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List of shortest-reigning monarchs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Louis XIX, allegedly King of France for twenty minutes in 1830 and the shortest reigning-monarch in history.
Louis XIX, allegedly King of France for twenty minutes in 1830 and the shortest reigning-monarch in history.

A monarch is the leader of a monarchy, a position usually intended to last for life or until abdication or deposition. The reign of some monarchs has been notably short. Many of these monarchs acceded to the throne as a result of being first in an order of succession, while other monarchs claimed the throne as a result of conflict.The authenticity of some monarchs has been disputed, especially those who reigned during conflict. One factor in such debates is whether the monarch held the throne in a symbolic or nominal capacity.

Monarchs who reigned for less than a week

Monarch Title Dynasty Reign began Reign ended Reign length Reason for accession Reason for reign's end
Louis XIX King of France Bourbon 2 August 1830 15–20 minutes
(disputed)
Abdication of his father, Charles X, after the July Revolution. His own abdication under pressure from his father, who planned to retain control of the throne through the next in line, 9-year-old Henry V. Though said to have technically reigned for some minutes and identified as the shortest reigning monarch in history by the Guinness Book of Records, "Louis XIX" was never proclaimed, the abdications were announced through the same document (which refers to Louis as dauphin only), and it is not known who signed first.[1] Charles X also continued to lead the House of Bourbon in exile until his death in 1836.
Daughter of Emperor Xiaoming Emperor of Wei Northern Wei 1 April 528 <5 hours Proclaimed Emperor as an infant by her grandmother, Empress Dowager Hu, who passed her off as male. Hu admitted she was actually female and proclaimed Yuan Zhao as emperor. Official historical records never listed her as a legitimate sovereign.
Wanyan Chenglin Emperor of Great Jin Jin 9 February 1234 12 hours The Emperor Aizong abdicated in favor of his general Wanyan Chenglin while they were besieged by the Mongols at Caizhou, then committed suicide by hanging. Killed while leading a charge in the streets of Caizhou.
Michael II Emperor of All Russia Romanov 15 March 1917 16 hours
(disputed)
Abdication of his brother, Nicholas II. Conditioned his accession on the decision of the Russian Provisional Government, contrary to the wishes of Nicholas II who abdicated without informing either. Numerous questions surround the existence of any "reign", starting with the legality, or lack thereof, of Nicholas II's abdication on his brother while bypassing his son, Tsarevich Alexei.
Min Shin Saw King of Burma Pagan 1167 <18 hours Death of his father Sithu I, who was smothered by his younger son and Min Shin Saw's brother, Narathu. Assassinated in the night on Narathu's order.
Vira Bahu I King of Polonnaruwa Kalinga 1196 <1 day Death of his father, Nissanka Malla. Assassinated by the commander-in-chief Tavuru Senevirat.
Constantine XI Laskaris Eastern Roman Emperor Laskaris 12 April 1204 13 April 1204 1 day
(disputed)
Elected by the Byzantine Army at the Hagia Sophia, following the Latin breach of the Walls of Constantinople and Alexios V's flight. Fled Constantinople and put himself at the service of his brother, Theodore I in Nicaea. His reign is disputed because he reportedly rejected the election, but he also commanded the armies and Varangian Guards in battle before he fled. Thus the name Constantine XI may be reserved for the last emperor, Constantine XI Palaiologos, who is known as Constantine XII when Laskaris is included.
Michael I
(first reign)
Emperor of Trebizond Komnenos 30 July 1341 30 or 31 July 1341 Around 1 day Crowned after arriving with the intention to marry Irene Palaiologina of Trebizond, who had been overthrown by Anna of Trebizond while the voyage was underway. Deposed and imprisoned. He recovered the throne in 1344 and reigned for five years.
Napoleon II
(first reign)
Emperor of the French Bonaparte 4 April 1814 6 April 1814 2 days Abdication of his father, Napoleon I. Napoleon I reversed his abdication, replacing it with another by which he renounced all personal rights to the throne and also those of his descendants. The French Empire was subsequently abolished and replaced by the Kingdom of France.
Philippe VII King of the French Orleans 24 February 1848 26 February 1848 2 days
(disputed)
Abdication of his grandfather, Louis Philippe I. French Second Republic declared.
Khalid bin Barghash Sultan of Zanzibar Al Said 25 August 1896 27 August 1896 2 days Death of his cousin, Hamad bin Thuwaini of Zanzibar, likely poisoned by Khalid. Fled during the Anglo-Zanzibar War.
John I Prince of Moldavia 4-12 September 1552 2-3 days Assassination of Stephen VI by his boyars after a failed invasion of Transylvania. Unknown, succeeded by Alexander IV.
Xiaowen King of Qin Qin 251 BC 3 days Death of his father, King Zhaoxiang of Qin. Died, likely of age-related causes.
Dục Đức Emperor of Đại Nam Nguyễn 20 July 1883 23 July 1883 3 days Death of his adoptive father, Tự Đức. Deposed and imprisoned, possibly executed.
Inayatullah Khan King of Afghanistan Barakzai 14 January 1929 17 January 1929 3 days Abdication and flight of his brother, Amanullah Khan, during Habibullah Kalakani's uprising. Abdicated in favour of Kalakani after he captured Kabul.
Dipendra King of Nepal Shah 1 June 2001 4 June 2001 <56 hours
(3 days)
Proclaimed king after assassinating his father Birendra, and most of his family in the Nepalese royal massacre, where he also shot himself and was left in a coma. Died of his injuries without regaining consciousness.
Stephen II Pope 23 March 752 26 March 752 3 days Elected after the death of Pope Zachary. Died of a stroke. His pontificate is ambiguous because he died before his episcopal consecration, which was traditionally considered the start of the reign; because of this he was removed from the official list of Popes in 1961, and Pope Stephen III was redesignated as Pope Stephen II. In 1975 the Holy See ruled that the pontificate begins with the Pope's acceptance prior to the consecration; but it did not restore Stephen to the list, and considers him only Pope-elect.
Lê Trung Tông Emperor of Đại Cồ Việt Early Lê October 1005 3 days Death of his father, Lê Đại Hành. Assassinated on orders of Lê Long Đĩnh, who succeeded him.
Lê Quang Trị Emperor of Đại Việt Later Lê May 1516 3 days Assassination of Lê Tương Dực. Assassinated.
Crateuas King of Macedon Argead 399 BC 4 days
(disputed)
Assassination of Archelaus I of Macedon under the guise of a hunting accident. Unknown. Some historians believe that Crateuas was just one of several conspirators in Archelaus' death and that the claim that Crateuas held the throne after him is an embellishment.[2]
Conrad I King of Jerusalem Aleramici 24 April 1192 28 April 1192 4 days Elected after the death of his sister-in-law, Sibylla I. Assassinated.
Mahinda VI King of Polonnaruwa Vijayabahu 1187 5 days Assassinated Vijayabahu II. Assassinated by Vijayabahu II's sub-king, Nissanka Malla.
John I King of France and Navarre Capet 15 November 1316 20 November 1316 5 days His birth; he was the posthumous child of Louis X of France. Died aged 5 days.
Phaungkaza Maung Maung King of Burma Konbaung 5 February 1782 11 February 1782 6 days Deposed his cousin Singu Min. Deposed and executed by his uncle Bodawpaya, who also murdered Singu Min to become king.

Other monarchs who reigned for less than a month

Monarch Title Dynasty Reign began Reign ended Reign length Reason for accession Reason for reign's end
Zimri King of Israel Zimri 885 BC or 876 BC 7 days Assassinated King Elah. Committed suicide while under siege by Omri, who disputed the crown. His name became a byword for traitor.
Sigeric King of the Visigoths Amali 16 August 415 22 August 415 7 days Assassination of Ataulf by a former retainer of Sigeric's slain brother, Sarus. Assassinated and replaced by Ataulf's relative Wallia. Some lists of kings exclude him for considering him a usurper.
Zein Pun King of Martaban April–May 1330 7 days Assassinated King Saw Zein. Assassinated by Sanda Min Hla, widow of Saw Zein.
Thong Lan King of Ayutthaya Suphannaphum 1388-1389 7 days Death of his father, Borommarachathirat I. Deposed and executed by Ramesuan.
Henry V King of France Bourbon 2 August 1830 9 August 1830 7 days
(disputed)
Abdications of Charles X and Louis XIX, his grandfather and uncle, during the July Revolution. Proclamation hijacked by regent Louis Philippe of Orleans who chose not to announce it as expected. The National Assembly then proclaimed Louis Philippe the King of the French, and Henry marched into exile.
Muhammad al-Badr King of Yemen Qasimid 19 September 1962 26 September 1962 8 days Death of his father, Ahmad bin Yahya. Monarchy abolished, although he would lead the pro-monarchist forces during the North Yemen Civil War, until 1970.
Saad I Emir of Kuwait Al-Sabah 15 January 2006 24 January 2006 9 days Death of Jaber III. Deposed by the National Assembly on the grounds of poor health.
Jane Queen of England and Ireland Tudor 10 July 1553 19 July 1553 9 days
(disputed)
Proclaimed at the Tower of London, per the will of her cousin Edward VI. Deposed and executed by Edward's sister, Mary I.
Xuantong
(second reign)
Emperor of Great Qing Qing 1 July 1917 12 July 1917 12 days Restored by monarchist general Zhang Xun; he had last been emperor in 1912. Restoration failed due to lack of support. Later became Emperor of Manchukuo.
Louis II King of Holland Bonaparte 1 July 1810 13 July 1810 13 days Abdication and flight of Louis I after being pressured by Napoleon. Kingdom annexed by Napoleon.
Urban VII Pope Castagna 15 September 1590 27 September 1590 13 days Elected after the death of Sixtus V. Died of malaria. Shortest-reigning Pope recognized by the Holy See.
Eleanor I Queen of Navarre Trastamara 28 January 1479 12 February 1479 14 days Proclaimed following the death of her father, John II. Died.
Boniface VI Pope April 896 15 days Elected after the death of Formosus. Unclear; he died of gout or was deposed according to different sources. His election was declared null and void in 898.
Ali Ahmad Khan Emir of Afghanistan Barakzai 17 January 1929 1 February 1929 15 days Proclaimed Emir in Jalalabad in protest for Inayatullah Khan's abdication on Habibullah Kalakani. Captured and ransomed to Kalakani, who had him executed.
Ælfweard King of Wessex Wessex 17 July 924 2 August 924 16 days
(disputed)
Death of his father, Edward the Elder. Died. May have reigned in dispute with his elder brother Æthelstan, who succeeded him.
Celestine IV Pope Castiglione 25 October 1241 10 November 1241 16 days Elected after the death of Gregory IX. Died of natural causes.
Napoleon II
(second reign)
Emperor of the French Bonaparte 22 June 1815 7 July 1815 16 days Abdication of his father, Napoleon I. Empire abolished, replaced by the Kingdom of France.
Shang Emperor of Tang Tang 8 July 710 25 July 710 17 days Assassination of his father, Emperor Zhongzhong, by Empress Wei and her daughter Li Guo'er who wanted to use the infant Shang as their puppet. Deposed; Wei and Li Guo'er were murdered. Most traditional historians did not consider him legitimate and do not include him in the list of emperors of the Tang dynasty, but modern historians usually do.
Anikanga King of Polonnaruwa 1209 17 days Assassinated his son, King Dharmasoka, who was an infant. Assassinated by General Vikkantacamunakka, who then surrendered control to former queen consort Lilavati.
Quintillus Roman Emperor 270 17-177 days Death of his brother, Claudius Gothicus. Assassinated or committed suicide.
Sisinnius Pope 15 January 708 4 February 708 20 days Elected after the death of John VII. Died, possibly of gout.
Theodore II Pope December 897 20 days Elected after the deposition of Romanus. Died.
Muawiya II Caliph of Islam Umayyad 683 684 20 days to 4 months Death of his father, Yazid I. Died of disease.
Gordian II Roman Emperor Gordian 22 March 238 12 April 238 21 days Father and son co-emperors proclaimed in rebellion against Maximinus Thrax, who had himself assassinated his predecessor Alexander Severus, in the so-called Year of the Six Emperors. Killed at the Battle of Carthage.
Gordian I Committed suicide upon learning of his son's death.
Marcellus II Pope Cervini 9 April 1555 1 May 1555 22 days Elected afer the death of Julius III. Died of a stroke.
Cem Sultan Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman 28 May 1481 20 June 1481 23 days
(disputed)
Proclaimed himself Sultan in Anatolia after the death of his father, Mehmed II. Fled to Mamluk Egypt after being defeated by his brother, Bayezid II.
Damasus II Pope Curagnoni 17 July 1048 9 August 1048 24 days Installed by Henry III of Germany after deposing Benedict IX. Died of malaria or poison.
Rǫgnvaldr Óláfsson King of Mann and the Isles Crovan 6 May 1249 30 May 1249 24 days Death of his brother Haraldr Óláfsson in a shipwreck. Assassinated by his cousin and successor, Haraldr Guðrøðarson.
Constantine I Emperor of All Russia Romanov 1 December 1825 25 December 1825 24 days Proclaimed after the death of his brother, Alexander I. Refused to assume the throne because he had secretly renounced all rights in 1823 in order to marry Joanna Grudzińska. His younger brother became Nicholas I.
Milan Obrenović II Prince of Serbia Obrenović 25 June 1839 8 July 1839 26 days Abdication of his father, Miloš Obrenović I. Died of tuberculosis.
Pius III Pope Piccolomini 22 September 1503 18 October 1503 27 days Elected after the death of Alexander VI. Died of sepsis in a leg wound.
Leo XI Pope Medici 1 April 1605 27 April 1605 27 days Elected after the death of Clement VIII. Died.
Liu He Emperor of Han Western Han 74 BC 27 days Installed by Regent Huo Guang. Deposed by Huo Guang.
Taichang Emperor of Great Ming Ming 28 August 1620 26 September 1620 29 days Death of his father, the Wanli Emperor. Died of disease.
Martinus Eastern Roman Emperor Heraclian September-October 641 <1 month Made co-emperors of their brother Heraclius II by their mother, empress Martina. Deposed by Constans II.
Tiberius September-October 641

Other monarchs who reigned for less than three months

Monarch Title Dynasty Reign began Reign ended Reign length Reason for accession Reason for reign's end
Shallum King of Israel 752-745 BC 1 month Assassinated Zechariah of Israel. Assassinated and replaced by Menahem.
Napoleon I King of Spain Bonaparte 6 May 1808 6 June 1808 31 days
(1 month)
Forced abdications of Charles IV and Ferdinand VII in Bayonne, and their subsequent imprisonment in France. Designated his brother, Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain. Usually not counted as a King of Spain unlike his brother.
Reccared II King of the Visigoths February 612 March 612 ≈1 month Death of his father, Sisebut. Died.
Charles II
(second reign)
Duke of Parma Bourbon-Parma April 1849 17 May 1849 ≈1 month Restored by Austrian troops after fleeing during the Revolutions of 1848. Abdicated in favour of his son, Charles III.
Benedict V Pope 22 May 964 23 June 964 1 month, 1 day Elected after the death of John XII. Deposed by Emperor Otto I.
John Paul I Pope Luciani 26 August 1978 28 September 1978 1 month, 2 days Elected after the death of Paul VI. Died of a heart attack.
Umberto II King of Italy Savoy 9 May 1946 12 June 1946 1 month, 3 days Abdication of his father, Victor Emmanuel III of Italy. Monarchy abolished after republican victory in the 1946 Italian institutional referendum.
Li Zicheng Emperor of Great Shun Shun 25 April 1644 4 June 1644 42 days
(1 month, 8 days)
Proclaimed himself Emperor after his capture of Beijing and the suicide of the Chongzhen Emperor. Abandoned Beijing after his defeat by the Manchus at the Battle of Shanhai Pass. He was killed under unclear circumstances around 1645, likely in battle.
Sweyn I King of the English Denmark 25 December 1013 3 February 1014 1 month, 9 days Declared king after conquering London. Died.
Tirigan King of Sumer Gutian c. 2050 BC 40 days Succeeded Si'um. Sumer annexed by Utu-hengal of Uruk.
Umor Khan of Bulgaria Vokil 766 40 days Likely elected after the deposition and flight of Sabin. Unknown. Could have died or been deposed by Toktu.
Xerxes II Shah of Persia and Pharaoh of Egypt Achaemenid 424 BC 45 days
(1 month, 15 days)
Death of his father, Artaxerxes I. Assassinated by Sogdianus, his illegitimate half-brother and successor.
Ying Ziying King of Qin Qin October 207 BC December 207 BC 46 days Enthroned by Zhao Gao after the assassination of Qin Er Shi. Assassinated by Xiang Yu.
Abd al-Rahman V Caliph of Cordoba Umayyad 2 December 1023 17 January 1024 46 days
(1 month, 15 days)
Overthrew Al-Qasim al-Ma'mun. Assassinated by Muhammad III of Cordoba.
Ferdinand VII
(first reign)
King of Spain Bourbon 19 March 1808 6 May 1808 48 days
(1 month, 14 days)
Abdication of his father, Charles IV, as a result of the Mutiny of Aranjuez. Forced to abdicate on his father by Napoleon I, who unbeknownst to Ferdinand, had been forced to abdicate his rights on Napoleon himself on the same day. The abdications were declared null by the Council of Castile on 11 August, recognizing Ferdinand VII as King despite being imprisoned by the French at Château de Valençay. Napoleon recognized Ferdinand VII on 11 December 1813, by the Treaty of Valençay, and he remained on the throne until his death in 1833.
Sylvester III Pope Crescentii 20 January 1045 10 March 1045 49 days
(1 month, 19 days)
Elected after a revolt expelled Benedict IX from Rome. Deposed by Benedict IX.
Saw E King of Martaban Hanthawaddy April 1330 June 1330 49 days Assassination of Zein Pun by former queen consort Sanda Min Hla. Assassinated by Sanda Min Hla.
Benedict IX
(second reign)
Pope Theophylacti 10 March 1045 1 May 1045 52 days
(1 month, 17 days)
Recaptured Rome and expelled Sylvester III. Abdicated on his godfather, Gregory VI, in order to marry his cousin.
Ningzong Khagan and Emperor of Great Yuan Yuan 23 October 1332 14 December 1332 52 days
(1 month, 19 days)
Elected after the death of his uncle Emperor Wenzong. Died.
Peter IV King of Portugal Braganza 10 March 1826 2 May 1826 53 days
(1 month, 18 days)
Death of his father, John VI. Abdicated in favour of his daughter, Mary II, and returned to Brazil where he reigned as Peter I until 1831.
Charles II King of Hungary and Croatia Capetian Anjou 31 December 1385 24 February 1386 55 days
(1 month, 24 days)
Deposed Mary of Hungary. Assassinated by Mary's mother, Elizabeth of Bosnia.
Edgar II King of the English Wessex 15 October 1066 10 December 1066 56 days
(1 month, 23 days)
Elected by the Witenagemot after Harold II's death. Submitted to William the Conqueror.
Feodor II Tsar of Russia Godunov 23 April 1605 20 June 1605 58 days
(1 month, 26 days)
Death of his father, Boris I. Assassinated by boyars supporting False Dmitry I.
Al-Mansur Abu Bakr Sultan of Egypt and Syria Qalawun 7 June 1341 5 August 1341 59 days
(1 month, 27 days)
Death of his father, An-Nasir Muhammad. Deposed and executed.
Joachim Ernest Duke of Anhalt Ascania 13 September 1918 12 November 1918 60 days
(1 month, 28 days)
Death of his father, Edward. Monarchy abolished.
Diadumenian Roman Emperor May 218 June 218 1-2 months Made co-emperor by his father, Macrinus. Assassinated after the deposition of Macrinus; he was also declared Enemy of Rome and subjected to Damnatio Memoriae.
Herennius Etruscus Roman Emperor May 251 June 251 1-2 months Made co-emperor by his father, Decius. Killed at the Battle of Abritus.
Yuan Zhao Emperor of Wei Northern Wei 2 April 528 May 528 <2 months Proclaimed by Empress Dowager Hu. Deposed and executed along with Hu. Traditional historians treat him ambiguously, and subsequent Northern Wei emperors never explicitly declared whether he was an emperor or not. He was not given an imperial posthumous name or temple name, but neither was his imperial status declared null.
Leo V Pope Late July 903 Mid-September 903 <2 months Elected after the death of Benedict IV. Deposed and imprisoned by Christopher, dying in February 904 under unclear circumstances. The Catholic Church considers Christopher an antipope and stretches Leo V's pontificate to the accession of Sergius III in January 904.
John IV Prince of Moldavia November 1577 December 1577 <2 months Deposed Peter IV. Deposed and executed after an Ottoman-Polish-Wallachian invasion restored Peter IV.
Peter VII Prince of Moldavia Bogdan-Mușat August 1592 September-October 1592 <2-3 months Deposed Alexander V. Deposed and mutilated by Aaron I, who then handed him to the Ottomans to be executed.
Ibrahim ibn al-Walid Caliph of Islam Umayyad 4 October 744 4 December 744 61 days
(2 months)
Death of his brother, Yazid III. Abdicated in favour of Marwan II, who murdered him in 750.
Ciubăr Vodă Prince of Moldavia Monoszló c. December 1448 - January 1449 2 months
(disputed)
A Croatian-Hungarian aristocrat sent by John Hunyadi to depose Roman II in favor of Peter III, but said to have reigned himself as Prince after Peter III fled. Unknown. Alexander II became Prince in February 1449. Some historians believe he merely occupied the country on Hunyadi's behalf and did not actually claim the throne.
Mamia I
(third reign)
King of Imereti Gurieli November 1713 5 January 1714 2 months Recovered the throne after defeating George VII at the Battle of Kutaisi. Died.
Trịnh Cán Lord of Tonkin Trịnh September 1782 October 1782 ≈2 months Death of his father, Trịnh Sâm. Forced to abdicate on Trịnh Khải.
Gyanendra
(first reign)
King of Nepal Shah 7 November 1950 7 January 1951 61 days
(2 months)
Proclaimed when he was 4 years old by Prime Minister Mohan Shumsher Jang Bahadur Rana, in defiance of Gyanendra's grandfather Tribhuvan, who wanted to end the Rana family's hereditary occupation of the government. Afterward, Tribhuvan and most Nepalese royals, including Gyanendra, departed for India. Tribhuvan returned and resumed rule after the Ranas agreed to his terms. Gyanendra would become the last king of Nepal five decades later, after the Nepalese royal massacre.
Didius Julianus Roman Emperor Didian 28 March 193 1 June 193 66 days
(2 months, 5 days)
Bought the throne in auction after the assassination of Pertinax. Deposed and executed. Also subjected to Damnatio Memoriae.
Frederick Charles King of Finland and Karelia Hesse-Kassel 9 October 1918 14 December 1918 66 days
(2 months, 5 days)
Elected by the Parliament of Finland. Renounced the throne without entering the country, which later became a republic.
Alexios V Eastern Roman Emperor Doukas 5 February 1204 12 April 1204 67 days
(2 months, 7 days)
Deposed co-emperors Isaac II and Alexios IV. Fled Constantinople during the Latin Sack of 1204. Later captured by Crusaders and executed.
Muhammad II
(second reign)
Caliph of Cordoba Umayyad 10 May 1010 23 July 1010 74 days
(2 months, 13 days)
Deposed Sulayman ibn al-Hakam. Assassinated and replaced by Hisham II.
Petronius Maximus Western Roman Emperor Anician 17 March 455 31 May 455 75 days
(2 months, 14 days)
Elected by the Roman Senate after assassinating Valentinian III. Murdered by a mob while trying to flee Rome from the impending Vandal attack.
Chūkyō Emperor of Japan Yamato 13 May 1221 29 July 1221 77 days
(2 months, 16 days)
Death of his father, Emperor Juntoku. Deposed and replaced by Go-Horiwa. Not officially recognized as Emperor until 1870 because of doubts raised by his short reign.
Edward V King of England York 9 April 1483 25 June 1483 77 days
(2 months, 16 days)
Death of his father, Edward IV. Deposed and imprisoned by Richard III, who claimed he was illegitimate. He is presumed murdered in captivity.
Tupac Huallpa Sapa Inca Hanan c. 26 July 1533 12–27 October 1533 c. 78-93 days Installed as puppet Inca by the Spanish after the assassination of Atahualpa. Died of disease or poison.[3]
Stephen II Despot of Serbia Kotromanić 1 April 1459 20 June 1459 80 days
(2 months, 19 days)
Married a daughter of the late Despot Lazar Branković. Serbia annexed by the Ottoman Empire. Later became King of Bosnia for two years.
Cuitláhuac Great Speaker of the Triple Alliance Acamapichtli c. 29 June 1520 September 1520 80 days
(2 months, 19 days)
Elected soon before or after leading a revolt against the Spanish who were holding his brother Moctezuma II hostage in Tenochtitlan. Died of smallpox.
Hongxian Emperor of China Empire of China 1 January 1916 22 March 1916 81 days
(2 months, 21 days)
Offered the Crown after unanimous vote by the Representative Assembly. Empire abolished after the monarchical restoration proved unexpectedly unpopular. Continued as President of the Republic of China until his death on 6 June.
Amanullah Khan
(second reign)
King of Afghanistan Barakzai March 1929 23 May 1929 83 days Returned to contest the throne during the Afghan Civil War (1928–1929), in opposition to Habibullah Kalakani. Fled to British India.
Pertinax Roman Emperor 1 January 193 28 March 193 86 days
(2 months, 27 days)
Proclaimed after the assassination of Commodus. Assassinated by his Praetorian Guards, who then auctioned off the throne to the highest bidder.
Berengaria Queen of Castile Burgundy 6 June 1217 31 August 1217 86 days
(2 months, 25 days)
Death of her brother, Henry I. Abdicated in favour of her son, Ferdinand III.
Christian Frederick King of Norway Oldenburg 17 May 1814 14 August 1814 89 days
(2 months, 28 days)
Elected by the Norwegian Constituent Assembly. Abdicated by the Convention of Moss and returned to Denmark, where he became king (as Christian VIII) in 1839. The Crown of Norway was assumed by his rival, Charles XIII of Sweden.
Philip I King of Castile Habsburg 27 June 1506 25 September 1506 90 days
(2 months, 29 days)
Recognized as regnant King with equal authority to his wife, Joanna I, by the Treaty of Villafáfila. Died of typhoid or poison.
Florianus Roman Emperor July 276 September 276 <3 months Proclaimed after the death of his half-brother, Marcus Claudius Tacitus. Assassinated by his own troops while campaigning against the rebel Probus.
Sinmu King of Silla Kim 839 <3 months[4] Assassinated Minae of Silla. Died from disease.
Alexander III Prince of Moldavia Bogdan-Mușat December 1540 February 1541 <3 months Assassination of Stephen V. Deposed and later assassinated by Peter IV.
Alexander V Prince of Moldavia Bogdan-Mușat June 1592 August 1592 <3 months Aaron I deposed by the Ottoman Empire. Deposed by Peter VII. In November he became the equally brief Prince of Wallachia, as Alexander III.
Alexander II
(third reign)
Prince of Moldavia Bogdan-Mușat February 1455 March or May 1455 2-4 months Deposed Peter Aaron. Deposed by Peter Aaron and forced into exile, where he died on 25 May 1455.

Other monarchs who reigned for less than six months

     Currently reigning

Monarch Title Dynasty Reign began Reign ended Reign length Reason for accession Reason for reign's end
Jehoahaz King of Judah Davidic 609 BC 3 months Josiah killed at the Battle of Megiddo. Deposed and imprisoned by Necho II.
Vikramabahu II King of Polonnaruwa Kalinga 1196 3 months Assassination of his nephew Vira Bahu I. Assassinated by his nephew Chodaganga I.
George VIII King of Imereti Gurieli 1716 3 months Deposed George VII with Ottoman support. Fled back to Guria.
Otho Roman Emperor Salvian 15 January 69 16 April 69 91 days
(3 months, 1 day)
Proclaimed after the assassination of Galba. Committed suicide after the Battle of Bedriacum.
Murad V Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph of Islam Ottoman 30 May 1876 31 August 1876 93 days
(3 months, 1 day)
Deposition of his uncle, Abdulaziz. Deposed during the Great Eastern Crisis.
Napoleon I
(second reign)
Emperor of the French Bonaparte 20 March 1815 22 June 1815 94 days
(3 months, 2 days)
Returned to Paris. Abdicated in favour of Napoleon II.
Mustafa I
(first reign)
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph of Islam Ottoman 22 November 1617 26 February 1618 96 days
(3 months, 4 days)
Death of his brother, Ahmed I. Deposed in favor of his nephew, Osman II. He reigned again for fifteen months after the assassination of Osman II in 1622, before he was deposed again.
Louis VII Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt Hesse-Darmstadt 25 April 1678 31 August 1678 96 days
(3 months, 6 days)
Death of his father, Louis IV. Died of an infection.
Jeconiah King of Judah Davidic 9 December 598 BC 15–16 March 597 BC 97 days
(3 months, 7 days)
Death of his father Jehoiakim at the Siege of Jerusalem. Deposed and exiled to Babylon.
Pupienus Roman Emperor Pupienan 22 April 238 29 July 238 98 days
(3 months, 7 days)
Co-emperors proclaimed by the Roman Senate in rebellion against Maximinus Thrax after the deaths of Gordian I and Gordian II, in the Year of the Six Emperors. Assassinated by the Praetorian Guard. They were succeeded by Gordian III, grandson of Gordian II.
Balbinus Balbinan
Frederick III German Emperor and King of Prussia Hohenzollern 9 March 1888 15 June 1888 98 days
(3 months, 6 days)
Death of his father, Wilhelm I. Died of laryngeal cancer.
Charles II
(first reign)
Duke of Parma Bourbon-Parma 31 December 1847 19 April 1848 110 days
(3 months, 19 days)
Proclaimed after the death of Marie Louise of Parma. Fled the country and abdicated in favour of his son, Charles III.
Ibrahim Pasha Wali of Egypt Muhammad Ali 20 July 1848 10 November 1848 113 days
(3 months, 21 days)
Succeeded his father Muhammad Ali after he was deemed incapable due to senility. Died of exhaustion after travelling to Constantinople to be confirmed in office.
Mindaugas II King of Lithuania Württemberg 11 July 1918 2 November 1918 114 days
(3 months, 22 days)
Accepted the throne after election by the Council of Lithuania. Monarchy "suspended" by the council. Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic declared a month later.
Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah Emir of Kuwait Al Sabah 29 September 2020 Incumbent 3 months and 23 days Death of his half-brother, Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah. Currently reigning.
Hiệp Hòa Emperor of Đại Nam Nguyễn 30 July 1883 29 November 1883 122 days
(3 months, 30 days)
Deposition of his nephew, Dục Đức. Deposed and forced to commit suicide.
Aemilianus Roman Emperor June 253 September 253 3-4 months Proclaimed in rebellion against Trebonianus Gallus and Volusianus. Assassinated by his own troops.
Ansprand King of the Lombards March 712 June 712 3–4 months Deposed Aripert II. Died.
Min Hla King of Ava Pinya August 1425 November 1425 3 months Assassination of his father, Thihathu of Ava. Assassinated by his stepmother, Shin Bo-Me.
Renseneb Pharaoh of Egypt Thirteenth 1777 BC 4 months Succeeded Khaankhre Sobekhotep. Unknown. Could have been deposed by Hor.
Christopher Pope October 903 January 904 4 months
(disputed)
Deposed and imprisoned Leo V. Deposed by Sergius III. Though counted as legitimate for most of history, he was removed from the Annuario Pontificio in the mid-20th century and is considered an antipope by the modern Catholic Church.
Stephen VIII Prince of Moldavia 24 April 1595 August 1595 4-5 months Deposed Aaron I. Deposed by Jeremy I, with Polish support. Stephen tried to recover the throne in December, but he was defeated at the Battle of Suceava, captured, and impaled.
Michael I Prince of Moldavia Drăculești May 1600 September 1600 4-5 months Invaded Moldavia and deposed Jeremy I, who fled to Poland. Returned to Wallachia after defeat in the Battle of Mirăslău. Jeremy I was restored.
Faisal I King of Syria Hashemite 8 March 1920 14 July 1920 128 days
(4 months, 6 days)
Crowned by the Syrian Congress. Surrendered to a French ultimatum and was expelled to Mandatory Iraq, where he was made King in 1921 and reigned until his death in 1933. The Arab Kingdom of Syria was abolished on July 25, 1920 and replaced with the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon.
Michael V Eastern Roman Emperor Macedonian 10 December 1041 20 April 1042 131 days
(4 months, 10 days)
Death of his adoptive father, Michael IV. Deposed by Zoë and Theodora III.
Charles IV King of Naples Valois 22 February 1495 7 July 1495 135 days
(4 months, 14 days)
Crowned after conquering the city of Naples. Left Italy after defeat in the First Italian War.
Liu Bian Emperor of Han Eastern Han 15 May 189 28 September 189 136 days
(4 months, 13 days)
Death of his father, Emperor Ling. Deposed and replaced by his younger half-brother, Emperor Xian.
Alexander Hangerli Prince of Moldavia Phanariot 7 March 1807 24 July 1807 139 days
(4 months, 17 days)
Appointed by Selim III. Deposed and replaced by Scarlat Callimachi.
Hisamuddin of Selangor Supreme King of Malaysia Daeng Chelak 14 April 1960 1 September 1960 140 days
(4 months, 16 days)
Elected after the death of Abdul Rahman of Negeri Sembilan. Died of illness.
Ntare V King of Burundi Ntwero 8 July 1966 28 November 1966 143 days
(4 months, 20 days)
Deposed his father, Mwambutsa IV. Deposed by his Prime Minister Michel Micombero, who became the dictatorial first President of the Republic of Burundi.
Edward Duke of Anhalt Ascania 21 April 1918 13 September 1918 145 days
(4 months, 21 days)
Death of his brother, Frederick II. Died.
John V Eastern Roman Emperor
(third reign)
Palaiologos 17 September 1390 16 February 1391 152 days
(4 months, 28 days)
Recovered the throne from his grandson, John VII, who had deposed him months before. Died.
Hostilian Roman Emperor July 251 November 251 <5 months Made co-emperor by Trebonianus Gallus after the death of Hostilian's father and brother at the Battle of Abritus. Died from plague or poison.
Peter Aaron
(first reign)
Prince of Moldavia Bogdan-Mușat October 1451 February 1452 <5 months Assassinated Bogdan II. Deposed by Alexander II.
Eraric King of the Ostrogoths Rugian 541 5 months Elected after the murder of Ildibad. Assassinated by Totila's followers.
Abd al-Rahman IV Caliph of Cordoba Umayyad 29 April 1018 September 1018 Around 5 months Proclaimed Caliph after Ali ibn Hammud al-Nasir's assassination. Assassinated. Title disputed with Al-Qasim al-Ma'mun.
John VII Eastern Roman Emperor Palaiologos 14 April 1390 17 September 1390 156 days
(5 months, 3 days)
Deposed his grandfather, John V. Restoration of John V.
Roman II Prince of Moldavia Bogdan-Mușat 15 September 1447 23 February 1448 161 days
(5 months, 8 days)
Assassinated his uncle, Stephen II, who had previously deposed and blinded Roman's father, Iliaş. He was co-prince with his other uncle Peter III. Fled to Poland where he died in July 1448. Thereafter Peter III ruled in solitary.
Lê Túc Tông Emperor of Đại Việt Later Lê 17 July 1504 30 December 1504 166 days
(5 months, 13 days)
Death of his father, Lê Hiến Tông. Died of illness.
Al-Mustansir Caliph of Islam Abbasid 13 June 1261 28 November 1261 168 days
(5 months, 15 days)
Proclaimed Caliph in Egypt after the Mongols sacked Baghdad and killed his nephew, Caliph Al-Musta'sim, in 1258. Killed in an ambush near Hit while trying to reconquer Iraq.
Yazid III Caliph of Islam Umayyad 17 April 744 3-4 October 744 171-172 days
(5 months, 17-18 days)
Likely assassinated his cousin, Al-Walid II. Died of a brain tumor.
Charles I and VIII King of Norway Bonde 20 November 1449 13 May 1450 174 days
(5 months, 22 days)
Elected in Trondheim by a portion of the Norwegian Council, in defiance of Christian I of Denmark who had been elected by the other part. Renounced his claim to Norway and recognized Christian I. He continued ruling as King of Sweden until he was also replaced there in 1457 by Christian I, and took exile in Poland.
King of Sweden
(second reign)
9 August 1464 30 January 1465 174 days
(5 months, 21 days)
Returned from exile during a rebellion against Christian I. Exiled again after defeat by Christian I's regent in Sweden, Archbishop Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. He recovered the throne for a third time in 1467 and reigned until his death in 1470.
Al-Muntasir Caliph of Islam Abbasid 11 December 861 7 June 862 178 days
(5 months, 24 days)
Assassination of his father, Al-Mutawakkil. Died of disease.
Isaac II
(second reign)
Eastern Roman Emperor Angelos 1 August 1203 27-28 January 1204 179 days
(5 months, 26-27 days)
Restored to the throne after the flight of his brother Alexios III, who had imprisoned and blinded him in 1195. Deposed by Alexios V. Isaac II died soon afterwards under unclear, but possibly natural circumstances. Alexios IV was strangled on February 8.
Alexios IV Proclaimed co-emperor with his father because of his deteriorated mental and physical state; he ruled alone in practice.
Heraclius II Eastern Roman Emperor Heraclian May 641 September-October 641 <6 months Death of his father, Heraclius I. Deposed, mutilated, and exiled to Rhodes by Constans II.

Other monarchs who reigned for a year or less

Monarch Title Dynasty Reign began Reign ended Reign length Reason for accession Reason for reign's end
Zechariah King of Israel Jehoshaphat 753 or 746 BC 752 or 745 BC 6 months Death of his father, Jeroboam II. Assassinated by his captain Shallum, who succeeded him.
Stephen VII Prince of Moldavia Bogdan-Mușat 8 August 1563 January 1564 6 months Deposed and assassinated John II. Fled to Poland after the Ottomans refused to recognize him and restored Alexander IV, the prince before John II.
Wu Sangui Emperor of Great Zhou Wu Zhou March 1678 August 1678 6 months Rebelled against the Qing dynasty and proclaimed himself Emperor in Hengyang. Died.
Amha Selassie Emperor of Ethiopia Solomonic 12 September 1974 12 March 1975 181 days
(6 months)
Proclaimed by the Derg while he was receiving medical treatment in Switzerland, following the deposition of his father Haile Selassie. He did not accept this proclamation as legitimate and did not return to Ethiopia. Monarchy abolished.
Hasan ibn Ali Caliph of Islam Ali 661 6-7 months Elected after the death of his father, Ali. Abdicated in favor of Muawiyah I.
Peter III Emperor of All Russia Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 5 January 1762 9 July 1762 185 days
(6 months, 4 days)
Death of his aunt, Elizabeth I. Deposed and possibly assassinated by his wife, Catherine II.
Kale Kye-Taung Nyo King of Ava Pinya 9 November 1425 16 May 1426 188 days
(6 months, 7 days)
Deposed his nephew, Min Hla. Deposed by Mohnyin Thado.
Henry VI
(second reign)
King of England Lancaster 3 October 1470 11 April 1471 191 days
(6 months, 9 days)
Restored after Edward IV's flight during the 1470 Lincolnshire Rebellion. Deposed by Edward IV after recapturing London and probably assassinated.
Dafydd ap Gruffudd Prince of Gwynedd and Wales Aberffraw 11 December 1282 22 June 1283 193 days
(6 months, 11 days)
Death of his brother, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, at the Battle of Orewin Bridge. Captured in battle by Edward I of England, who had him hanged, drawn, and quartered on 3 October.
William I Prince of Albania Wied-Neuwied 21 February 1914 3 September 1914 194 days
(6 months, 11 days)
Formally offered the throne by Albanian notables after being chosen for the position by the European Great Powers. Fled to Italy amidst unrest related to the outbreak of World War I.
Jamshid bin Abdullah Sultan of Zanzibar Al Said 1 July 1963 12 January 1964 195 days
(6 months, 11 days)
Death of his father, Abdullah bin Khalifa. Monarchy abolished.
Sogdianus Shah of Persia and Pharaoh of Egypt Achaemenid 424 BC 423 BC 6 months, 15 days Proclaimed himself after the death of his father Artaxerxes I, in defiance of the legitimate heir, his half-brother Xerxes II whom he had later assassinated. Assassinated by his other half-brother, Darius II.
Constantius III Western Roman Emperor 8 February 421 2 September 421 206 days
(6 months, 23 days)
Made co-emperor by Honorius. Died.
Al-Qasim al-Ma'mun
(second reign)
Caliph of Cordoba Hammudid 12 February 1023 9 September 1023 209 days
(6 months, 26 days)
Flight of Yahya al-Mu'tali from Cordoba. Deposed and imprisoned.
Duncan II King of Scots Dunkeld May? 1094 12 November 1094 <7 months Crowned at Scone as a puppet of William the Conqueror, in rebellion against Donald III who retained control of the Scottish Highlands. Killed in battle or assassinated after defeat.
Alexander II
(first reign)
Prince of Moldavia Bogdan-Mușat February 1449 12 October 1449 <7 months Deposed Peter III. Deposed by Bogdan II. Recovered the throne in 1452.
Peter Aaron
(second reign)
Prince of Moldavia Bogdan-Mușat August 1454 February 1455 <7 months Deposed Alexander II. Deposed by Alexander II.
Bardiya Shah of Persia and Pharaoh of Egypt Achaemenid early 522 BC September 522 BC 7 months Rebelled in the Zagros Mountains against Cambyses II, then in Egypt, some time before Cambyses' death. Assassinated by nobles led by Darius I, who claimed he was not the real Bardiya (brother of Cambyses) but a royal impostor.
Lilavati
(third reign)
Queen of Polonnaruwa Vijayabahu 1211 1212 7 months Restored after deposition of Lokissara. Deposed by Parakrama Pandyan II.
Tarabya King of Ava Pinya April 1400 before 25 November 1400 7 months Death of his father Swa Saw Ke. Assassinated by his former tutor Thihapate of Tagaung after he became insane.
Nedjemibre Pharaoh of Egypt Thirteenth c. 1780 BC or 1736 BC >7 months Succeeded Sewadjkare I. Possibly deposed by Khaankhre Sobekhotep.
Lulach King of Scots and Mormaer of Moray Moray 15 August 1057 17 March 1058 214 days
(7 months, 2 days)
Death of his stepfather Macbeth at the Battle of Lumphanan. Assassinated by Malcolm III.
Galba Roman Emperor Sulpician 8 June 68 15 January 69 221 days
(7 months, 7 days)
Proclaimed in rebellion against Nero, who committed suicide. Assassinated by Otho in vengeance for adopting Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus as his heir instead of him.
Edmund II King of the English Wessex 23 April 1016 30 November 1016 221 days
(7 months, 7 days)
Elected in London by part of the Witenagemot after the death of his father, Æthelred the Unready; another part elected king Cnut the Great of Denmark in Southampton. Died, possibly assassinated, after agreeing to divide the kingdom with Cnut. Thereafter Cnut reigned over the whole of England.
Yahya al-Mu'tali
(second reign)
Caliph of Cordoba Hammudid 9 November 1025 19 June 1026 222 days
(7 months, 10 days)
Reconquered Cordoba from Muhammad III. Deposed in absentia by Hisham III. Became King of Malaga where he reigned until 1035.
Guttorm King of Norway Sverre 2 January 1204 11 August 1204 222 days
(7 months, 9 days)
Death of his uncle, Haakon III. Died of illness.
Kōbun Emperor of Japan Yamato 7 January 672 21 August 672 227 days
(7 months, 14 days)
Death of his father, Emperor Tenji. Committed suicide after being deposed by his uncle, Emperor Tenmu. Only counted officially and given a posthumous name after 1870.
Louis I King of Spain Bourbon 15 January 1724 31 August 1724 229 days
(7 months, 16 days)
Abdication of his father, Philip V. Died of smallpox. Philip V regained the throne and reigned until his own death in 1746.
Jovian Roman Emperor 27 June 363 17 February 364 235 days
(7 months, 19 days)
Elected after the death of Julian in the Battle of Samarra. Died in his sleep, possibly suffocated by a defective brazier.
Sulayman ibn al-Hakam
(first reign)
Caliph of Cordoba Umayyad 8 November 1009 2 June 1009 237 days
(7 months, 22 days)
Declared Caliph after taking Cordoba from Muhammad II and freeing, but declining to reinstall former Caliph Hisham II. Deposed by Muhammad II. Recovered the throne in 1013 and reigned for three years.
Stephen IX Pope Ardenne-Verdun 3 August 1057 29 March 1058 238 days
(7 months, 26 days)
Elected after the death of Victor II. Died.
Kiến Phúc Emperor of Đại Nam Nguyễn 1 December 1883 31 July 1884 243 days
(7 months, 30 days)
Deposition of his adoptive great uncle, Hiệp Hòa. Died of illness or poison.
Theodore I King of Corsica Neuhoff 12 March 1736 11 November 1736 244 days
(7 months, 26 days)
Elected king by Corsican rebels against the Republic of Genoa. Left Corsica in a failed bid to get foreign support.
Alfonso III Duke of Modena and Reggio Este 11 December 1628 July 1629 <8 months Death of his father, Cesare. Abdicated in favor of his son to become a monk.
Phelles King of Tyre Four Brothers 879 BC 8 months Assassinated his brother Astarymus. Assassinated by Ithobaal I.
Ulpia Severina Roman Empress Ulpian 270 8 months Assassination of her husband, Aurelian. Only woman to have ruled the Roman Empire in her own right. Election of Marcus Claudius Tacitus.
Manava King of Gauda 625 626 8 months Death of his father, Shashanka. Kingdom conquered and divided between Harsha and Bhaskaravarman.
Abd al-Wahid I Caliph of the Almohad Empire Almohad February 1224 September 1224 8 months Elected after the death of his grand-nephew, Yusuf II. Assassinated.
George I Prince of Moldavia Bogdan-Mușat November 1399 June 1400 8 months Succeeded his brother, Stephen I, while he was ill but still alive. Deposed and imprisoned after invasion by Mircea I of Wallachia, who installed George's exiled stepbrother, Alexander I.
Ferdinand IV Grand Duke of Tuscany Habsburg-Lorraine 21 July 1859 22 March 1860 245 days
(8 months, 1 day)
Abdication of his father, Leopold II, after their flight in the Second Italian War of Independence. Tuscany annexed by the Kingdom of Italy.
Lê Nghi Dân Emperor of Đại Việt Later Lê 3 October 1459 6 June 1460 247 days
(8 months, 3 days)
Assassinated his half-brother, Lê Nhân Tông. Deposed in favor of his other half-brother Lê Thánh Tông. He was exiled to Lạng Sơn and died shortly after.
Vitellius Roman emperor 16 April 69 22 December 69 250 days
(8 months, 6 days)
Proclaimed in rebellion against Galba. Assassinated.
Injong King of Joseon Yi 29 November 1544 8 August 1545 252 days
(8 months, 8 days)
Death of his father, Jungjong. Possibly poisoned by his step-mother Queen Munjeong so his half-brother Myeongjong would become king.
Muhammad II
(first reign)
Caliph of Cordoba Umayyad 15 February 1009 1 November 1009 259 days
(8 months, 15 days)
Overthrew Hisham II and his prime minister Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo, who tried to make Hisham name him his heir. Deposed by Sulayman ibn al-Hakam.
Sancho II King of Leon Jimenez 12 January 1072 6 October 1072 268 days
(8 months, 23 days)
Deposed and imprisoned his brother, Alfonso VI. Killed at the Siege of Zamora.
Matilda Lady of the English Normandy 2 February 1141 c. 1 November 1141 c. 272 days
(8 months, 28 days)
(disputed)
Captured her cousin, Stephen I, at the Battle of Lincoln. Stephen exchanged (behind her back and against her will) for her half-brother Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester, who was captured at the Rout of Winchester. She was called Lady of the English and not Queen because she was never crowned despite planning to this end.
William III King of Sicily Hauteville February 1194 October 1194 <9 months Death of his father, Tancred. Deposed by his uncle, Henry I.
Claudine Lady of Monaco Grimaldi July 1457 16 March 1458 <9 months Death of her father, Catalan Grimaldi. As she was only six years old, her grandmother Pomellina Fregoso was named regent in her father's will. Pomellina was deposed after trying to murder Lamberto Grimaldi, Claudine's cousin and bethrothed. Lamberto then assumed the position of Lord of Monaco in detriment of his future wife.
Mamia I
(second reign)
King of Imereti Gurieli October 1711 June 1712 <9 months Deposed George VII, who fled to Kartli. Fled to Kartli himself after being defeated by George VII at the Battle of Chkhari.
Benedict IX
(third reign)
Pope Theophylacti November 1047 July 1048 9 months Returned to Rome after the death of Clement II. Expelled by the troops of Henry III of Germany, who imposed Damasus II.
Chodaganga King of Polonnaruwa Kalinga 1196 1197 9 months Assassinated Vikramabahu II. Deposed and blinded by General Tavuru Senevirat who handed power to Queen Lilavati, widow of Parakramabahu I.
Lokissara King of Polonnaruwa 1210 1211 9 months Invaded Sri Lanka with a Tamil army from the continent, deposing Lilavati. Deposed by General Parakrama, who restored Lilavati.
Az-Zahir Caliph of Islam Abbasid 5 October 1225 10 July 1226 278 days
(9 months, 5 days)
Death of his father, An-Nasir. Died of natural causes.
Harold II King of the English Wessex 5 January 1066 14 October 1066 282 days
(9 months, 9 days)
Elected by the Witenagemot at the suggestion of the dying king Edward the Confessor. Killed at the Battle of Hastings.
Clement II Pope Morsleben 25 December 1046 9 October 1047 288 days
(9 months, 12 days)
Elected at the request of Henry III of Germany, following the depositions of competing popes Benedict IX, Sylvester III, and Gregory VI. Poisoned with lead sugar, either accidentally or intentionally.
Leo II Eastern Roman Emperor Leonid 18 January 474 10 November 474 296 days
(9 months, 21 days)
Made augustus (co-emperor) by his grandfather, Leo I. Died.
Christian II King of Sweden Oldenburg 1 November 1520 23 August 1521 295 days
(9 months, 22 days)
Conquered Sweden, which had been in rebellion against the Kalmar Union for seven years. Deposed by the rebel "Protector of the Realm" Gustav Vasa, who was elected king Gustav I in 1523.
Vetranio Roman Emperor 1 March 350 25 December 350 299 days
(9 months, 24 days)
Made co-emperor of Constantius II after the assassination of Constans. Deposed by Constantius II, who became single emperor.
Habibullah Kalakani Emir of Afghanistan Saqqawist 14 December 1928 13 October 1929 303 days
(9 months, 27 days)
Abdication of Inayatullah Khan. Deposed and executed by Mohammed Nadir Shah.
Aaron I
(first reign)
Prince of Moldavia Bogdan-Mușat
(disputed)
September 1591 Before 20 June 1592 <10 months Designated by the Ottomans after the abdication of Peter VI. Deposed by the Ottomans and replaced with Alexander V.
Augustine I Emperor of Mexico Iturbide 19 May 1822 19 March 1823 304 days
(10 months)
Elected by the Congress of Mexico after Ferdinand VII of Spain refused the position for himself and any of his relatives. Abdicated. The monarchy was abolished shortly after.
Muhammad XII
(first reign)
Emir of Granada Nasrid June 1482 20 April 1483 Around 10 months Rebelled against his father, Muley Hacén, seizing Granada and Almería. His father successfully defended and retained Málaga. Captured at the Battle of Lucena during an incursion in Castilian territory. Liberated by the Christians in order to fuel inter-Muslim conflict, he titled himself Emir again in 1487 and reigned until 1492.
Simon I
(first reign)
Prince of Wallachia Movilești October 1600 3 July 1601 Around 10 months Assassination of Michael II. Deposed by Radu IX.
Ismail II Emir of Granada Nasrid 23 August 1359 24 June or 13 July 1360 306–325 days
(10 months, 1–19 days)
Deposed and exiled his brother, Muhammad V, to North Africa. Deposed and assassinated by his brother-in-law, Muhammad VI.
Romulus Augustus Western Roman Emperor 31 October 475 4 September 476 309 days
(10 months, 1 day)
Installed in Ravenna by his father, General Orestes, after rebelling against Julius Nepos. The latter fled to Dalmatia and continued ruling there as Western Roman emperor until 480. Deposed by Odoacer, who sent the imperial insignia to Constantinople and titled himself King of Italy.
Louise Hippolyte Princess of Monaco Grimaldi 20 February 1731 29 December 1731 312 days
(10 months, 9 days)
Death of her father, Anthony I. Died of smallpox.
Narawara King of Burma Toungoo 14 April 1672 27 February 1673 319 days
(10 months, 13 days)
Death of his father, Pye Min. Died.
Edward VIII King of the United Kingdom, the British Dominions, and Emperor of India Windsor 20 January 1936 11 December 1936 326 days
(10 months, 22 days)
Death of his father, George V. Abdicated in favour of his brother George VI in order to marry Wallis Simpson, a twice-divorced American socialite.
Fuad II King of Egypt and the Sudan Muhammad Ali 26 July 1952 18 June 1953 327 days
(10 months, 23 days)
Abdication of his father, Farouk I. Monarchy abolished.
Jovan Nenad Tsar of Bačka 29 August 1526 26 July 1527 331 days
(10 months, 26 days)
Carved a Serbian kingdom in southern Hungary after the death of Louis II in the Battle of Mohacs, refusing to recognize John Zapolya as King of Hungary and collaborating with the Habsburgs. Assassinated after failing to link with the Habsburgs.
Baldwin I Latin Emperor of Constantinople Flanders 16 May 1204 14 April 1205 333 days
(10 months, 26 days)
Elected by the Crusaders after the Sack of Constantinople. Captured by Kaloyan of Bulgaria at the Battle of Adrianople. Later died in prison.
Al-Muhtadi Caliph of Islam Abbasid 21-22 July 869 21 June 870 334-335 days
(11 months)
Assassination of his cousin, Al-Mu'tazz. Assassinated.
Marwan I Caliph of Islam Umayyad June 684 April-May 685 11-12 months Elected after the death of Muawiya II. Died.
Alexander III Prince of Wallachia Bogdan-Mușat August-November 1592 2-12 September 1593 11-14 months Succeeded Stephen I. Deposed by Michael II and exiled to Constantinople, where he was accused of conspiracy and executed in 1597.
Dmitry I Tsar and Emperor of Russia Pseudo-Rurik 10 June 1605 17 May 1606 341 days
(11 months, 7 days)
Deposition of Feodor II. Assassinated.
Napoleon I Emperor of Elba Bonaparte 11 April 1814 20 March 1815 343 days
(11 months, 9 days)
Title created by the Treaty of Fontainebleau. Fled to France.
Alfonso II King of Naples Trastamara 25 January 1494 23 January 1495 363 days
(11 months, 29 days)
Death of his father, Ferdinand I. Abdicated in favour of his son, Ferdinand II.
Marcus Claudius Tacitus Roman Emperor 25 September 275 June 276 <12 months Elected by the Roman Senate after the assassination of Aurelian. Died of fever while returning from a military campaign in Gaul.
Charles III
(first reign)
Duke of Parma Bourbon-Parma 19 April 1848 April 1849 Around 12 months Abdication of his father, Charles II, after both fled during the Revolutions of 1848. Father restored by Austrian troops.
Simon I
(second reign)
Prince of Wallachia Movilești August 1601 August 1602 Around 12 months Deposed Radu IX. Deposed by Radu X.
Michael VI Eastern Roman Emperor Bringas 31 August 1056 31 August 1057 365 days
(12 months)
Succeeded Theodora III after being chosen by her as successor, shortly before her death. Abdicated in favour of Isaac I and became a monk.
Frederick I King of Bohemia Wittelsbach 4 November 1619 8 November 1620 370 days
(12 months, 4 days)
Crowned in Prague after being elected by the states of the Bohemian Confederacy, in rebellion against Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor. Fled the country after the Protestant defeat at the Battle of White Mountain.
Lý Chiêu Hoàng Empress of Đại Việt October 1224 October-November 1225 12-13 months Abdication of her father, Lý Huệ Tông, who retired to become a Buddhist monk. Forced to abdicate in favour of her husband, Trần Thái Tông. She was the only regnant empress in the History of Vietnam.

Other monarchs that could have reigned for less than a year

The following monarchs may also have reigned for less than a year, but only an approximate length of reign is known.

Name Title Dynasty Reign began Reign ended Reason for accession Reason for reign's end
5-70 unnamed rulers Pharaoh of Egypt Seventh c. 2181 BC
(70–75 days total)
End of the Sixth Dynasty. Beginning of the Eighth Dynasty. The existence of the VII Dynasty is questioned due to poor and imprecise records. Some believe it fictional, a metaphor for a chaotic interregnum between the VI And VIII Dynasties; others, that the VII really existed but its pharaohs were included in the VIII by mistake.
Neferkare Pepiseneb Pharaoh of Egypt Eighth 2181-2170 BC Succeeded Neferkahor. Succeeded by Neferkamin Anu after a reign of one year or more. Only attested in the Abydos King List and possibly the Turin King List (as Neferkare Khered Seneb).
Sewadjkare I Pharaoh of Egypt Thirteenth c. 1781 BC or 1737 BC Succeeded Sehetepibre. Succeeded by Nedjemibre. Only known from the Turin King List, which originally included his reign duration but is illegible due to damage.
Cleopatra IV Pharaoh of Egypt Ptolemaic 28 June 116 BC 115 BC Death of her father, Ptolemy VIII. Reigned alongside her brother and husband, Ptolemy IX. Pushed out of joint rule by her mother, Cleopatra III.
Zhao Jiande King of Nanyue Nanyue 112 BC 111 BC Assassination of Zhao Xing. Assassinated, Nanyue annexed by the Han Dynasty.
Liu Yi Emperor of Han Eastern Han 125 Elected to succeed the late Emperor An. Died of illness.
Adur Narseh Shah of Persia Sasanid 209 Death of his father, Hormizd II. Assassinated and replaced with Shapur II. His reign is questioned by some historians because he is mentioned in Greek sources but not in Persian ones.
Carus Roman Emperor Numerian 282 283 Either assassinated Probus, or was proclaimed after such assassination. Allegedly struck by lightning while campaigning against the Sassanids.
Ellac King of the Huns 453 454 Death of his father, Attila. Killed at the Battle of Nedao.
Olybrius Western Roman Emperor Anician March-July 472 22 October or 2 November 472 Installed by Ricimer after the assassination of Anthemius. Died of dropsy.
Ildibad King of the Ostrogoths 540 541 Elected after Witiges was taken prisoner to Constantinople by the Byzantines. Murdered by his bodyguard.[5]
John King of the Moors and Romans 545 546 Elected after the death of Stotzas in the Battle of Thacia. Arrested by the Byzantines and crucified in Constantinople.
Teia King of the Ostrogoths July 552 October 552 - early 553 Elected after the death of Totila in the Battle of Taginae. Killed at the Battle of Mons Lactarius.
Seaxburh Queen of Wessex Gewisse 672 673 Unusually succeeded her husband, Cenwalh of Wessex, after his death. Only woman included in the list of kings of Wessex. Died. The throne was inherited by either Cenfus or his son Æscwine, who were distant relatives of her husband.
Roderic King of the Visigoths 710-711 711-712 Seized the throne by force, either assassinating Wittiza or in the aftermath of Wittiza's death by other causes. Killed at the Battle of Guadalete.
Sigeberht King of Wessex Wessex 756 757 Succeeded Cuthred, a distant relative. Deposed by Cynewulf and later assassinated.
Sabin Khan of Bulgaria Vokil 765 766 Assassination of Telets. Deposed, fled to Constantinople.
Toktu Khan of Bulgaria Ugain 766 767 Succeeded Umor, possibly after deposing him. Assassinated while trying to flee from a revolt.
Pagan Khan of Bulgaria 767 768 Elected after the deposition or assassination of Toktu. Deposed and assassinated.
Nepotian King of Asturias Astur-Leonese? 842 Succeeded his childless "kinsman", Alfonso II, whom he had served as count of the palace. Deposed by Alfonso's second degree cousin, Ramiro I.
Fruela King of Asturias Astur-Leonese? 866 Seized the throne by force in the aftermath of Ordoño I's death. Assassinated after some months and replaced with Ordoño's son, Alfonso III. Called "The Usurper" to distinguish from Fruela I and Fruela II.
Jeonggang King of Silla Kim 886 887 Death of his brother, Heongang. Died.
Alfonso Fróilaz King of Leon Astur-Leonese July 925 925 Death of his father, Fruela II. Deposed by his cousins Sancho Ordóñez, Alfonso IV, and Ramiro II, who then fought among themselves. Fróilaz allied with Alfonso IV and may have been rewarded with a sub-kingdom in the northeast until both were removed by Ramiro II in 932.
Bezprym Duke of Poland Piast 1031 Spring? 1032 Flight of his brother Mieszko II to Bohemia during a period of German and Kievan invasions. Assassinated. Duchy divided between his brothers Mieszko and Otto, and cousin Dytryk.
Eric and Eric King of Sweden 1066 1067 Death of Stenkil. Each claimed the throne for himself and fought the other. Killed in battle in quick succession. The throne went to Stenkil's son, Halsten.
Sunjong King of Goryeo Wang 1082-1083 5 December 1083 Death of his father, Munjong. Died.
Ragnvald Knaphövde King of Sweden late 1120s Elected in Östergötland after the death of Inge. Assassinated by the Geats, who had elected Magnus I.
David V King of Georgia Bagrationi c. 1154-1155 Deposed his father, Demetrius I. Unclear, but likely assassinated. His reign is given different lengths in different chronicles: from one to six months, to even two years.
Magnus II King of Sweden Estridsen 1160 1161 Assassinated Eric IX. Killed in battle with Eric IX's son, Charles VII.
Jaya Harivarman II King of Champa Vijaya 1166 1167 Succeeded Jaya Harivarman I. Succeeded by Jaya Indravarman IV.
Vijayabahu II King of Polonnaruwa Vijayabahu 1186 1187 Death of his uncle, Parakramabahu I. Assassinated by Mahinda VI.
Suryajayavarman King of Champa Vijaya 1190 1191 Installed by the Khmer after they invaded and deposed Jaya Indravarman IV. Fled to Cambodia during the revolt of Vidyanandana, leaving the capital Vijaya to Jaya Indravarman V.
Jaya Indravarman V King of Champa Vijaya 1191 1192 Flight of Suryajayavarman. Assassinated by Vidyanandana.
Dharmasoka King of Polonnaruwa Kalinga 1208 1209 Succeeded Kalyanavati. Assassinated by Anikanga.
Lilavati
(second reign)
Queen of Polonnaruwa Vijayabahu 1209 1210 Assassination of Anikanga by General Vikkantacamunakka, who surrendered control to Lilavati. Deposed by Lokissara.
Peter I Latin Emperor of Constantinople Courtenay 1216 1217 Elected after the death of his brother-in-law, Henry I. Captured during a failed campaign against the Despotate of Epirus; he died in prison in 1219.
Haraldr Guðrøðarson King of Mann and the Isles Crovan 1249 1250 Assassinated his cousin Rǫgnvaldr Óláfsson. Deposed and exiled to Norway by Haakon IV, who probably also installed Rǫgnvaldr's brother Magnús Óláfsson as King.
Balc Prince of Moldavia Drăgoșești 1359 or 1364 Death of his father, Sas. Deposed by Bogdan I.
Peter I Prince of Moldavia Bogdan-Mușat 1367 July 1368 Death of his grandfather, Bogdan I. Deposed by his uncle, Lațcu.
Dương Nhật Lễ Emperor of Đại Việt Trần
(by adoption)
1369 1370 Death of his uncle, Trần Dụ Tông. Deposed by his father-in-law, Trần Nghệ Tông.
Al-Musta'sim
(first reign)
Caliph of Islam Abbasid 1377 Deposition of Al-Mutawakkil I. Deposed by Al-Mutawakkil I. He became Caliph a second time in 1386-1389.
Yusuf II Emir of Granada Nasrid 1391 1392 Death of his father, Muhammad V. Possibly assassinated by his son, Muhammad VII.
Hồ Quý Ly Emperor of Đại Ngu Hồ 28 February 1400 1401 Deposed his grandson, Trần Thiếu Đế. Abdicated in favour of his son, Hồ Hán Thương.
Muhammad IX
(second reign)
Emir of Granada Nasrid 1430 1431 Deposed and assassinated Muhammad VIII, who had deposed him earlier. Deposed by Yusuf IV.
Yusuf IV Emir of Granada Nasrid 1 January 1432 1432 Deposed Muhammad IX. Deposed by Muhammad IX.
Peter III
(first reign)
Prince of Moldavia Bogdan-Mușat May 1444 1445 Made co-prince by his half-brother Stephen II after he deposed his other brother and previous co-prince, Iliaș, who had been imposed by the Poles. Unknown. He became co-prince again in 1447, this time with his nephew Roman II, a son of Iliaș.
Yusuf V Emir of Granada Nasrid 1445 1446 Deposed his nephew Muhammad X. Deposed by Muhammad X.
1462 Deposed his brother Abu Nasr Sa'd. Deposed by Abu Nasr Sa'd.
Muhammad XI Emir of Granada Nasrid 1453 1454 Death of Muhammad IX. Deposed by Abu Nasr Sa'd and assassinated by Sa'd's son, Muley Hacén.
Al-Mustamsik
(second reign)
Caliph of Islam Abbasid 1516 1517 Deposed his son Al-Mutawakkil III, who had previously deposed him in 1508. Abdicated in favor of Al-Mutawakkil III.
Al-Mutawakkil III
(second reign)
Caliph of Islam Abbasid 1517 Abdication of his father. Captured by Selim I and deported to Constantinople, where he surrendered the title to him (according to later tradition).
Mạc Toàn Emperor of Đại Việt Mạc 1592-1593 Capture and assassination of his father Mạc Mậu Hợp by the . Abdicated in favour of Mạc Kính Chỉ.
Mạc Kính Chỉ Emperor of Đại Việt Mạc 1592-1593 Abdication of Mạc Toàn. Assassinated by the Trịnh lords.
Karposh King of Kumanovo October? 1689 November? 1689 Recognized as King by the Habsburgs while in rebellion against the Ottoman Empire. Captured and executed by the Ottomans.
Mamia I
(first reign)
King of Imereti Gurieli 1701 Installed as puppet king by his father-in-law Giorgi Abashidze, following the assassination of Simon I. Abdicated in favour of Abashidze, who became King George VI of Imereti, and returned to Guria where he continued ruling as Prince.
Abdullah I King of Iraq Hashemite 8 March 1920 1920 Proclaimed by the Congress of Iraq. Refused the position. Became Emir of Transjordan in 1921, and the first King of Jordan in 1946-1951.

See also

References

  1. ^ De Coustin, F. (2017) Louis XIX, duc d'Angoulême. Place des éditeurs, 443 pages.
  2. ^ Carney, E. (2015) King and Court in Ancient Macedonia: Rivalry, Treason and Conspiracy. ISD LLC, 400 pages.
  3. ^ Seaman, R.M. (2013) Conflict in the Early Americas: An Encyclopedia of the Spanish Empire's Aztec, Incan, and Mayan Conquests. ABC-CLIO, 485 pages.
  4. ^ Sinmu is recorded as having reigned for three lunar months, slightly shorter than solar ones.
  5. ^ Not assassinated, as the murder had no political aim.
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