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List of slaves

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This and three other statues of chained slaves, placed at the base of the Monument of the Four Moors at Livorno, Italy, might have been made with actual slaves as models, whose names and circumstances remain unknown
This and three other statues of chained slaves, placed at the base of the Monument of the Four Moors at Livorno, Italy, might have been made with actual slaves as models, whose names and circumstances remain unknown

Slavery is a social-economic system under which persons are enslaved: deprived of personal freedom and forced to perform labor or services without compensation. These people are referred to as slaves.

The following is a list of historical people who were enslaved at some point during their lives, in alphabetical order by first name. Several names have been added under the letter representing the person's last name.

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  • ✪ 25 SHOCKING Facts About Slave Trade
  • ✪ Top 10 African Tribes Taken In The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • ✪ Names of Slaves
  • ✪ 2018 Genealogy Fair Session 2- Federal Records that Help Identify Former Slaves and Slave Owners
  • ✪ Slavery - Crash Course US History #13

Transcription

Contents

A

  • Abdul-Rahman ibn Ibrahima Sori (1762–1829), a prince from West Africa and a slave in the United States for 40 years until President John Quincy Adams freed him.
  • Abraham, a black slave who carried messages between the frontier and Charles Town during wars with the Cherokee, for which he was freed.[1]
  • Abram Petrovich Gannibal (1696–1781), adopted by Russian czar Peter the Great, governor of Tallinn (Reval) (1742–52), general-en-chef (1759–62) for building of sea forts and canals in Russia; great-grandfather of Pushkin. See The Slave in European Art for portraits.
  • Absalom Jones (1746–February 13, 1818), former slave who purchased his freedom, abolitionist and clergyman – first ordained black priest of the Episcopal Church.
  • Aelfsige, a male cook in Anglo-Saxon England, property of Wynflaed, who left him to her granddaughter Eadgifu in her will.[2][3]
  • Aelius Perseus, a freedman of the late Roman Empire, whom T. Aelius Dionysius included by name on a stela for him, his wife, their freedman and those who came after them.[4]
  • Aelstan, a slave in Anglo-Saxon England freed with his wife and all their children (born and unborn) by Geatflæd "for the love of God and the good of her soul".[5]
  • Aesop (c. 620–564 BCE), Greek poet and author or transcriber of Aesop's Fables.
  • Afak, a Kipchak slave girl who was given by Fakhr al-Din Bahramshah, the ruler of Darband, to the poet Nizami Ganjavi (1141—1209). She became the dearly beloved wife of Ganjavi, considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, and the mother of his only son Mohammad. His grief at her premature death was expressed in still widely read poems. It is disputed whether "Afak" (meaning Horizon or Snow White[6]) was her real name or a nickname. In the later case, her name remains unknown.
Aesop in a Hellenistic statue claimed to be him, Art Collection of Villa Albani, Rome
Aesop in a Hellenistic statue claimed to be him, Art Collection of Villa Albani, Rome
  • Archibald Grimké (1849–1930), born into slavery, the son of a white father, became an American lawyer, intellectual, journalist, diplomat and community leader.
  • Aristocleia, a woman in ancient Greece described in Against Neaera as the property of Nicarete, who prostituted her c. 340 BC.
  • Arkil, a slave in Anglo-Saxon England freed by Geatflæd "for the love of God and the good of her soul".[5]
  • Arthur Crumpler (c. 1835–1910), escaped slavery in Virginia, second husband of Dr. Rebecca Davis Lee Crumpler.
  • Augustine Tolton (1854–1897), the first black priest in the United States.[16]
  • Aurelia Philematium, a freedwoman whose tombstone glorifies her marriage with her fellow freedman, Lucius Aurelius Hermia.[17]
  • Ayuba Suleiman Diallo (1701–1773), also known as Job ben Solomon, a Muslim of the Bundu state in West Africa who was enslaved for two years in Maryland, freed in 1734, and later wrote memoirs that were published as one of the earliest slave narratives.

B

C

D

Dred Scott, who lost a legal suit for his freedom in the United States Supreme Court in 1857
Dred Scott, who lost a legal suit for his freedom in the United States Supreme Court in 1857
  • Danae, "the new maidservant of Capito", named in lead curse tablet from Republican Rome, which aimed to destroy Danae.[33]
  • Dave Drake (c. 1801–1876), also known as Dave the Potter.
  • David George, a black man who fled a cruel Virginia master and was captured by Creeks and enslaved by Chief Blue Salt.[34]
  • Deborah Squash, with her husband Harvey escaped from George Washington's Mount Vernon, joined the British in New York during the American Revolutionary War, and were evacuated in 1783 as freedmen.[35]
  • Denmark Vesey (c. 1767–1822), an African-American slave and later a freeman who planned what would have been one of the largest slave rebellions in the United States had word of the plans not been leaked.[36]
  • Dido Elizabeth Belle (1761–1804), born into slavery as the natural daughter of Maria Belle, an enslaved African woman in the West Indies, and Sir John Lindsay, a British career naval officer. Lindsay took Belle with him when he returned to England in 1765, entrusting her raising to his uncle William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, and his wife Elizabeth Murray, Countess of Mansfield. The Murrays educated Belle, bringing her up as a free gentlewoman at their Kenwood House, together with their niece, Lady Elizabeth Murray. Belle lived there for 30 years. In his will of 1793, Lord Mansfield confirmed her freedom and provided an outright sum and an annuity to her, making her an heiress.
  • Diogenes of Sinope (c. 412–323 BCE), Greek philosopher kidnapped by pirates and sold in Corinth.
  • Diondre Hammond, hailed from Africa, sent by British to colonial America, later escaped to what is now southern California.
  • Dincă, the half-Roma slave and illegitimate child of a Cantacuzino boyar in the 19th-century Danubian Principalities (present-day Romania). Well-educated, working as a cook but not allowed to marry his French mistress and go free, which had led him to murder his lover and kill himself. The affair shocked public opinion and was one of the factors contributing to the abolition of slavery in Romania (see [3]).
  • Diocletian (244–312), Emperor of Rome, was by some sources born as the slave of Senator Anullinus. By other sources, it was Diocletian's father (whose own name is unknown) who was a slave, and was freed prior to the birth of his son, the future emperor.[37]
  • Dred Scott (c. 1799–1858), an African-American slave in Missouri who attempted to sue for his freedom in a nationally publicized trial, Scott v. Sandford, that reached the United States Supreme Court in 1857.
  • Dufe the Old, a slave in Anglo-Saxon England, was freed by his mistress Æthelgifu's will.[38]

E

  • Ecceard the Smith, a slave in Anglo-Saxon England freed by Geatflæd "for the love of God and the good of her soul".[38]
  • Ecgferð Aldun's daughter, a slave in Anglo-Saxon England freed by Geatflæd "for the love of God and the good of her soul".[38]
  • Edmond Flint, a black enslaved among the Choctaw Nation who later described it as very like slavery among the whites.[39]
  • Ediþ, a slave in Anglo-Saxon England who bought her freedom and that of her children.[40]
  • Elijah Abel (1808–1884), born in Maryland as a slave and believed to have escaped slavery on the Underground Railroad into Canada. He joined The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in its early days, was among the first blacks to receive its priesthood and the first black person to rise to the ranks of an elder and seventy.
  • Eliezer of Damascus, Abraham's slave and trusted manager of the Patriarch's household in the Hebrew Bible.
  • Eliza Hopewell, the slave of Confederate spy Isabella Maria Boyd ("Belle Boyd"). In 1862 she helped her mistress' espionage activities, carrying messages to the Confederate Army in a hollowed-out watch case.
  • Eliza Moore (1843–January 21, 1948), one of the last proven African-American former slaves living in the United States.
  • Elias Polk (1806 – December 30, 1886), a conservative political activist of the 19th century.
  • Elizabeth Key Grinstead (1630–after 1665), the first woman of African ancestry in the North American colonies to sue for her freedom and win. Key and her infant son, John Grinstead, were freed on July 21, 1656, in the colony of Virginia, based on the fact that her father was an Englishman and that she was a baptized Christian.
  • Elizabeth Freeman (c. 1742 – 1829), known as Bett and later Mum Bett, was among the first black slaves in Massachusetts to file a freedom suit and win in court under the 1780 constitution, with a ruling that slavery was illegal.
  • Elizabeth Hobbs Keckley (1818–1907), best known as the personal modiste and confidante of Mary Todd Lincoln, the First Lady of the United States. Keckley wrote and published an autobiography, Behind the Scenes: Or, Thirty Years a Slave and Four Years in the White House (1868).
  • Elsey Thompson, a white captive enslaved by a Creek. When trader John O'Reilly attempted to ransom her and Nancy Caffrey, he was told they were not taken captive to be allowed to go back, but to work.[41]
  • Emiline (age 23); Nancy (20); Lewis, brother of Nancy (16); Edward, brother of Emiline (13); Lewis and Edward, sons of Nancy (7); Ann, daughter of Nancy (5); and Amanda, daughter of Emiline (2), were freed in the 1852 Lemmon v. New York court case after they were brought to New York by their Virginia slave owners.
  • Emily Edmonson (1835–1895), along with her sister Mary, joined an unsuccessful 1848 escape attempt known as the Pearl incident, but Henry Ward Beecher and his church raised the funds to free them.
  • Enrique of Malacca, also known as Henry the Black, slave and interpreter of Ferdinand Magellan and possibly the first man to circumnavigate the globe in Magellan's voyage of 1519–1521.
  • Epictetus (55 – c. 135), ancient Greek stoic philosopher.
  • Epunuel, a native of Chappaquidick who was taken captive by English explorers in the 1610s with twenty-nine others, and taken to London as a slave.[42]
  • Estevanico (1500–1539), also known as Esteban the Moor, one of only four survivors of the ill-fated Narváez expedition, later a guide in search of the fabled Seven Cities of Gold and possibly the first African person to arrive in Arizona and New Mexico.
  • Eucharis, a Greek born freedwoman of Roman Licinia, described in her epitath in 1st century AD as fourteen when she died, a child actress and a professional dancer.[43]
  • Eunus (died 132 BC) a Roman slave from Apamea in Syria, the leader of the slave uprising in the First Servile War
  • Euphraios, an Athenian slave and banker.[25]
  • Exuperius and Zoe (died 127), 2nd-century Christian martyrs. They were a married couple who were slaves of a pagan in Pamphylia. They were killed along with their sons, Cyriacus and Theodolus, for refusing to participate in pagan rites when their son was born.[44]

F

Frederick Douglass, the foremost African-American abolitionist of the 19th century
Frederick Douglass, the foremost African-American abolitionist of the 19th century

G

Medical examination photo of Gordon showing his scourged back, widely distributed by abolitionists to expose the brutality of slavery
Medical examination photo of Gordon showing his scourged back, widely distributed by abolitionists to expose the brutality of slavery

H

I

  • İbrahim Pasha (c. 1495 – 1536), Suleiman the Magnificent's first appointed Grand Vizier. Greek by birth, he was sold as a slave at the age of six to the Ottoman palace for future sultans; there he befriended Suleiman, who was of the same age.
  • Icelus Marcianus, a slave and later freedman of the Roman emperor Galba in the 1st century CE. He was one of three men said to completely control the emperor, increasing Galba's unpopularity.
  • Ida B. Wells (1862–1931), prominent African-American activist, born a slave, who in later life campaigned against and succeeded in abolishing lynching. She co-founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.
  • Imma, a Northumbrian aristocrat who was knocked unconscious in battle and later pretended to have been a peasant who brought them food, so that his captors did not kill him. His manners and bearing soon betrayed him, and he was sold into slavery.[57]
  • Isfandíyár, a servant in Bahá'u'lláh's house in Tehran,[58] Isfandíyár died in Mazandaran[59][60]
  • Israel Jefferson (c. 1800 – after 1873), known as Israel Gillette before 1844, was born a slave at Monticello, the estate of Thomas Jefferson, and worked as a domestic servant close to Jefferson for years.
  • Isthmias, a woman in ancient Greece described in Against Neaera as the property of Nicarete, who prostituted her.
  • Iucundus, Ancient Roman slaveboy, described in his epitaph as the slave of Livia, the wife of Drusus Caesar, the son of Gryphus and Vitalis. It states he was seized and murdered by a witch, and warns parents to guard their children to prevent such a fate.[50]
  • Ivan Bolotnikov (1565–1608), a fugitive kholop (slave in Russia) and leader of the Bolotnikov rebellion in 1606–1607.

Jeffery


K

  • Kösem Sultan (1589–1651), an Ottoman slave, later extremely powerful as wife, then mother and later grandmother of the Ottoman sultan during the 130-year period known as the Sultanate of Women.
  • Kunta Kinte (c. 1750– c. 1822), a character from the 1976 novel Roots: The Saga of an American Family whom author Alex Haley claimed was based on one of his actual ancestors. Kinte was supposedly a man of the Mandinka people who grew up in a small village called Juffure in what is now The Gambia and was raised as a Muslim before being captured and enslaved in Virginia.[76] The historical accuracy of Haley's story is disputed.[77]
  • Kizzy Kinte, the supposed daughter of Kunta Kinte.[78] As with her father, the existence of an historical Kizzy Kinte is disputed.
  • King Jaja of Opobo (1821–1891), sold at about the age of 12 as a slave in the Kingdom of Bonny in present-day Nigeria. Proving at an early age his aptitude for business, he not only earned his way out of slavery but also became a rich and powerful merchant prince and the founder of the Opobo city-state, his career eventually ended by the British colonizers whom he tried to defy.

L

  • Lamhatty, a Tawasa Indian captured and enslaved by Creek; he escaped.[79]
  • La Mulâtresse Solitude (1772–1802), a slave on the island of Guadeloupe freed in 1794 by the abolition of slavery during the French Revolution. She was executed after having fought for freedom when slavery was reintroduced by Napoleon in 1802.
  • Leo Africanus, (1494–1554), a Moor born in Granada who was taken by his family in 1498 to Morocco when expelled from Spain. As an adult he served on diplomatic missions. Captured by Crusaders while in the Middle East, he was enslaved in Rome and forced to convert to Christianity. He eventually regained his freedom and lived out his life in Tunis.
  • Leofgifu the dairy maid, a slave in Anglo-Saxon England, named in her manumission.[80]
  • Leoflaed, a slave in Anglo-Saxon England, whose freedom was bought by a man who described her as a "kinswoman."[81]
  • Leonor de Mendoza, a slave in colonial Mexico who tried to marry Tomás Ortega, a slave of another master; when her master imprisoned Tomás, she appealed to a church court for assistance, and it threatened excommunication for the master if he did not free Tomás.[82]
  • Lewis Adams (1842–1905), a former slave who co-founded the Tuskegee Institute, now Tuskegee University, in Alabama.
  • Lilliam Williams, a Tennessee settler who was captured by the Creek while pregnant. The Creek adopted her daughter (whom she named Molly and they named Esnahatchee,); they kept the girl when Williams' freedom was arranged.[83]
  • Jermain Wesley Loguen (1813–1872), an African-American escaped slave who became an abolitionist, a bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, and the author of a slave narrative.
  • Lovisa von Burghausen (1698–1733), Swedish writer who published an account of being enslaved in Russia after being taken prisoner during the Great Northern War.
  • Lucius Agermus, freedman of Agrippina the Elder.[84]
  • Lucius Aurelius Hermia, a freedman butcher whose tombstone glorifies his marriage with his fellow freedwoman Aurelia Philematium.[85]
  • Lucius Cancrius Primigenius, a freedman of Clemens in an inscription praising him for breaking spells against the city.[86]
  • Lucius of Campione, who lost a lawsuit in the 8th century over a man Toto's claimed ownership of him.[87]
  • Lucy, the black slave of John Lang. She was taken captive by the Creek when 12 years old and kept as a slave in Creek territory, where she had slave children and grandchildren.[88]
  • Lucy Ann (Berry) Delaney (1830–1891), former slave and daughter of Polly Berry.
  • Lunsford Lane (1803 – after 1870), an African-American slave and entrepreneur from North Carolina who bought freedom for himself and his family. He also wrote a slave narrative.
  • Lyde, a slavewoman freed by the Empress Livia.[89]
  • Lydia, a slave shot and wounded by her owner when she struggled to escape a whipping. The action was ruled legal by the Supreme Court of North Carolina in 1830 (see North Carolina v. Mann).
  • Lydia Carter, the "Little Osage Captive," captured and enslaved among the Cherokee. She was ransomed by Lydia Carter, who made her her namesake. The Osage attempted to reclaim her, but she took ill and died.[90]
  • Lydia Polite, mother of Robert Smalls.

M

N

  • Nancy Caffrey, a white captive enslaved by a Creek. When trader John O'Reilly attempted to ransom her and Elsey Thompson, he was told they were not taken captive to be allowed to go back, but to work.[41]
  • Nanny of the Maroons, also known as Granny Nanny and Queen Nanny, Jamaican Maroons leader.
  • Nat Turner (1800–1831), escaped and led revolt in Southampton County, Virginia.[36]
  • Nathan McMillian, who as a freedman sued for the admission of his children to a local "Croatan Indian" school on the grounds that it was for all non-white children, and that his children had Croatan blood on their mother's side.[102]
  • Neaera, a former slave and prostitute whom the Athenian Stephanus married against the law c. 340 BC, according to a speech of Demosthenes.[103]
  • Nero Hawley (1742–1817), a freed slave who served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and was buried in Trumbull, Connecticut.
  • Newport Gardner (1746–1826), a freed slave in colonial Newport, Rhode Island.
  • Ng Akew (died 1880), a Tanka slave in Hong Kong famed for a piracy scandal.
  • Nicarete, a woman in ancient Greece, described in Against Neaera the freedwoman of Charisius the Elean and the wife of his cook Hippias, and as owning and prostituting several women c. 340 BC.
  • Saint Nino (c. 280 – c. 332), a 4th-century Roman woman from Constantinople who is greatly venerated for having brought Christianity to Georgia. By some of the accounts of her life, she originally came to Georgia as a slave kidnapped from her homeland.
  • Afife Nurbanu Sultan (c. 1525–1583), née Cecilia Venier-Baffo, an enslaved Venetian noblewoman who became the most favored wife of Ottoman Sultan Selim II and the highly influential mother of Sultan Murad III.

O

Omar ibn Said, a Senegalese Islamic scholar enslaved in North Carolina for more than 50 years, circa 1850
Omar ibn Said, a Senegalese Islamic scholar enslaved in North Carolina for more than 50 years, circa 1850

P

  • Harriet Evans Paine, (c. 1822–1917), Texas slave and later oral historian and storyteller.
  • Pallas (freedman), secretary to the Roman emperor Claudius.
  • Juan de Pareja (1606–1670), a slave of Spanish artist Diego Velázquez. Velázquez trained him as a painter and freed him in 1650.
  • Pasion, an Athenian slave and banker.[25] Late in life, he received the rare honor for a freedman of citizenship.[104]
  • Saint Patrick, abducted from Britain, enslaved in Ireland, escaped to Britain, returned to Ireland as a missionary.[105]
  • Patsey (born c. 1830), an African-American slave that lived in the mid-1800s in South Carolina.
  • Paul Jennings (1799–1874), personal servant and slave to President James Madison during and after his White House years, bought his freedom in 1845 from Daniel Webster. Noted for publishing the first White House memoir, 1865's A Colored Man's Reminiscences of James Madison.[106]
  • Paul Smith, a free black who accused the Cherokee headman Doublehead of kidnapping him and forcing him into bondage.[107]
  • Peggy Margaret Titsworth, enslaved at 13 years for three years, after a Creek raid in 1794 on her Tennessee home.[99][108]
  • Pete and Hannah Byrne, freed slaves of the Napoleon Bonaparte Byrne family which traveled from Missouri to California overland (a six-month journey) in 1859, leaving the farm in Missouri and bringing six adults (including Pete & Hannah), the four Byrne children and a herd of cattle and settling in Berkeley, California. Pete and Hannah are considered the first blacks living in Berkeley and among the first African-Americans in California.[109][110]
  • Peter Salem (c. 1750–1816), African American born into slavery in Massachusetts, served as a soldier in the American Revolutionary War
  • Petronia Justa, a woman in Herculaneum who sued her master claiming to have been born after her mother's emanicipation; the records of the lawsuit were preserved by the eruption of Vesuvius.[111]
  • Phaedo of Elis, captured in war, enslaved in Athens and forced into prostitution,[112] became a pupil of Socrates who had him freed, gave his name to one of Plato's dialogues, Phaedo and became a famous philosopher in his own right.
  • Phaedrus (c. 15 BCE – c. 50 CE), Roman fabulist.
  • Phillis, a Massachusetts slave of Captain John Codman. Convicted in the successful plot to poison her master as she and her fellow slaves "found the rigid discipline of their master unendurable",[93] Phillis was burned to death in 1755.
  • Phillis Wheatley (1753–1784?), Colonial American poet, the second published African-American poet and first published African-American woman.
  • Phoebe, a slave who sued for her freedom in Tennessee, along with her sons Davy and Tom, claiming to be the descendants of an enslaved Indian woman whose sister and other relatives had proven that they were wrongly enslaved.[113]
  • Philocrates, slave of the 2nd-century BCE Roman reformer Gaius Gracchus. He remained at his master's side when Gracchus was fleeing from his enemies, forsaken by everybody else. Arriving at a grove sacred to the Furies, Philocrates first assisted Gracchus in his suicide before taking his own life, though some rumors held that Philocrates was only killed after he refused to let go of his master's body.
  • Phormion, an Athenian slave and banker.[25] Late in life, he received the rare honor for a freedman of citizenship.[104]
  • Maria Guyomar de Pinha (1664 – 1728), Siamese royal chef of Japanese-Portuguese ancestry.
  • Piruz Nahavandi, killer of the Caliph Umar.
  • Pope Pius I, the Bishop of Rome from about 140 to about 154, during the reign of the Roman Emperor Antonius Pius. He was the brother of the freedman Hermas and therefore likely to have been a former slave himself, though that is not mentioned explicitly in the scant records of his life.
  • Polly, the subject of the 1820 Indiana Supreme Court case Polly v. Lasselle, which resulted in all slaves held within Indiana to be freed.
  • Polly Berry, also known as Polly Crockett and Polly Wash, won an 1843 freedom suit in St. Louis, Missouri and also gained the freedom of her daughter Lucy Ann Berry.
  • Politoria, the subject of a lead curse tablet in ancient Rome; it was a curse on Clodia Valeria Sophrone, that she should not get Politoria into her power. She appears to have been a slave-courtesan who feared being sent to the brothel.[114]
  • Primus (1700-1791), enslaved to Daniel Fowle of Portsmouth New Hampshire. Primus operated the press for the New Hampshire Gazette which is the American newspaper in longest continuous print.
  • Prosper, a slave murdered in 1807 in Virgin Islands by his owner Arthur William Hodge, for which Hodge was tried and executed in 1811, the first (and virtually only) such case ever recorded.
  • A pregnant Thrall whose name is not preserved, who was fleeing for her life in 11th-century Oslo, was given refuge on the boat of Hallvard Vebjørnsson, who tried to shield her but was killed together with her by the attackers' arrows, for which he was canonised and became the patron saint of Oslo.[115]
  • Publilius Syrus (fl. 85 – 43 BCE), a Latin writer best known for his sententiae. He was a Syrian who was brought as a slave to Italy.

Q

R

Portrait of Roustam Raza, the mamluck of Napoleon by Horace Vernet (1810)
Portrait of Roustam Raza, the mamluck of Napoleon by Horace Vernet (1810)

S

Solomon Northup from Twelve Years a Slave
Solomon Northup from Twelve Years a Slave
The Death of Spartacus by Hermann Vogel (1882)
The Death of Spartacus by Hermann Vogel (1882)
  • Spendius a Campanian escaped slave who served as a Carthaginian mercenary during the First Punic War and then as a general in the Mercenary War against Carthage.[122]
  • Stephen Bishop (c. 1821 – 1857), a mixed-race slave in Kentucky known for being one of the first explorers and guides of Mammoth Cave.
  • Sue, a black slave of James Brown, who was captured along with several members of the Brown family and other slaves by Chickamaugas. When the warrior who had captured her threatened another captive, the other captor threatened to kill Sue in retribution.[123] James' son Joseph later kidnapped Sue and her children and grandchildren—eight in all—in retribution for his captivity.[124]
  • Suhayb ar-Rumi (born c. 587), also known as Suhayb ibn Sinan, enslaved in childhood in the Byzantine Empire, escaped as a young man to Mecca and went on to become an esteemed companion of Muhammad and revered member of the early Muslim community.
  • Sumayyah bint Khayyat (550–615), a woman slave in Mecca and one of the first seven converts to Islam made by the Prophet Muhammad in his early career. She was tortured and killed by the new faith's enemies, becoming the first Muslim Shahid.
  • Squanto (1585–1622), also known as Tisquantum, a Native American of what is now coastal Massachusetts who was captured by English pirates and sold as a slave. He was later freed and returned to New England, where he met the Pilgrims of the Mayflower in 1621.
  • Subh of Cordoba (940–999), a slave concubine of a Caliph and mother and regent of the next Caliph of Cordoba in the 10th century.
  • Suk-bin Choe (1670–1718), consort of Sukjong of Joseon and mother of Yeongjo of Joseon.

T

Portrait of Thomas Peters, an African-American slave who escaped to Canada and later helped found the West African nation of Sierra Leone
Portrait of Thomas Peters, an African-American slave who escaped to Canada and later helped found the West African nation of Sierra Leone
  • Thomas Peters (1738–1792), born Thomas Potters, one of the founding fathers of Sierra Leone. A former slave who fled North Carolina during the American Revolutionary War, Peters was a Black Loyalist member of the British Black Company of Pioneers, became a sergeant, and settled and married in Nova Scotia. He recruited African settlers in Nova Scotia for the colonization of Sierra Leone and later became a leader in Freetown.
  • Thomas Sims (born 1834), an enslaved African American who escaped slavery in Georgia to Boston, Massachusetts, only to be recaptured under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 and to escape to Boston once more.
  • Thomas-Alexandre Dumas (25 March 1762 – 26 February 1806) French general and father of Alexandre Dumas.
  • Thumal, administrator of justice to the eighteenth Abbasid Caliph al-Muqtadir.
  • T. Aelius Dionysius, a freedman of the late Roman Empire, who created a stela for himself, his wife, and Aelius Perseus, his fellow freedman, and their freedman and those who came after them.[125]
  • T. Claudius Dionysius, a freedman whose freedwoman wife Claudia Prepontis erected a funerary altar to him. Their clasped hands, depicted on it, show the legitimacy of their marriage, possible only once they obtained their freedom.[29]
  • Terence (c. 195/185 – c. 159 BCE), full name Publius Terentius Afer, Roman playwright and comic poet who wrote before and possibly after his freedom.
  • Tiberius Claudius Narcissus, freed slave who was secretary to the Roman emperor Claudius in the 1st century.
  • Tituba, a 17th-century Native American slave woman who was owned by Samuel Parris of Danvers, Massachusetts. She was the first person accused of practicing witchcraft during the 1692 Salem witch trials.[126]
  • Tomás Ortega, a slave in colonial Mexico who attempted to marry Leonor de Mendoza, a slave of another master. When her master imprisoned Tomás, Leonor appealed to a church court for assistance, and it threatened excommunication for the master if he did not free Tomás.[82]
  • Toussaint L'Ouverture (1743–1803), a freed slave who led the slave revolt that led to the independence of Haiti.
  • Tula (died 1795), a leader of the Curaçao Slave Revolt of 1795.
  • Turgut Reis (1485–1565), also known as Dragut, a well-known admiral of the Ottoman Navy of the 16th century who was captured by the Genoese at Corsica and forced to work as a galley slave for nearly four years. He was finally rescued by his fellow admiral Barbarossa, who laid siege to Genoa and secured Turgut Reis' release for the prodigious ransom of 3,500 gold ducats. Thereupon, Turgut Reis resumed his naval career (which included the enslavement of various other people).

U

  • Ukawsaw Gronniosaw (1705–1775), also known as James Albert, a freed slave turned writer whose autobiography is considered the first published by an African in Britain.

V

  • Venture Smith (1729–1805), an African captured as a child and transported to the American colonies as a slave. When an adult, he purchased his freedom and that of his family – his wife Meg and their children Hannah, Solomon and Cuff. His history was documented and published by a schoolteacher, to whom he talked in his old age.
  • The Vestmenn ("West Men" in Old Norse, referring to the Irish) were a group of Irish slaves brought to Iceland by Hjörleifr Hróðmarsson, one of the early Norse settlers there. He treated them badly, and they killed him and escaped to a group of offshore islands. Ingólfur Arnarson, Hjörleifur's blood brother, tracked the escaped slaves and killed them all. Though their individual names are unknown, their memory lives on in Icelandic geography, the islands where they sought refuge being known up to the present as "Vestmannaeyjar": "Islands of the West Men" (i.e. of the Irish).
  • Vincent de Paul (1581–1660), a French priest who is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church. He was taken captive by Turkish pirates, sold into slavery, and freed in 1607.[127]
  • Vibia Calybeni, a freedwoman of the late Roman Empire who unusually named herself as a madam on her tombstone.[128]
  • Virginia Boyd, an American slave woman whose letter to R.C. Ballard, pleading not to be sold with her children among strangers, has been preserved. Ballard had undertaken to have her sold at the request of Judge Samuel Boyd, the children's father, to hide her existence from his family.
  • Violet Ludlow, an American woman sold as a slave several times despite her claims to be a free white woman.[28]
  • Vitalis, ancient Roman slave. The epigraph of the slave boy Iucundus describes him as the son of Gryphus and Vitalis.[50]
  • Volumnia Cytheris, a slave and later freedwoman in ancient Rome. An actress and courtesan, her lovers included Brutus, Mark Antony, and Cornelius Gallus; her rejection of Gallus provided the theme for Virgil's tenth Eclogue.[129]

W

Photograph of Wes Brady, ex-slave, taken in Marshall, Texas, in 1937 as part of the Federal Writers' Project Slave Narrative Collection
Photograph of Wes Brady, ex-slave, taken in Marshall, Texas, in 1937 as part of the Federal Writers' Project Slave Narrative Collection

X

  • Xenon, an Athenian slave and banker.[25]

Y

  • Yaqut al-Hamawi (1179–1229), an Arab biographer and geographer known for his encyclopedic writings on the Muslim world. He was sold into slavery in 12th-century Syria and taken to Baghdad, but was provided with a good education by an enlightened owner and later freed.
  • Yasār, a 7th-century Christian man who had been captured in a campaign of Khalid ibn al-Walid, a companion of the Prophet Muhammad. Yasār was taken to Medina and became the slave of Qays ibn Makhrama ibn al-Muṭṭalib ibn ʿAbd Manāf ibn Quṣayy. He accepted Islam, was manumitted and became his mawlā, thus acquiring the nisbat al-Muṭṭalibī. He had three sons – Mūsā, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, and Isḥāq. His grandson, Ibn Ishaq, became an important early Arab historian.
  • York (1770–before 1832), an African-American slave of William Clark who accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition.

Z

  • Zalmoxis, a Dacian who was a slave of Pythagoras on the island of Samos, according to Herodotus. Zalmoxis learned philosophy from his master and other wise Greeks. Eventually he was liberated, gathered huge wealth and went back to his homeland, where he converted the Thracians to his beliefs, was greatly venerated for his wisdom and in later generations became worshiped as a god.[130]
  • Zayd ibn Haritha (c. 581–629), given to Muhammad's wife Khadijah, freed, adopted, and became known as Zayd ibn Muhammad.
  • Ziryab (789–857), also known as Abul-Hasan Alí Ibn Nafí, a Muslim singer, musician, and polymath known for introducing the crop asparagus to Europe.
  • Zoe, a Christian martyr (see Exuperius and Zoe).
  • Zumbi (1655–1695), a slave in 17th-century Brazil who escaped and joined the Quilombo dos Palmares, the largest ever settlement of escaped slaves in colonial Brazil, becoming its last and most famous leader.

See also

References

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