’m not claiming a beard. [nothing a solid scrubbing couldn't fix?] You don’t get a beard by being lazy, you get a beard by being a committed revolutionary. That’s why hardcore Marxists are literally known as “Bearded Marxists.” [not to be confused w/ "Mulleted Marxists" from the 80's] These days, that’s an insult. But you know what, Karl Marx, when I look back at history, I prefer the bearded communists. Let’s talk about some communists who didn’t have beards: Mao Zedong, Pol Pot, Kim Jong-il, Joseph freakin’ Stalin with his face caterpillar. So, yeah, Karl Marx’s beard, it’s my great regret to inform you that there are some paltry beards trying to take up the class struggle these days. Best Wishes, John Green Although he’s often considered the father of communism, because he co-wrote The Communist Manifesto, Marx was above all a philosopher and a historian. It’s just that, unlike many philosophers and historians, he advocated for revolution. His greatest work, Das Kapital, sets out to explain the world of the 19th century in historical and philosophical terms. Marx’s thinking is deep and dense and we’re low on time, but I want to introduce one of his ideas, that of class struggle. [yeah buddy, here we go] So, for Marx, the focus isn’t on the class, it’s on the struggle. Basically Marx believed that classes don’t only struggle to make history, but that the struggle is what makes classes into themselves. The idea is that through conflict, classes develop a sense of themselves, and without conflict, there is no such thing as class consciousness. So, Marx was writing in 19th century England and there were two classes that mattered: the workers and the capitalists. The capitalists owned most of the factors of production (in this case, land and the capital to invest in factories). The workers just had their labor. So, the class struggle here is between capitalists, who want labor at the lowest possible price, and the workers who want to be paid as much as possible for their work. There are two key ideas that underlie this theory of class struggle. First, Marx believed that “production,” or work, was the thing that gave life material meaning. Second, is that we are by nature social [St]animals. We work together, we collaborate, we are more efficient when we share resources. Marx’s criticism of capitalism is that capitalism replaces this egalitarian collaboration with conflict. And that means that it isn’t a natural system after all. And by arguing that capitalism actually isn’t consistent with human nature, Marx sought to empower the workers. That’s a lot more attractive than Blanqui’s elitist socialism, and while purportedly Marxist states like the USSR usually abandon worker empowerment pretty quickly, the idea of protecting our collective interest remains powerful. That’s where we’ll have to leave it for now, lest I start reading from The Communist Manifesto. [noooooo!] But, ultimately socialism has not succeeded in supplanting capitalism, as its proponents had hoped. In the United States, at least, “socialism” has become something of a dirty word. So, industrial capitalism certainly seems to have won out, and in terms of material well being and access to goods and services for people around the world, that’s probably a good thing. Ugh, you keep falling over. You’re a great bit, but a very flimsy one. Actually, come to think of it, you’re more of an 8-bit. [haha… um, crickets] But how and to what extent we use socialist principles to regulate free markets remains an open question, and one that is answered very differently in, say, Sweden than in the United States. [lingonberries & Skarsgards pwn] And this, I would argue, is where Marx still matters. Is capitalist competition natural and good, or should there be systems in place to check it for the sake of our collective well-being? Should we band together to provide health care for the sick, [and that's Jenga] or pensions for the old? Should government run businesses, and if so, which ones? The mail delivery business? [stamps are awesome.<3 you USPS] The airport security business? The education business? Those are the places where industrial capitalism and socialism are still competing. And in that sense, at least, the struggle continues. Thanks for watching, I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller. Our script supervisor is Danica Johnson. The show is written by my high school history teacher, Raoul Meyer and myself. We’re ably interned by Meredith Danko. And our graphics team is Thought Bubble. Last week’s phrase of the week was “the TARDIS,” so you can stop suggesting that now! If you want to suggest future phrases of the week or guess at this week’s, you can do so in comments, where you can also ask questions about today’s video that will be answered by our team of historians. Thanks for watching Crash Course, and as we say in my hometown, don’t forget You are my density. Alright, Stan, bring the movie magic... Yes! [outro] [outro]


Current Socialist states

Marxist–Leninist states

Country Since Duration Party Head of party Head of state Head of government
 People's Republic of China[nb 1] 1 October 1949 69 years, 324 days Communist Party of China Xi Jinping
(since 2012)
Li Keqiang
(since 2012)
 Republic of Cuba 1 January 1959 60 years, 232 days Communist Party of Cuba Raúl Castro
(since 2011)
Miguel Díaz-Canel
(since 2018)
 Lao People's Democratic Republic 2 December 1975 43 years, 262 days Lao People's Revolutionary Party Bounnhang Vorachith
(since 2016)
Thongloun Sisoulith
(since 2016)
 Socialist Republic of Vietnam 2 July 1976 43 years, 50 days Communist Party of Vietnam Nguyễn Phú Trọng
(since 2011)
Nguyễn Phú Trọng
(since 2018)
Nguyễn Xuân Phúc
(since 2016)

Non-Marxist–Leninist states

Current countries with constitutional references to Socialism

Country Since Duration Form of government Constitutional statement
 People's Democratic Republic of Algeria 28 November 1996 22 years, 266 days Multi-party system Preamble: "Gathered in the national movement and later within the National Front of Liberation, the Algerian people have made great sacrifices in order to assume their collective destiny in the framework of recovered freedom and cultural identity and to build authentic people’s democratic constitutional institutions. The National Front of Liberation crowned the sacrifices of the best sons of Algeria during the people’s war of liberation with independence and built a modern and full sovereign State."[5]

The National Front of Liberation, itself, is a political party based on Arab Socialism.[6]

 People's Republic of Bangladesh 11 April 1971 48 years, 132 days Multi-party system Preamble: "Further pledging that it shall be a fundamental aim of the State to realise through the democratic process, a socialist society free from exploitation, a society in which the rule of law, fundamental human rights and freedoms, equality and justice, political, economic and social, will be secured for all citizens."[7]
 Co-operative Republic of Guyana 6 October 1980 38 years, 319 days Multi-party system Section 1, Article 1: "Guyana is an indivisible, secular, democratic sovereign state in the course of transition from capitalism to socialism and shall be known as the Co-operative Republic of Guyana"[8]
 Republic of India 18 December 1976[9] 42 years, 246 days Multi-party system Preamble: "We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens"[10]
North Korea Democratic People's Republic of Korea 19 February 1992 27 years, 183 days Unitary one-party
socialist republic
Preamble: "The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is the socialist motherland of Juche, which has applied the ideas and leadership of Kim Il-sung"[11]

Formerly a Marxist–Leninist state (See below).

   Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal 20 September 2015 3 years, 335 days Multi-party system Section 1, Article 4: "Nepal is an independent, indivisible, sovereign, secular, inclusive democratic, socialism-oriented federal democratic republican state."
 Republic of Nicaragua 1 January 1987 32 years, 232 days Multi-party presidential republic Section 1, Article 5: "Liberty, justice, respect for the dignity of the human person, political and social pluralism, the recognition of the distinct identity of the indigenous peoples and those of African descent within the framework of a unitary and indivisible state, the recognition of different forms of property, free international cooperation and respect for the free self-determination of peoples, Christian values, socialist ideals, and practices based on solidarity, and the values and ideals of the Nicaraguan culture and identity, are the principles of the Nicaraguan nation.[...] The socialist ideals promote the common good over individual egoism, seeking to create an ever more inclusive, just and fair society, promoting an economic democracy which redistributes national wealth and eliminates exploitation among human beings."
 Portuguese Republic 2 April 1976 43 years, 141 days Multi-party system Preamble: "The Constituent Assembly affirms the Portuguese people's decision to [...] open up a path towards a socialist society"[12]
 Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka 7 September 1978 40 years, 348 days Multi-party system Preamble: "[...] to constitute Sri Lanka into a democratic socialist republic whilst ratifying the immutable republican principles of representative democracy, and assuring to all peoples freedom, equality, justice, fundamental human rights and the independence of the judiciary"[13]
 United Republic of Tanzania 26 April 1964 55 years, 117 days Multi-party system Section 1, Article 3: "The United Republic is a democratic, secular and socialist state which adheres to multi-party democracy"[14]

Current Socialist states with limited recognition

These are territories that have claimed independence or autonomy and have declared themselves "Socialist" under some interpretation of the term. While these territories have created stable institutions of governance that have existed for a considerable period of time, they are not widely recognized as states by the international community and, under international law, officially belong to other sovereign states.

Multi-party states with governing Socialist parties

Country Party Electoral Coalition Election Lower house Upper house Official ideology
 Algeria[nb 2] National Liberation Front 2017 election
150 / 220
Arab socialism
 Angola[nb 3] People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola 2017 election
150 / 220
Democratic socialism
 Barbados Barbados Labour Party 2018 election
30 / 30
11 / 21
Democratic socialism
 Bolivia Movement for Socialism 2014 election
84 / 130
25 / 36
Socialism of the 21st century[19][20][21]
 Congo[nb 4] Congolese Party of Labour 2017 election
90 / 151
Democratic socialism
 Ecuador PAIS Alliance Frente UNIDOS 2017 election
74 / 137
Socialism of the 21st century
 El Salvador Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front 2018 election
31 / 84
 Ethiopia[nb 5] Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front 2015 election
500 / 547
 Guinea-Bissau African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde 2014 election
57 / 102
Democratic socialism
 Mauritius Militant Socialist Movement 2014 election
42 / 69
Democratic Socialism
Muvman Liberater Democratic Socialism
Rodrigues People's Organisation Democratic Socialism
 Mozambique[nb 6] Mozambique Liberation Front 2014 election
144 / 250
Democratic Socialism
 Mexico MORENA Juntos Haremos Historia 2018 election
69 / 128
 Namibia South West African People's Organisation 2014 election
77 / 96
   Nepal[nb 7] Nepal Communist Party 2017 election
190 / 275
44 / 59
People's Multiparty Democracy
Federal Socialist Forum, Nepal Democratic Socialism
 Nicaragua[nb 8] Sandinista National Liberation Front 2016 election
71 / 92
 Bangladesh[nb 9] Bangladesh Awami League Grand Alliance 2014 election
293 / 350
Workers Party of Bangladesh Marxism–Leninism
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal Socialism
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Unity Labour Party 2015 election
8 / 15
Democratic Socialism
 Suriname National Democratic Party 2015 election
26 / 51
Democratic Socialism
 Tanzania[nb 10] Party of the Revolution 2015 election
276 / 384
Democratic Socialism
 Uruguay Communist Party of Uruguay Broad Front 2014 election
50 / 99
15 / 30
Movement of Popular Participation Socialism of the 21st century
 Venezuela United Socialist Party of Venezuela Great Patriotic Pole 2015 election
55 / 167
545 / 545

(Constituent Assembly)
Socialism of the 21st century[24]
Communist Party of Venezuela Marxism–Leninism
Republican Bicentennial Vanguard Chavism
 Zambia Patriotic Front 2016 election
89 / 156
Democratic Socialism

Former Socialist states

Marxist–Leninist states

Country Full name From Until Duration Ruling Party Constitutional statement
/ Afghanistan Democratic Republic of Afghanistan 27 April 1978 30 November 1987 9 years, 217 days People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan Preamble: "In the present stage, the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, as the initiator and coordinator of the policy of National Reconciliation, actively carries forward together with other political, national and democratic forces"[25]

The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan was a Marxist–Leninist party.[26]

Republic of Afghanistan 30 November 1987 28 April 1992 4 years, 150 days
Total 27 April 1978 28 April 1992 14 years, 1 day
/ Albania Democratic Government of Albania 29 November 1944 11 January 1946 1 year, 43 days Party of Labour of Albania[nb 11] Section 1, Article 1: "The People's Socialist Republic of Albania is a state of the dictatorship of the proletariat, which expresses and defends the interests of all the working people"[27]
People's Republic of Albania 11 January 1946 28 December 1976 30 years, 352 days
People's Socialist Republic of Albania 28 December 1976 22 March 1992 15 years, 85 days
Total 29 November 1944 22 March 1992 47 years, 114 days
 Angola People's Republic of Angola 11 November 1975 27 August 1992 16 years, 290 days Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola Section 1, Article 2: "All sovereignty is vested in the Angolan people. The MPLA, their legitimate representative constituted from a broad front including all patriotic forces engaged in the anti-imperialist struggle, is responsible for the political, economic, and social leadership of the nation"[28]
/ Belarus Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic[nb 12] 31 July 1920 25 August 1991 70 years, 344 days Communist Party of Byelorussia (part of the CPSU) Section 1, Article 1: "The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic is a socialist state expressing the will and interests of the workers, peasants and intelligentsia, the working people of all nationalities of the republic"[29]
 Benin People's Republic of Benin 30 November 1975 1 March 1990 14 years, 91 days People's Revolutionary Party of Benin The Marxist–Leninist People's Revolutionary Party of Benin became the sole legal political party on 30 November 1975.[30]
 Bulgaria People's Republic of Bulgaria 15 September 1946 7 December 1990 44 years, 83 days Bulgarian Communist Party Section 1, Article 1: "The People's Republic of Bulgaria is a socialist state of the working people from town and village, headed by the working class"[31]
// Cambodia Democratic Kampuchea 17 April 1975 22 June 1982 7 years, 66 days Khmer Rouge Legally a Marxist–Leninist state from 1975 to 1991 but not internationally recognized by some countries following 1979.[32][33]
People's Republic of Kampuchea 10 January 1979 1 May 1989 10 years, 111 days People's Revolutionary Party of Kampuchea
State of Cambodia 1 May 1989 23 October 1991 2 years, 175 days
Total 17 April 1975 23 October 1991 16 years, 189 days
Congo People's Republic of the Congo 3 January 1970 15 March 1992 22 years, 72 days Congolese Labor Party Presidential oath: "I swear allegiance to the Congolese people, to the Revolution and to the Congolese Labor Party. I shall undertake, while guided by Marxist–Leninist principles, [...] to devote all my strength to the triumph of the proletarian ideals"[34]
 Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak Republic 9 June 1948 11 July 1960 12 years, 32 days Communist Party of Czechoslovakia Section 1, Article 1: "The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic is a socialist state founded on the firm alliance of the workers, farmers and intelligentsia, with the working class as its head"[35]
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic 11 July 1960 29 March 1990 29 years, 261 days
Total 9 June 1948 29 March 1990 41 years, 293 days
/ Ethiopia Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia 28 June 1974 22 February 1987 12 years, 239 days Commission for Organizing the Party of the Working People of Ethiopia[nb 13] Country declared Marxist–Leninist in 1974, the Workers' Party of Ethiopia becoming "the formulator of the country's development process and the leading force of the state and in society" in 1987[36]
Workers' Party of Ethiopia[nb 14]
People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia 22 February 1987 27 May 1991 4 years, 94 days
Total 28 June 1974 27 May 1991 16 years, 333 days
 East Germany German Democratic Republic 7 October 1949 3 October 1990 40 years, 361 days Socialist Unity Party of Germany Section 1, Article 1: "The German Democratic Republic is a socialist state of workers and peasants. It is the political organization of the working people of town and country under the leadership of the working class and its Marxist–Leninist party"[37]
 Grenada People's Revolutionary Government 13 March 1979 25 October 1983 4 years, 226 days New Jewel Movement People's Law Number Two: "The People's Revolutionary Government, PRG, is hereby established as of Tuesday 13 March 1979, in accordance with the sovereign will of the Grenadian people, and in it shall be vested of executive and legislative power."[38]

The New Jewel Movement, leaders of the PRG, considered themselves a Marxist-Leninist vanguard party.[39]

 Hungary Hungarian People's Republic 20 August 1949 23 October 1989 40 years, 64 days Hungarian Working People's Party[nb 15] Section 1, Article 2: "The Hungarian People's Republic is a socialist state"[40]
Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party[nb 16]
 North Korea Democratic People's Republic of Korea 9 September 1948 19 February 1992[41] 43 years, 163 days Workers' Party of Korea Section 1, Article 1: "The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is an independent socialist state representing the interests of all the Korean people"[42]

Currently a non-Marxist–Leninist Socialist state
(See above).

/ Mongolia Mongolian People's Republic 24 November 1924 12 February 1992 67 years, 80 days Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party Section 1, Article 2: "The Mongolian People's Republic is a state which exists and is developing in the form of people's democracy"[43]
/ Mozambique People's Republic of Mozambique 25 June 1975 1 December 1990 15 years, 159 days FRELIMO Section 1, Article 2: "Power belongs to the workers and peasants united and led by FRELIMO and organs of people's power"[44]
 Poland Republic of Poland 28 June 1945 22 July 1952 7 years, 24 days Polish Workers' Party[nb 17] Section 1, Article 1: "The Polish People's Republic is a socialist state"[45]
Polish United Worker's Party[nb 18]
Polish People's Republic 22 July 1952 30 December 1989 37 years, 161 days
Total 28 June 1945 30 December 1989 44 years, 185 days
 Romania Romanian People's Republic 30 December 1947 21 August 1965 17 years, 234 days Romanian Workers' Party Section 1, Article 3: "The leading force of society in the Socialist Republic of Romania is the Romanian Communist Party"[46]
Socialist Republic of Romania 21 August 1965 30 December 1989 24 years, 131 days Romanian Communist Party
Total 30 December 1947 30 December 1989 42 years, 0 days
 Somalia Somali Democratic Republic 21 October 1969 26 January 1991 21 years, 97 days Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party Section 1, Article 1: "The Somali Democratic Republic is a socialist state led by the working class and is an integral part of the Arab and African entities"[47]
/ Tuva Tannu Tuvan People's Republic 14 August 1921 24 November 1926 5 years, 102 days Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party Chapter 1: "[...] in international affairs, the state acts under the auspices of Soviet Russia"[48]

The country was annexed by the Soviet Union in October 1944, at the request of Tuva's parliament.[48]

Tuvan People's Republic 24 November 1926 11 October 1944 17 years, 322 days
Total 14 August 1921 11 October 1944 23 years, 58 days
Russia/ Soviet Union Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic 9 November 1917 30 December 1922 5 years, 51 days Communist Party of the Soviet Union[nb 19] Section 1, Article 1, Chapter 2: "Bearing in mind as its fundamental problem the abolition of the exploitation of men by men, the entire abolition of the division of the people into classes, the suppression of exploiters, the establishment of a socialist society, and the victory of socialism in all lands"[49][50]

Section 1, Article 1: "The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a socialist state of the whole people, expressing the will and interests of the workers, peasants and intelligentsia, the working people of all the nations and nationalities of the country"[51]

The Soviet Union consisted of 15 Socialist Union Republics.[52]

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 30 December 1922 26 December 1991 68 years, 361 days
Total 9 November 1917 26 December 1991 74 years, 47 days
Ukraine Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic[nb 20] 10 March 1919 24 August 1991 72 years, 167 days Communist Party of Ukraine (part of the CPSU) Section 1, Article 1: "The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic is the whole peoples state that expresses the will and interests of the workers, peasants and intellectuals, workers of the republic of all nationalities"[53]
 North Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam 2 September 1945 2 July 1976 30 years, 304 days Communist Party of Vietnam Section 2, Article 9: "The Democratic Republic of Vietnam is advancing step by step from people's democracy to socialism by developing and transforming the national economy along socialist lines, transforming its backward economy into a socialist economy with modern industry and agriculture and an advanced science and technology"[54]
 South Yemen People's Republic of South Yemen 30 November 1967 1 December 1970 3 years, 1 day Yemeni Socialist Party Section 1, Article 3: "The Yemeni Socialist Party, armed with the Scientific Socialism theory, is the leader and guide of society and state"[55]
People's Democratic Republic of Yemen 1 December 1970 22 May 1990 19 years, 172 days
Total 30 November 1967 22 May 1990 22 years, 173 days
/ Yugoslavia Democratic Federal Yugoslavia 29 November 1943 29 November 1945 2 years, 0 days League of Communists of Yugoslavia[nb 21] Section 1, Article 2: "The socialist system in Yugoslavia is based on relations between people acting as free and equal producers and creators, whose work serves exclusively to satisfy their personal and common needs"[56]

Yugoslavia consisted of six constituent Socialist republics.[57]

Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia 29 November 1945 7 April 1963 17 years, 129 days
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 7 April 1963 27 April 1992 29 years, 20 days
Total 29 November 1943 27 April 1992 48 years, 150 days

Non-Marxist–Leninist states

Country Full name From Until Duration Constitutional statement
 Burma Union of Burma 2 March 1962 3 January 1974 11 years, 307 days Chapter XVI General Provisions: "In order to overcome this deterioration and to build Socialism, the Revolutionary Council of the Union of Burma assumed responsibility as a historical mission, adopted the Burmese Way to Socialism and also formed the Burma Socialist Programme Party"[58]
Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma 3 January 1974 18 September 1988 14 years, 259 days
Total 2 March 1962 18 September 1988 26 years, 200 days
 Cape Verde Republic of Cape Verde 5 July 1975 22 September 1992 17 years, 79 days Chapter 1, Article 1: "Cape Verde is a sovereign, democratic, laic, unitary, anti-colonialist and anti-imperialist state."[59]
 Egypt Republic of Egypt 18 June 1953 22 February 1958 4 years, 249 days Preamble: "The Arab Republic of Egypt is a democratic, socialist state based on the alliance of the working forces of the people"[60]
United Arab Republic 22 February 1958 28 September 1961 3 years, 218 days
Arab Republic of Egypt 28 September 1961 26 March 2007 45 years, 179 days
Total 18 June 1953 26 March 2007 53 years, 281 days
/ Iraq Iraqi Republic 17 July 1968 7 April 2005 36 years, 264 days Chapter 1, Article 1: "Its [the country's] basic objective is the realization of one Arab State and the build-up of the socialist system"[61]
/ Libya Libyan Arab Republic 1 September 1969 2 March 1977 7 years, 182 days Section 1, Article 6: "The aim of the state is the realization of socialism through the application of social justice which forbids any form of exploitation"[62]
Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 2 March 1977 15 April 1986 9 years, 44 days
Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 15 April 1986 23 October 2011 25 years, 191 days
Total 1 September 1969 23 October 2011 42 years, 52 days
 Madagascar Democratic Republic of Madagascar 30 December 1975 12 September 1992 16 years, 257 days See: 1975 Malagasy constitutional referendum[63]
 Seychelles Republic of Seychelles 5 June 1977 27 December 1991 14 years, 205 days Preamble: "Seychelles is declared to be a sovereign socialist republic"[64]
 Sudan Democratic Republic of the Sudan 25 May 1969 10 October 1985 16 years, 138 days Preamble: "In the belief of our pursuit of freedom, socialism and democracy to achieve the society of sufficiency, justice and equality"[65]
/ Syria Syrian Arab Republic 8 March 1963 27 February 2012 48 years, 356 days Section 1, Article 8: "The leading party in the society and the state is the Socialist Arab Ba'ath Party. It leads a patriotic and progressive front seeking to unify the resources of the people's masses and place them at the service of the Arab nation's goals"[66]

Ephemeral Socialist states

These are short-lived political entities that emerged during wars or revolutions and declared themselves "Socialist" under some interpretation of the term, but which did not survive long enough to create a stable government or achieve international recognition.

See also


  1. ^ LL.M., Prof. Dr. Axel Tschentscher,. "ICL – Hungary Index".
  2. ^ "Constitution of Myanmar (2008)". Constitute Project.
  3. ^ LL.M., Prof. Dr. Axel Tschentscher,. "ICL – Poland Index".
  4. ^ LL.M., Prof. Dr. Axel Tschentscher,. "ICL – Croatia Index".
  5. ^ "THE CONSTITUTION of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeriah". Embassy of Algeria London. 28 November 1996. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  6. ^ Evans, M. (2007). Algeria : Anger of the Dispossessed. London: Yale University Press. p. 34
  7. ^ Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh (4 November 1972)
  8. ^ Article 1, Section The State and the Constitution of the Constitution of the Cooperative Republic of Guyana (20 February 1980)
  9. ^ "THE CONSTITUTION (AMENDMENT)". Archived from the original on 2015-03-28. Retrieved 2014-04-14.
  10. ^ Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Republic of India (26 November 1949)
  11. ^ Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (9 September 1948)
  12. ^ Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Portuguese Republic (25 April 1976)
  13. ^ Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (7 September 1978)
  14. ^ Article 3, Section 1 of the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania (25 April 1978)
  15. ^ "Christiania: Copenhagen's Threatened Socialist Community". Journeyman Pictures. February 17, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  16. ^ "Wa State: Shanzhai Version Of China Discovered in Myanmar". chinaSMACK. 31 January 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
  17. ^ "Two decades on: A glimpse inside the Zapatista's capital, Oventic - Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal".
  18. ^ "Revolutionary Education in Rojava". New Compass. 2015-02-17. Retrieved 2016-05-18.
  19. ^ Ediciones El País. "Evo Morales insta a "erradicar el capitalismo" para salvar el planeta". EL PAÍS. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  20. ^ "Evo Morales: Ten commandments against capitalism, for life and humanity". Climate & Capitalism. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  21. ^ "Evo Morales: "Capitalism is the worst enemy of humanity"". Climate & Capitalism. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  22. ^ "Declaración de principios de MORENA" (PDF). Morena.sí (in Spanish).
  23. ^ "Central America and Caribbean: Nicaragua – Government". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  24. ^ "Communist Party of Venezuela" [PCV – Partido Comunista de Venezuela]. Communist Party of Venezuela. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  25. ^ Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Republic of Afghanistan (30 November 1987)
  26. ^ Amstutz, J. Bruce (1 July 1994). Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation. DIANE Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 9780788111112. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  27. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania (28 December 1976)
  28. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of Angola (1976)
  29. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (14 April 1978)
  30. ^ Chronologie BENIN Archived 2007-01-09 at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of Bulgaria (18 May 1976)
  32. ^ Kiernan, B. (2004) How Pol Pot came to Power. New Haven: Yale University Press, p. xix
  33. ^ Margaret Slocomb, The People's Republic of Kampuchea, 1979-1989: The revolution after Pol Pot ISBN 978-974-9575-34-5
  34. ^ Presidential Oath Maarseveen written constitutions by H.Van Maarseveen and G.Van Der Tanq (Nov 21, 1978)
  35. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (11 July 1960)
  36. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2004-10-29. Retrieved 2004-10-29.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  37. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the German Democratic Republic (7 October 1974)
  38. ^ "Declaration of the Grenada Revolution". The Grenada Revolution Online. 25 March 1979. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  39. ^ "The Manifesto of the New Jewel Movement", The Grenada Revolution Online.
  40. ^ Article 2, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Hungarian People's Republic (20 August 1949)
  41. ^ In 1992, all references to Marxism–Leninism in the DPRK constitution were dropped and replaced with Juche. [1]
  42. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (27 December 1974)
  43. ^ Article 2, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Mongolian People's Republic (6 July 1960)
  44. ^ "The African Communist". South African Communist Party. 16 February 1974 – via Google Books.
  45. ^ Article 3, Section 1 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of Poland (22 July 1952)
  46. ^ Article 3, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Romania (21 August 1965)
  47. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Somali Democratic Republic (25 August 1979)
  48. ^ a b Russian Centre of Vexillology and Heraldry. "Республика Тыва". Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  49. ^ Article I (R.S.F.R.S. Constitution)
  50. ^ 1936 Constitution of the USSR, Part I
  51. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (7 October 1977)
  52. ^ "Walter Duranty Explains Changes In Soviet Constitution,". Miami News. 1944-02-06. Retrieved 2014-02-18.
  53. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (20 April 1978)[permanent dead link]
  54. ^ Article 9, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (9 November 1946)
  55. ^ Article 3, Section 1 of the Constitution of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (31 October 1978)
  56. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (7 April 1963)
  57. ^ "New Power", Time, 4 December 1944
  58. ^ Article XVI, Section General Provisions of the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma (2 March 1974)
  59. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of Cape Verde (5th September 1980)
  60. ^ Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Republic of Egypt (22 July 1957)
  61. ^ Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Iraq (21 September 1968)
  62. ^ Article 5, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (11 December 1969)
  63. ^ Madagascar: 1975 Constitutional referendum EISA
  64. ^ "The 1979 constitution for Seychelles". Commonwealth Law Bulletin. 5: 1329–1332. doi:10.1080/03050718.1979.9985562.
  65. ^ Article 5, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan (13 March 1973)
  66. ^ Article 5, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic (12 April 1973)
  67. ^ cahoon, ben. "German States since 1918".


  1. ^ Not including Hong Kong and Macau, under official policy. See "One Country, Two Systems".
  2. ^ Constitutionally a Socialist state.
  3. ^ Formerly a Marxist–Leninist state.
  4. ^ Formerly a Marxist–Leninist state.
  5. ^ Formerly a Marxist–Leninist state.
  6. ^ Formerly a Marxist–Leninist state.
  7. ^ Constitutionally a Socialist state.
  8. ^ Constitutionally a Socialist state.
  9. ^ Constitutionally a Socialist state.
  10. ^ Constitutionally a Socialist state.
  11. ^ Known as the Albanian Communist Party until 1948.
  12. ^ Part of the Soviet Union but admitted into the United Nations as a separate entity.
  13. ^ Until September 12, 1984.
  14. ^ From September 12, 1984.
  15. ^ Until October 31, 1956.
  16. ^ From November 1, 1956.
  17. ^ Until December 21, 1948.
  18. ^ From December 21, 1948
  19. ^ Known as the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (Bolsheviks) until March 1918, the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) until December 1925, and the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) until October 1952.
  20. ^ Part of the Soviet Union but admitted into the United Nations as a separate entity.
  21. ^ Known as the Communist Party of Yugoslavia until 1952.
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