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List of enslaved people

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This and three other statues of chained slaves, placed at the base of the Monument of the Four Moors at Livorno, Italy, might have been made with actual slaves as models, whose names and circumstances remain unknown
This and three other statues of chained slaves, placed at the base of the Monument of the Four Moors at Livorno, Italy, might have been made with actual slaves as models, whose names and circumstances remain unknown

Slavery is a social-economic system under which persons are enslaved: deprived of personal freedom and forced to perform labor or services without compensation. These people are referred to as slaves.

The following is a list of historical people who were enslaved at some point during their lives, in alphabetical order by first name. Several names have been added under the letter representing the person's last name.

A

Aesop in a Hellenistic statue claimed to be him, Art Collection of Villa Albani, Rome
Aesop in a Hellenistic statue claimed to be him, Art Collection of Villa Albani, Rome
Portrait of Andrey Voronikhin. Engraving by V. A. Bobrov from the beginning of the 19th century.
Portrait of Andrey Voronikhin. Engraving by V. A. Bobrov from the beginning of the 19th century.
  • Archibald Grimké (1849–1930), born into slavery, the son of a white father, became an American lawyer, intellectual, journalist, diplomat and community leader.
  • Aristocleia, a woman in ancient Greece described in Against Neaera as the property of Nicarete, who prostituted her c. 340 BC.
  • Arkil, a slave in Anglo-Saxon England freed by Geatflæd "for the love of God and the good of her soul".[5]
  • Arthur Crumpler (c. 1835–1910), escaped slavery in Virginia, second husband of Dr. Rebecca Davis Lee Crumpler.
  • Augustine Tolton (1854–1897), the first black priest in the United States.[20]
  • Aurelia Philematium, a freedwoman whose tombstone glorifies her marriage with her fellow freedman, Lucius Aurelius Hermia.[21]
  • Ayuba Suleiman Diallo (1701–1773), also known as Job ben Solomon, a Muslim of the Bundu state in West Africa who was enslaved for two years in Maryland, freed in 1734, and later wrote memoirs that were published as one of the earliest slave narratives.

B

Saint Brigid of Kildare as depicted in Saint Non's chapel, St Davids, Wales.
Saint Brigid of Kildare as depicted in Saint Non's chapel, St Davids, Wales.

C

D

Dred Scott, who lost a legal suit for his freedom in the United States Supreme Court in 1857
Dred Scott, who lost a legal suit for his freedom in the United States Supreme Court in 1857
  • Danae, "the new maidservant of Capito", named in lead curse tablet from Republican Rome, which aimed to destroy Danae.[45]
  • Dave Drake (c. 1801–1876), also known as Dave the Potter.
  • David George, a black man who fled a cruel Virginia master and was captured by Creeks and enslaved by Chief Blue Salt.[46]
  • Deborah Squash, with her husband Harvey escaped from George Washington's Mount Vernon, joined the British in New York during the American Revolutionary War, and were evacuated in 1783 as freedmen.[47]
  • Denmark Vesey (c. 1767–1822), an African-American enslaved man and later a freeman who planned what would have been one of the largest slave rebellions in the United States had word of the plans not been leaked.[48]
  • Dido Elizabeth Belle (1761–1804), born into slavery as the natural daughter of Maria Belle, an enslaved African woman in the West Indies, and Sir John Lindsay, a career Royal Navy officer. Lindsay took Belle with him when he returned to England in 1765, entrusting her raising to his uncle William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, and his wife Elizabeth Murray, Countess of Mansfield. The Murrays educated Belle, bringing her up as a free gentlewoman at their Kenwood House, together with their niece, Lady Elizabeth Murray. Belle lived there for 30 years. In his will of 1793, Lord Mansfield confirmed her freedom and provided an outright sum and an annuity to her, making her an heiress.
  • Diego was a freed slave closely associated with the Elizabethan English navigator Francis Drake. In March 1573, Drake raided Darien (in modern Panama), in which he was greatly aided by Maroons - African slaves who had escaped cruel Spanish masters and were glad to help their English enemies. One of them was Diego, who proved a capable ship builder and accompanied Drake back to England. In 1577, when Queen Elizabeth sent Drake to start an expedition against the Spanish along the Pacific coast of the Americas - which eventually developed into Drake circumnavigating the world - Diego was once again employed under Drake; his fluency in Spanish and English would make him a useful interpreter when Spaniards or Spanish-speaking Portuguese were captured. He was employed as Drake's servant and was paid wages, just like the rest of the crew. Diego died while Drake's ship was crossing the Pacific, of wounds sustained earlier in the voyage. Drake was saddened at his death, Diego having become a good friend.[49]
  • Diogenes of Sinope (c. 412–323 BCE), Greek philosopher kidnapped by pirates and sold in Corinth.
  • Diondre Hammond, hailed from Africa, sent by British to colonial America, later escaped to what is now southern California.
  • Dincă, the half-Roma enslaved man and illegitimate child of a Cantacuzino boyar in the 19th-century Danubian Principalities (present-day Romania). Well-educated, working as a cook but not allowed to marry his French mistress and go free, which had led him to murder his lover and kill himself. The affair shocked public opinion and was one of the factors contributing to the abolition of slavery in Romania. [50]
  • Diocletian (244–312), Emperor of Rome, was by some sources born as the slave of Senator Anullinus. By other sources, it was Diocletian's father (whose own name is unknown) who was a slave, and was freed prior to the birth of his son, the future emperor.[51]
  • Dionysius I (? – 1492), Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, previously enslaved by the Ottomans after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.
  • Dragut (1485-1565) Ottoman commander, gally slave during his Italian captivity.
  • Dred Scott (c. 1799–1858), an African-American enslaved man in Missouri who attempted to sue for his freedom in a nationally publicized trial, Scott v. Sandford, that reached the United States Supreme Court in 1857.
  • Dufe the Old, an enslaved man in Anglo-Saxon England, was freed by his mistress Æthelgifu's will.[52]

E

Florence, Lady Baker c. 1875. A Romanian sold as a slave as an orphan, was bought by Samuel Baker, who married her.
Florence, Lady Baker c. 1875. A Romanian sold as a slave as an orphan, was bought by Samuel Baker, who married her.
  • Ecceard the Smith, an enslaved person in Anglo-Saxon England freed by Geatflæd "for the love of God and the good of her soul".[52]
  • Ecgferð Aldun's daughter, an enslaved person in Anglo-Saxon England freed by Geatflæd "for the love of God and the good of her soul".[52]
  • Edmond Flint, a black enslaved person among the Choctaw Nation who later described it as very like slavery among the whites.[53]
  • Ediþ, an enslaved woman in Anglo-Saxon England who bought her freedom and that of her children.[54]
  • Edward Mozingo, Sr., (c. 1649 – 1712), kidnapped from Africa when ~10 years old, sold into slavery in Jamestown, Virginia. After his master died, he sued for his freedom and won it. He married an impoverished white woman, Margaret Pierce Bayley (1645–1711) and together they, essentially, founded the Mozingo family line in North America.[55]
  • Elijah Abel (1808–1884), born in Maryland as an enslaved person and believed to have escaped slavery on the Underground Railroad into Canada. He joined The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in its early days, was among the first blacks to receive its priesthood and the first black person to rise to the ranks of an elder and seventy.
  • Edith Hern Fossett, a woman enslaved by U.S. President Thomas Jefferson, was taught to cook by a French chef and created French cuisine at the White House and at Monticello.
  • Eliezer of Damascus, Abraham's slave and trusted manager of the Patriarch's household in the Hebrew Bible.
  • Eliza Hopewell, an enslaved woman of Confederate spy Isabella Maria Boyd ("Belle Boyd"). In 1862 she helped her mistress' espionage activities, carrying messages to the Confederate Army in a hollowed-out watch case.
  • Eliza Moore (1843 – January 21, 1948), one of the last proven African-American former slaves living in the United States.
  • Elias Polk (1806 – December 30, 1886), a conservative political activist of the 19th century.
  • Elizabeth Key Grinstead (1630–after 1665), the first woman of African ancestry in the North American colonies to sue for her freedom and win. Key and her infant son, John Grinstead, were freed on July 21, 1656, in the colony of Virginia, based on the fact that her father was an Englishman and that she was a baptized Christian.
  • Elizabeth Freeman (c. 1742 – 1829), known as Bett and later Mum Bett, was among the first black slaves in Massachusetts to file a freedom suit and win in court under the 1780 constitution, with a ruling that slavery was illegal.
  • Elizabeth Hobbs Keckley (1818–1907), best known as the personal modiste and confidante of Mary Todd Lincoln, the First Lady of the United States. Keckley wrote and published an autobiography, Behind the Scenes: Or, Thirty Years a Slave and Four Years in the White House (1868).
  • Ellen Craft (1826–1891), light-skinned wife of William Craft, who escaped with him from Georgia to Philadelphia, by posing as a white woman and her slave, in a case that became famous.
  • Elsey Thompson, a white captive enslaved by a Creek. When trader John O'Reilly attempted to ransom her and Nancy Caffrey, he was told they were not taken captive to be allowed to go back, but to work.[56]
  • Emilia Soares de Patrocinio (1805-1886) was a Brazilian slave, slave owner and businesswoman.
  • Emiline (age 23); Nancy (20); Lewis, brother of Nancy (16); Edward, brother of Emiline (13); Lewis and Edward, sons of Nancy (7); Ann, daughter of Nancy (5); and Amanda, daughter of Emiline (2), were freed in the 1852 Lemmon v. New York court case after they were brought to New York by their Virginia slave owners.
  • Emily Edmonson (1835–1895), along with her sister Mary, joined an unsuccessful 1848 escape attempt known as the Pearl incident, but Henry Ward Beecher and his church raised the funds to free them.
  • Enrique of Malacca, also known as Henry the Black, slave and interpreter of Ferdinand Magellan and possibly the first man to circumnavigate the globe in Magellan's voyage of 1519–1521.
  • Epictetus (55 – c. 135), ancient Greek stoic philosopher.
  • Epunuel, a native of Chappaquiddick who was taken captive by English explorers in the 1610s with twenty-nine others, and taken to London as a slave.[57]
  • Estevanico (1500–1539), also known as Esteban the Moor. In principle he was a slave of the Portuguese to, later, be a servant of the Spaniards. He was one of only four survivors of the ill-fated Narváez expedition, later a guide in search of the fabled Seven Cities of Gold and possibly the first African person to arrive in what is now Arizona and New Mexico.
  • Eucharis, a Greek born freedwoman of Roman Licinia, described in her epitaph in the 1st century AD as fourteen when she died, a child actress and a professional dancer.[58]
  • Eunus (died 132 BC) a Roman enslaved person from Apamea in Syria, the leader of the slave uprising in the First Servile War
  • Euphraios, an Athenian enslaved person and banker.[38]
  • Exuperius and Zoe (died 127), 2nd-century Christian martyrs. They were a married couple who were enslaved by a pagan in Pamphylia. They were killed along with their sons, Cyriacus and Theodolus, for refusing to participate in pagan rites when their son was born.[59]

F

Frederick Douglass, the foremost African-American abolitionist of the 19th century
Frederick Douglass, the foremost African-American abolitionist of the 19th century
Self-portrait by Fyodor Slavyansky (1850s, Russian museum)
Self-portrait by Fyodor Slavyansky (1850s, Russian museum)

G

Medical examination photo of Gordon showing his scourged back, widely distributed by abolitionists to expose the brutality of slavery
Medical examination photo of Gordon showing his scourged back, widely distributed by abolitionists to expose the brutality of slavery
Portrait of Gülnuş Sultan.
Portrait of Gülnuş Sultan.

H

Hurrem Sultan, an Eastern European slave girl bought by the Ottoman Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent, who married her.
Hurrem Sultan, an Eastern European slave girl bought by the Ottoman Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent, who married her.

I

Ivan Argunov. Self-portrait (late 1750s)
Ivan Argunov. Self-portrait (late 1750s)

J

K

Kösem Sultan (1589–1651), slave concubine like all other inmates of the Imperial Harem.
Kösem Sultan (1589–1651), slave concubine like all other inmates of the Imperial Harem.
  • Anna Kingsley (1793–1870), enslaved woman and then a planter and slave owner herself.
  • Kösem Sultan (1589–1651), an Ottoman enslaved woman, later extremely powerful as wife, then mother and later grandmother of the Ottoman sultan during the 130-year period known as the Sultanate of Women.
  • John Knox (c. 1514 – 24 November 1572) was a Scottish minister, galley slave in the French galleys, 1547–1549.
  • Kunta Kinte (c. 1750– c. 1822), a character from the 1976 novel Roots: The Saga of an American Family whom author Alex Haley claimed was based on one of his actual ancestors. Kinte was supposedly a man of the Mandinka people who grew up in a small village called Juffure in what is now The Gambia and was raised as a Muslim before being captured and enslaved in Virginia.[98] The historical accuracy of Haley's story is disputed.[99]
  • Kizzy Kinte, the supposed daughter of Kunta Kinte.[100] As with her father, the existence of an historical Kizzy Kinte is disputed.
  • King Jaja of Opobo (1821–1891), sold at about the age of 12 into slavery in the Kingdom of Bonny in present-day Nigeria. Proving at an early age his aptitude for business, he not only earned his way out of slavery but also became a rich and powerful merchant prince and the founder of the Opobo city-state, his career eventually ended by the British colonizers whom he tried to defy.

L

  • Lamhatty, a Tawasa Indian captured and enslaved by Creek; he escaped.[101]
  • Laurens de Graaf (c. 1653-1704) a Dutch pirate, mercenary, and naval officer, enslaved by Spanish slave traders when captured in what is now the Netherlands and transported to the Canary Islands to work on a plantation, prior to 1674.
  • La Mulâtresse Solitude (1772–1802), a slave on the island of Guadeloupe freed in 1794 by the abolition of slavery during the French Revolution. She was executed after having fought for freedom when slavery was reintroduced by Napoleon in 1802.
  • Leo Africanus, (1494–1554), a Moor born in Granada who was taken by his family in 1498 to Morocco when expelled from Spain. As an adult he served on diplomatic missions. Captured by Crusaders while in the Middle East, he was enslaved in Rome and forced to convert to Christianity. He eventually regained his freedom and lived out his life in Tunis.
  • Leofgifu the dairy maid, an enslaved woman in Anglo-Saxon England, named in her manumission.[102]
  • Leoflaed, an enslaved woman in Anglo-Saxon England, whose freedom was bought by a man who described her as a "kinswoman."[103]
  • Leonor de Mendoza, an enslaved woman in colonial Mexico who tried to marry Tomás Ortega, an enslaved man of another master; when her master imprisoned Tomás, she appealed to a church court for assistance, and it threatened excommunication for the master if he did not free Tomás.[104]
  • Lewis Adams (1842–1905), a former slave who co-founded the Tuskegee Institute, now Tuskegee University, in Alabama.
  • Lilliam Williams, a Tennessee settler who was captured by the Creek while pregnant. The Creek adopted her daughter (whom she named Molly and they named Esnahatchee,); they kept the girl when Williams' freedom was arranged.[105]
  • Liol, a Chinese enslaved man of the Mongol banner man Soosar. He was rewarded with semi-independent status, as a separate register dependent. In 1735, his son Fuji tried to claim that he and his brother were in fact Manchus and detached household bannermen, but failed.[106]
  • Jermain Wesley Loguen (1813–1872), an African-American escaped enslaved man who became an abolitionist, a bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, and the author of a slave narrative.
  • Louis Hughes (1832–1913), African-American escaped enslaved man, author, and businessman[107]
  • Lovisa von Burghausen (1698–1733), Swedish writer who published an account of being enslaved in Russia after being taken prisoner during the Great Northern War.
  • Lucius Agermus, freedman of Agrippina the Elder.[108]
  • Lucius Aurelius Hermia, a freedman butcher whose tombstone glorifies his marriage with his fellow freedwoman Aurelia Philematium.[109]
  • Lucius Cancrius Primigenius, a freedman of Clemens in an inscription praising him for breaking spells against the city.[110]
  • Lucius of Campione, who lost a lawsuit in the 8th century over a man Toto's claimed ownership of him.[111]
  • Lucy, the black woman enslaved by John Lang. She was taken captive by the Creek when 12 years old and kept in slavery in Creek territory, where she had slave children and grandchildren.[112]
  • Lucy Ann (Berry) Delaney (1830–1891), former enslaved woman and daughter of Polly Berry.
  • Lunsford Lane (1803 – after 1870), an African-American enslaved man and entrepreneur from North Carolina who bought freedom for himself and his family. He also wrote a slave narrative.
  • Lyde, an enslaved woman freed by the Empress Livia.[113]
  • Lydia, an enslaved woman who was shot and wounded by her captor when she struggled to escape a whipping. The action was ruled legal by the Supreme Court of North Carolina in 1830 (see North Carolina v. Mann).
  • Lydia Carter, the "Little Osage Captive," captured and enslaved among the Cherokee. She was ransomed by Lydia Carter, who made her her namesake. The Osage attempted to reclaim her, but she took ill and died.[114]
  • Lydia Polite, mother of Robert Smalls.

M

  • JaVayla Gayden, leader of a slave revolt on board the slave ship Creole in 1841.
  • Malchus, slave of Caiaphas.
  • Malik Ambar, born in 1548 as Chapu, a birth-name in Harar, Adal Sultanate in Somalia. He was from the now extinct Maya ethnic group. As a child he was sold in slavery by his parents[115] Mir Qasim Al Baghdadi, one of his slave owners, eventually converted Chapu to Islam and gave him the name Ambar, after recognizing his superior intellectual qualities.[116][117] Malik was brought to India as a slave. While in India he created a mercenary force numbering up to 1500 men. It was based in the Deccan region and was hired by local kings. Malik became a popular Prime Minister of the Ahmadnagar Sultanate, showing administrative acumen. He is also regarded as a pioneer in guerilla warfare in the region. He is credited with carrying out a revenue settlement of much of the Deccan, which formed the basis for subsequent settlements. He is a figure of veneration to the Siddis of Gujarat. He humbled the might of the Mughals and Adil Shah of Bijapur and raised the low status of the Nizam Shah.[118][119]
  • La Malinche (c. 1496 or c. 1501 – c. 1529), a Nahua woman given as a slave to Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés. She became his personal interpreter, advisor, and mistress during the Spanish conquest of Mexico.
  • Mammy Lou (1804 – after 1918), a former enslaved woman who lived to extreme old age and became an actress in the 1918 silent film The Glorious Adventure.
  • Manes, a man enslaved by Diogenes of Sinope. He ran away shortly after his master arrived in Athens, and Diogenes failed to pursue him on the grounds that if Manes could live without him, it would be disgraceful if he could not equally live without Manes.
  • Manjeok, Korean enslaved person, leader of an abortive slave uprising.
  • Mann, the name of two enslaved people in Anglo-Saxon England, one a goldsmith, who were both freed by their mistress Æthelgifu's will. The wife of the Mann not a goldsmith was also freed.[52]
  • Manjutakin (died 1007), a Turkish-born military enslaved person (ghulam) and general of the Fatimids.
  • Marcos Xiorro, a Puerto Rican enslaved man who, in 1821, planned and conspired to lead a slave revolt against the sugar plantation owners and the Spanish colonial government in Puerto Rico. Though the conspiracy was unsuccessful, Xiorro achieved legendary status among the slaves and is part of Puerto Rico's folklore.[120]
  • Marcia, mistress of the Roman Emperor Commodus.
  • Marcius Agrippa (late 2nd and early 3rd century), an enslaved man who was not only freed but eventually elevated to senatorial rank by the Roman emperor Macrinus.
  • Marcus Tullius Tiro (c. 103 – 4 BCE), Roman author, enslaved man, and secretary of the Roman politician Cicero, later freed. He invented a long-lasting system of shorthand and wrote books that are now lost.
  • Margaret Garner (1835–1858), an enslaved woman in antebellum America infamous for killing her own daughter rather than see the child returned to slavery.
  • Margaret Himfi (before 1380 – after 1408), a Hungarian noblewoman who was abducted and enslaved by Ottoman marauders in the late 14th century. She later became an enslaved mistress of a wealthy Venetian citizen of Crete, with whom she had two daughters. Margaret returned to Hungary in 1405.
  • Maria ter Meetelen (1704 – fl. 1751), Dutch writer of a slave narrative, enslaved by pirates and sold to the sultan of Morocco. Her biography is considered to be a valuable witness statement of the life of a former enslaved person (1748).
  • Margaret Morgan, involved in the Prigg v. Pennsylvania United States Supreme Court case in which the court held that the federal Fugitive Slave Act precluded a Pennsylvania state law that prohibited blacks from being taken out of Pennsylvania into slavery, and overturned the conviction of Edward Prigg as a result.
  • Marguerite Scypion (c. 1770s – after 1836), an African-Natchez woman born into slavery in St. Louis who sued for and eventually won her freedom.
  • Maria al-Qibtiyya (died 637), also known as "Maria the Copt" (Arabic: مارية القبطية‎) or, alternatively, Maria Qupthiya, a Coptic enslaved person who was sent as a gift from Muqawqis, a Byzantine official, to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 628, and became Muhammad's wife. She was the mother of Muhammad's son Ibrahim, who died in infancy. Her sister, Sirin, was also sent to Muhammad. Muhammad gave her to his follower Hassan ibn Thabit. Maria never remarried after Muhammad's death in 632, and died five years later.
  • Maria, (died 1716), the leader of a slave rebellion on Curaçao.
  • Maria Perkins, an enslaved woman from Virginia who wrote a letter to her husband in 1852 about their son being sold away.[121]
  • Mariah Bell Winder McGavock Otey Reddick (died 1922), as an enslaved girl was given as a wedding gift in 1848 to Carrie Winder when she married John McGavock in Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana. Mariah, born in Mississippi, was taken to Franklin, Tennessee, where she lived for most of the remainder of her life. She was matched with Harvey Otey after his first wife Phebe died. They had several children, including two sets of twins, born into slavery. During the Civil War, she was sent to Montgomery to be far from Union lines and possible freedom. She has been featured in three novels: Widow of the South and Orphan Mother both by Robert Hicks and in a book by her great-grandson William 'Damani' Keene and his wife Carole 'Ife' Keene entitled CLANDESTINE: The Times and Secret Life of Mariah Otey Reddick.[122]
  • Marie-Cessette Dumas, a woman enslaved by Marquis Antoine de la Pailleterie, mother of General Thomas-Alexandre Dumas, and grandmother of famous author Alexandre Dumas, père.
  • Marie-Josèphe dite Angélique (died 1734), a black Portuguese enslaved woman who was tried and convicted, beaten and hanged for setting fire to her female owner's home, burning much of what is now referred to as Old Montreal.
  • Marie Thérèse Metoyer, a planter, and businesswoman at the colonial Louisiana outpost of Natchitoches after being freed.
  • Mark, Massachusetts man enslaved by Captain John Codman.[123] Mark's body was displayed in chains publicly near Charlestown, Massachusetts for twenty years. The gruesome display of his body was so well known at the time, the site where Mark's body was displayed is mentioned by Paul Revere as a landmark, in his 1798 account of Revere's 1775 midnight ride.[124]
  • Mary, mother of George Washington Carver.
  • Mary Black, one of three enslaved women charged with witchcraft during the Salem witch trials of 1692.
  • Mary Calhoun, white woman and cousin of John C. Calhoun who was kidnapped by Cherokee. She never returned home.[1]
  • Mary Edmonson (1832–1853), along with her sister Emily, joined an unsuccessful 1848 escape attempt known as the Pearl incident, but Henry Ward Beecher and his church raised the funds to free them.
  • Mary Eliza Smith, described in various records as "slave" or "former slave," common-law wife of Michael Morris Healy and mother of his children, including James Augustine Healy, Patrick Francis Healy, Michael A. Healy, and Eliza Healy.
  • Mary Fields (c. 1832–1914): the first African-American female star route mail carrier in the United States
  • Mary Mildred Williams, Nee Botts (born 1847), the original 'Poster Child' whose image was used to advance the abolitionist cause by propagandising 'White Slavery' in 1855.
  • Mary Prince (c. 1788 – after 1833), the account of her life galvanized the anti-slavery movement in England.
  • The Master of Morton and the eldest son of the Chief of Clan Oliphant, two Scottish nobles who were exiled from Scotland after being implicated in the 1582 Raid of Ruthven. The ship in which they sailed was lost at sea, and it was rumoured that they had been caught by a Dutch ship. The last report was that they were slaves on a Turkish ship in the Mediterranean. A plaque to their memory was raised in the church in Algiers.
  • Masúd, initially purchased as a youth by Khál-i Akbar, an uncle of the Báb, Masúd would serve Bahá'u'lláh in Acre.[125]
  • Mende Nazer (born c. 1982), a Nuba woman captured in Darfur and transported from Sudan to London, where she eventually won refugee status and wrote the memoir Slave: My True Story (2002).
  • Menecrates of Tralles a Greek physician during the 1st century BC.
  • Hans Mergest, a participant in the Crusade of Varna who was captured by the Ottomans in the Battle of Varna (1444) and spent 16 years in captivity. He was the protagonist of a song by the minnesinger Michael Beheim.
  • Metaneira, a woman in ancient Greece described in Against Neaera as the property of Nicarete, who prostituted her.
  • Shadrach Minkins (1814–1875), a fugitive enslaved person saved by abolitionists at Boston in 1850.
  • Michael Shiner (1805 -1880), enslaved laborer, painter entrepreneur, civic leader and diarist at the Washington Navy Yard.
  • Miguel Perez was the Spanish name of a boy of the Yojuane people who was among 149 Yojuane women and children taken captive in 1759, during an attack on their camp by an expedition of Spaniards and Apaches along the Red River in what is now northern Texas.[126] Many of the captives died of smallpox while those who survived were made into slaves.[127] The boy was sold to a Spanish soldier who bestowed the Spanish name on him. Perez became a Hispanicized Indian of San Antonio but he continued to maintain contact with the Yojuanes. In 1786, Perez was recruited to convince the Yojuanes and their Tonkawa allies to go to war with the Lipan Apache, which he did successfully.[126]
  • Mikhail Matinsky (1750–1820), Russian serf scientist, dramatist, librettist and opera composer.
  • Mikhail Shchepkin (1788–1863), Russian serf actor.
  • Mikhail Shibanov, Russian serf painter active during the 1780s.
  • Mikhail Tikhanov (1789–1862), Russian serf artist.
  • Mina Kolokolnikov (1708?–1775?), Russian serf painter and teacher.
  • Mingo, the 15–16 years old enslaved boy of the Titsworth family in Tennessee, who was captured in 1794 by Creeks in a raid on the house and kept as a slave by them.[128][129]
  • Minerva (Anderson) Breedlove, mother of Madam C.J. Walker.
  • Hájí Mubárak, purchased at the age of 5 years old by Hájí Mírzá Abú'l-Qásím, the great-grandfather of Shoghi Effendi and brother-in-law of the Báb, Hájí Mubárak was sold to the Báb in 1842 at the age of 19 for fourteen tomans.[130] Hájí Mubárak died at about the age of 40 and is buried in the grounds of the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala, Iraq.
  • Mustapha Khaznadar (1817-1878), born Georgios Kalkias Stravelakis, a Christian Greek on the island of Chios, captured by Ottoman troops during the 1822 Massacre of Chios, converted to Islam and given the name Mustapha, sold in Constantinople to an envoy of the Husainid Dynasty. He was raised by the family of Mustapha Bey, then by his son Ahmad I Bey[131] while he was still crown prince. Initially, he worked as the prince's private treasurer before becoming Ahmad's state treasurer (khaznadar).[131] He managed to climb to the highest offices of the Tunisian state, married Princess Lalla Kalthoum in 1839 and was promoted to lieutenant-general of the army, made bey in 1840 and then president of the Grand Council from 1862 to 1878.
  • Mustafa Pasha, the Ottoman Governor of Rhodes, was in February 1748 on the ship Lupa when Hungarian, Georgian and Maltese slaves on board revolted, took over the ship and took him and some other 150 Ottomans prisoner. the captured ship was sailed to Malta, where the Ottoman prisoners were enslaved. However, Mustafa was placed under house arrest on the insistence of France due to the Franco-Ottoman alliance, and was eventually freed. He formally converted to Christianity and married a Maltese woman, and then started planning a revolt of the numerous Muslim slaves in Malta, seeking to take over the island. This Conspiracy of the Slaves was scheduled for 29 June 1749, but was betrayed. Many other participating slaves were executed, but Mustafa Pasha was freed at the insistence of Franc and was taken back to Rhodes on a French vessel.
  • Muyahid ibn Yusuf ibn Ali, 11th-century leader of the Saqaliba (enslaved people of supposed Slavic origin) in Dénia, Spain (then part of Muslim Al Andalus). Taking advantage of the crumbling of the Caliphate of Córdoba, he and his followers rebelled, freed themselves, seized control of the city and established the Taifa of Dénia, a city-state which at its peak extended its reach as far as the island of Majorca.

N

O

Omar ibn Said, a Senegalese Islamic scholar enslaved in North Carolina for more than 50 years, circa 1850
Omar ibn Said, a Senegalese Islamic scholar enslaved in North Carolina for more than 50 years, circa 1850

P

  • Harriet Evans Paine, (c. 1822–1917), Texas enslaved woman and later oral historian and storyteller.
  • Pallas (freedman), secretary to the Roman emperor Claudius.
  • Juan de Pareja (1606–1670), man enslaved by Spanish artist Diego Velázquez. Velázquez trained him as a painter and freed him in 1650.
  • Pasion, an Athenian enslaved man and banker.[38] Late in life, he received the rare honor for a freedman of citizenship.[134]
  • Saint Patrick, abducted from Britain, enslaved in Ireland, escaped to Britain, returned to Ireland as a missionary.[135]
  • Patsey (born c. 1830), an African-American enslaved person that lived in the mid-1800s in South Carolina.
  • Paul Jennings (1799–1874), personal servant enslaved by President James Madison during and after his White House years, bought his freedom in 1845 from Daniel Webster. Noted for publishing the first White House memoir, 1865's A Colored Man's Reminiscences of James Madison.[136]
  • Paul Smith, a free black who accused the Cherokee headman Doublehead of kidnapping him and forcing him into bondage.[137]
  • Peggy Margaret Titsworth, enslaved at 13 years for three years, after a Creek raid in 1794 on her Tennessee home.[128][138]
  • Pete and Hannah Byrne, freed enslaved people of the Napoleon Bonaparte Byrne family which traveled from Missouri to California overland (a six-month journey) in 1859, leaving the farm in Missouri and bringing six adults (including Pete & Hannah), the four Byrne children and a herd of cattle and settling in Berkeley, California. Pete and Hannah are considered the first blacks living in Berkeley and among the first African-Americans in California.[139][140]
  • Peter Salem (c. 1750–1816), African American born into slavery in Massachusetts, served as a soldier in the American Revolutionary War
  • Petronia Justa, a woman in Herculaneum who sued her master claiming to have been born after her mother's emanicipation; the records of the lawsuit were preserved by the eruption of Vesuvius.[141]
  • Phaedo of Elis, captured in war, enslaved in Athens and forced into prostitution,[142] became a pupil of Socrates who had him freed, gave his name to one of Plato's dialogues, Phaedo and became a famous philosopher in his own right.
  • Phaedrus (c. 15 BCE – c. 50 CE), Roman fabulist.
  • Phillis, a Massachusetts woman enslaved by Captain John Codman. Convicted in the successful plot to poison her master as she and her fellow enslaved "found the rigid discipline of their master unendurable",[123] Phillis was burned to death in 1755.
  • Phillis Wheatley (1753–1784?), Colonial American poet, the second published African-American poet and first published African-American woman.
  • Phoebe, an enslaved woman who sued for her freedom in Tennessee, along with her sons Davy and Tom, claiming to be the descendants of an enslaved Indian woman whose sister and other relatives had proven that they were wrongly enslaved.[143]
  • Philocrates, enslaved man of the 2nd-century BCE Roman reformer Gaius Gracchus. He remained at his master's side when Gracchus was fleeing from his enemies, forsaken by everybody else. Arriving at a grove sacred to the Furies, Philocrates first assisted Gracchus in his suicide before taking his own life, though some rumors held that Philocrates was only killed after he refused to let go of his master's body.
  • Phormion, an Athenian enslaved man and banker.[38] Late in life, he received the rare honor for a freedman of citizenship.[134]
  • Pierre d'Espagnac, sometimes Pierre d'Espagnal (1650–1689) was a French Jesuit missionary, enslaved by the Siamese.
  • Maria Guyomar de Pinha (1664–1728), Siamese royal chef of Japanese-Portuguese ancestry.
  • Piruz Nahavandi, killer of the Caliph Umar.
  • Pope Pius I, the Bishop of Rome from about 140 to about 154, during the reign of the Roman Emperor Antonius Pius. He was the brother of the freedman Hermas and therefore likely to have been a former slave himself, though that is not mentioned explicitly in the scant records of his life.
  • Polly, the subject of the 1820 Indiana Supreme Court case Polly v. Lasselle, which resulted in all slaves held within Indiana to be freed.
  • Polly Berry, also known as Polly Crockett and Polly Wash, won an 1843 freedom suit in St. Louis, Missouri and also gained the freedom of her daughter Lucy Ann Berry.
  • Politoria, the subject of a lead curse tablet in ancient Rome; it was a curse on Clodia Valeria Sophrone, that she should not get Politoria into her power. She appears to have been a slave-courtesan who feared being sent to the brothel.[144]
  • Praskovia Kovalyova-Zhemchugova (1768–1803) was a Russian serf actress and soprano opera singer.
  • Primus (1700–1791), enslaved by Daniel Fowle of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Primus operated the press for the New Hampshire Gazette which is the American newspaper in longest continuous print.
  • Prince Whipple (1750–1796), enslaved person owned by American General William Whipple
  • Prosper, an enslaved person murdered in 1807 in Virgin Islands by his owner Arthur William Hodge, for which Hodge was tried and executed in 1811, the first (and virtually only) such case ever recorded.
  • A pregnant Thrall whose name is not preserved, who was fleeing for her life in 11th-century Oslo, was given refuge on the boat of Hallvard Vebjørnsson, who tried to shield her but was killed together with her by the attackers' arrows, for which he was canonised and became the patron saint of Oslo.[145]
  • Publilius Syrus (fl. 85 – 43 BCE), a Latin writer best known for his sententiae. He was a Syrian who was brought as a slave to Italy.

Q

R

Portrait of Roustam Raza, the mamluck of Napoleon by Horace Vernet (1810)
Portrait of Roustam Raza, the mamluck of Napoleon by Horace Vernet (1810)

S

Solomon Northup from Twelve Years a Slave
Solomon Northup from Twelve Years a Slave
The Death of Spartacus by Hermann Vogel (1882)
The Death of Spartacus by Hermann Vogel (1882)
  • Spendius a Campanian escaped enslaved man who served as a Carthaginian mercenary during the First Punic War and then as a general in the Mercenary War against Carthage.[152]
  • Stephen Bishop (c. 1821 – 1857), a mixed-race enslaved man in Kentucky known for being one of the first explorers and guides of Mammoth Cave.
  • Sue, a black woman enslaved by James Brown, who was captured along with several members of the Brown family and other slaves by Chickamaugas. When the warrior who had captured her threatened another captive, the other captor threatened to kill Sue in retribution.[153] James' son Joseph later kidnapped Sue and her children and grandchildren—eight in all—in retribution for his captivity.[154]
  • Suhayb ar-Rumi (born c. 587), also known as Suhayb ibn Sinan, enslaved in childhood in the Byzantine Empire, escaped as a young man to Mecca and went on to become an esteemed companion of Muhammad and revered member of the early Muslim community.
  • Sumayyah bint Khayyat (550–615), a woman enslaved in Mecca and one of the first seven converts to Islam made by the Prophet Muhammad in his early career. She was tortured and killed by the new faith's enemies, becoming the first Muslim Shahid.
  • Squanto (1585–1622), also known as Tisquantum, a Native American of what is now coastal Massachusetts who was captured by English pirates and sold as a slave. He was later freed and returned to New England, where he met the Pilgrims of the Mayflower in 1621.
  • Subh of Cordoba (940–999), an enslaved concubine of a Caliph and mother and regent of the next Caliph of Cordoba in the 10th century.
  • Suk-bin Choe (1670–1718), consort of Sukjong of Joseon and mother of Yeongjo of Joseon.

T

Alleged portrait of Terence, from Codex Vaticanus Latinus 3868.  Possibly copied from 3rd-century original.
Alleged portrait of Terence, from Codex Vaticanus Latinus 3868. Possibly copied from 3rd-century original.
  • Taras Shevchenko (1814 -1861) The most prominent Ukrainian poet, artist and illustrator was born in a family of serfs. His artist friends bought his freedom in 1838.
  • Tatyana Shlykova (1773–1863), Russian serf ballerina and opera singer.
  • Thomas Peters (1738–1792), born Thomas Potters, one of the founding fathers of Sierra Leone. A former slave who fled North Carolina during the American Revolutionary War, Peters was a Black Loyalist member of the British Black Company of Pioneers, became a sergeant, and settled and married in Nova Scotia. He recruited African settlers in Nova Scotia for the colonization of Sierra Leone and later became a leader in Freetown.
  • Thomas Sims (born 1834), an enslaved African American man who escaped slavery in Georgia to Boston, Massachusetts, only to be recaptured under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 and to escape to Boston once more.
  • Thomas-Alexandre Dumas (25 March 1762 – 26 February 1806) French general and father of Alexandre Dumas.
  • Thumal, administrator of justice to the eighteenth Abbasid Caliph al-Muqtadir.
  • T. Aelius Dionysius, a freedman of the late Roman Empire, who created a stela for himself, his wife, and Aelius Perseus, his fellow freedman, and their freedman and those who came after them.[155]
  • T. Claudius Dionysius, a freedman whose freedwoman wife Claudia Prepontis erected a funerary altar to him. Their clasped hands, depicted on it, show the legitimacy of their marriage, possible only once they obtained their freedom.[41]
  • Terence (c. 195/185 – c. 159 BCE), full name Publius Terentius Afer, Roman playwright and comic poet who wrote before and possibly after his freedom.
  • Tiberius Claudius Narcissus, freed enslaved man who was secretary to the Roman emperor Claudius in the 1st century.
  • Tituba, a 17th-century Native American enslaved woman who was enslaved by Samuel Parris of Danvers, Massachusetts. She was the first person accused of practicing witchcraft during the 1692 Salem witch trials.[156]
  • Tomás Ortega, an enslaved man in colonial Mexico who attempted to marry Leonor de Mendoza, an enslaved woman of another master. When her master imprisoned Tomás, Leonor appealed to a church court for assistance, and it threatened excommunication for the master if he did not free Tomás.[104]
  • Titus Kent (1733-18??), lived as enslaved individual with Samuel Kent family in Suffield Connecticut. He was owned by Samuel Kent, who lived 1698–1772; Samuel Kent's 1772 probate recorded that Titus was bequeathed Samuel Kent's son, Elihu Kent. Revolutionary War records indicate that Titus served in different regiments from 1775–1783.
  • Toussaint L'Ouverture (1743–1803), a freed enslaved man who led the slave revolt that led to the independence of Haiti.
  • Tula (died 1795), a leader of the Curaçao Slave Revolt of 1795.
  • Turgut Reis (1485–1565), also known as Dragut, a well-known admiral of the Ottoman Navy of the 16th century who was captured by the Genoese at Corsica and forced to work as a galley slave for nearly four years. He was finally rescued by his fellow admiral Barbarossa, who laid siege to Genoa and secured Turgut Reis' release for the prodigious ransom of 3,500 gold ducats. Thereupon, Turgut Reis resumed his naval career (which included the enslavement of various other people).
  • Turhan Hatice Sultan (c. 1627 – 4 August 1683) was Haseki Sultan of the Ottoman Sultan Ibrahim (reign 1640–48) and Valide Sultan as the mother of Mehmed IV (reign 1648–87).

U

  • Ukawsaw Gronniosaw (1705–1775), also known as James Albert, a freed enslaved man turned writer whose autobiography is considered the first published by an African in Britain.

V

  • Vasily Tropinin (1776–1857), Russian serf painter.
  • Venture Smith (1729–1805), an African captured as a child and transported to the American colonies as a slave. When an adult, he purchased his freedom and that of his family – his wife Meg and their children Hannah, Solomon and Cuff. His history was documented and published by a schoolteacher, to whom he talked in his old age.
  • The Vestmenn ("West Men" in Old Norse, referring to the Irish) were a group of Irish slaves brought to Iceland by Hjörleifr Hróðmarsson, one of the early Norse settlers there. He treated them badly, and they killed him and escaped to a group of offshore islands. Ingólfur Arnarson, Hjörleifur's blood brother, tracked the escaped slaves and killed them all. Though their individual names are unknown, their memory lives on in Icelandic geography, the islands where they sought refuge being known up to the present as "Vestmannaeyjar": "Islands of the West Men" (i.e. of the Irish).
  • Vincent de Paul (1581–1660), a French priest who is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church. He was taken captive by Turkish pirates, sold into slavery, and freed in 1607.[157]
  • Vindicius, an ancient Roman slave who discovered Tarquin's plot to regain power.
  • Vibia Calybeni, a freedwoman of the late Roman Empire who unusually named herself as a madam on her tombstone.[158]
  • Virginia Boyd, an American enslaved woman whose letter to R.C. Ballard, pleading not to be sold with her children among strangers, has been preserved. Ballard had undertaken to have her sold at the request of Judge Samuel Boyd, the children's father, to hide her existence from his family.
  • Violet Ludlow, an American woman sold as a slave several times despite her claims to be a free white woman.[40]
  • Vitalis, ancient Roman enslaved person. The epigraph of the slave boy Iucundus describes him as the son of Gryphus and Vitalis.[67]
  • Volumnia Cytheris, an enslaved and later freedwoman in ancient Rome. An actress and courtesan, her lovers included Brutus, Mark Antony, and Cornelius Gallus; her rejection of Gallus provided the theme for Virgil's tenth Eclogue.[159]

W

Photograph of Wes Brady, ex-slave, taken in Marshall, Texas, in 1937 as part of the Federal Writers' Project Slave Narrative Collection
Photograph of Wes Brady, ex-slave, taken in Marshall, Texas, in 1937 as part of the Federal Writers' Project Slave Narrative Collection

X

  • Xenon, an Athenian enslaved man and banker.[38]

Y

  • Yaqut al-Hamawi (1179–1229), an Arab biographer and geographer known for his encyclopedic writings on the Muslim world. He was sold into slavery in 12th-century Syria and taken to Baghdad, but was provided with a good education by an enlightened owner and later freed.
  • Yasār, a 7th-century Christian man who had been captured in a campaign of Khalid ibn al-Walid, a companion of the Prophet Muhammad. Yasār was taken to Medina and became the slave of Qays ibn Makhrama ibn al-Muṭṭalib ibn ʿAbd Manāf ibn Quṣayy. He accepted Islam, was manumitted and became his mawlā, thus acquiring the nisbat al-Muṭṭalibī. He had three sons – Mūsā, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, and Isḥāq. His grandson, Ibn Ishaq, became an important early Arab historian.
  • York (1770–before 1832), an African-American man enslaved by William Clark who accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition.

Z

  • Zalmoxis, a Dacian who was enslaved by Pythagoras on the island of Samos, according to Herodotus. Zalmoxis learned philosophy from his master and other wise Greeks. Eventually he was liberated, gathered huge wealth and went back to his homeland, where he converted the Thracians to his beliefs, was greatly venerated for his wisdom and in later generations became worshiped as a god.[160]
  • Zayd ibn Haritha (c. 581–629), given to Muhammad's wife Khadijah, freed, adopted, and became known as Zayd ibn Muhammad.
  • Ziryab (789–857), also known as Abul-Hasan Alí Ibn Nafí, a Muslim singer, musician, and polymath known for introducing the crop asparagus to Europe.
  • Zoe, a Christian martyr
  • Zofia Potocka (1760-1822), a Greek-Ottoman enslaved courtesan who ended up as a Polish countess by marriage.
  • Zumbi (1655–1695), an enslaved person in Portuguese Brazil who escaped and joined the Quilombo dos Palmares, the largest ever settlement of escaped slaves in colonial Brazil, becoming its last and most famous leader.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p 141 ISBN 978-0-674-04890-4
  2. ^ Christine Fell, Women in Anglo-Saxon England: and the Impact of 1066, p 49, ISBN 0-7141-8057-2
  3. ^ Charter S 1539 at the Electronic Sawyer
  4. ^ Elaine Fantham, Helene Peet Foley, Natalie Boymel Kampen, Sarah B. Pomeroy, H. A. Shapiro, Women in the Classical World p 370 ISBN 0-19-509862-5
  5. ^ a b c d Fell, Women in Anglo-Saxon England, p. 97
  6. ^ Rypka, J. (November 11, 2013). History of Iranian Literature. ISBN 9789401034791.
  7. ^ "St. Agathoclia", Catholic Saints
  8. ^ Gross (2008), What Blood Won't Tell, p. 1
  9. ^ "A Durable Memento:" Portraits by Augustus Washington, African American Daguerreotypist, exhibit, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
  10. ^ Letter to James Edward Calhoun, August 27, 1831, Correspondence of John C. Calhoun, Historical Manuscripts Commission (1899), p. 301.
  11. ^ Letter to Armistead Burt of September 1, 1831, Correspondence of John C. Calhoun, Historical Manuscripts Commission (1899), pp. 301–02.
  12. ^ Calhoun 1837, p. 34.
  13. ^ Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, p 39
  14. ^ Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, pp. 201–202
  15. ^ Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, pp. 140–1
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     This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainFournet, Pierre August (1907). "St. Bathilde". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
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  24. ^ Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, p 168
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     This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainKirsch, Johan Peter (1907). "St. Blandina". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  27. ^ British Library Add MS 9381.
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  29. ^ "Gospel-book with added Cornish records of manumissions ('The Bodmin Gospels' or 'St Petroc Gospels')". The British Library. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
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  31. ^ "Story of St. Brigid". St. Brigid's GNS, Glasnevin.
  32. ^ "Following Brigid's Way – The Irish Catholic".
  33. ^ "Bethu Brigte".
  34. ^ Wallace, Martin. A Little Book of Celtic Saints. Belfast. Appletree Press, 1995 ISBN 0-86281-456-1, p.13
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     This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChapman, Henry Palmer (1908). "Pope Callistus I". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
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  53. ^ a b Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p 197 ISBN 978-0-674-04890-4
  54. ^ Christine Fell, Women in Anglo-Saxon England: and the impact of 1066, p 86, ISBN 0-7141-8057-2
  55. ^ The Fiddler on Pantico Run: An African Warrior, His White Descendants, A Search for Family, ISBN 978-1-4516-2748-0
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  57. ^ Daniel K. Richter, Facing East from Indian Country, p 243, ISBN 0-674-00638-0
  58. ^ Elaine Fantham, Helene Peet Foley, Natalie Boymel Kampen, Sarah B. Pomeroy, H. A. Shapiro, Women in the Classical World p 270 ISBN 0-19-509862-5
  59. ^ Catholic Online
  60. ^ E. Togo Salmon Conference, E. Togo Salmon Conference 1993 Mcmaster University: Roman Theater and Society: E. Togo Salmon Papers I
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     This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainKirsch, Johan Peter (1909). "Sts. Felicitas and Perpetua". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
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  65. ^ Daniel Odgen, Magic, Witchcraft, and Ghosts In The Greek and Roman Worlds, p277 ISBN 978-0-19-538520-5
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  67. ^ a b c Daniel Odgen, Magic, Witchcraft, and Ghosts In The Greek and Roman Worlds, p119 ISBN 978-0-19-538520-5
  68. ^ See also Ariela J. Gross, What Blood Won't Tell: A History of Race on Trial in America, pp. 23–4 ISBN 978-0-674-03130-2
  69. ^ See also Robert M. Cover, Justice Accused: Antislavery and the Judicial Process, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1975, pp. 51–55
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