To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

List of settlements in the Arta regional unit

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of settlements in the Arta regional unit, Greece.

  • Agia Paraskevi
  • Agios Spyridonas
  • Agnanta
  • Akropotamia
  • Ammotopos
  • Anemorrachi
  • Aneza
  • Ano Kalentini
  • Arta
  • Astrochori
  • Athamanio
  • Chalkiades
  • Dafnoti
  • Diasello
  • Dichomoiri
  • Dimari
  • Distrato
  • Elati
  • Faneromeni
  • Foteino
  • Gavria
  • Graikiko
  • Grammenitsa
  • Grimpovo
  • Kalamia
  • Kalogeriko
  • Kalovatos
  • Kampi
  • Kapsala
  • Kastania
  • Katarraktis
  • Kato Athamanio
  • Kato Kalentini
  • Kentriko
  • Keramates
  • Kirkizates
  • Kleidi
  • Kommeno
  • Kompoti
  • Korfovouni
  • Koronisia
  • Kostakioi
  • Koukkoulia
  • Ktistades
  • Kypseli
  • Lepiana
  • Limini
  • Loutrotopos
  • Markiniada
  • Megalochari
  • Megarchi
  • Melissourgoi
  • Mesopyrgos
  • Mesounta
  • Mikrospilia
  • Miliana
  • Neochori
  • Pachykalamos
  • Palaiokatouna
  • Pantanassa
  • Peranthi
  • Peta
  • Petra
  • Piges
  • Pistiana
  • Polydroso
  • Psathotopi
  • Rachi
  • Ramia
  • Retsiana
  • Rodavgi
  • Rokka
  • Sellades
  • Skoulikaria
  • Skoupa
  • Strongyli
  • Sykies
  • Tetrakomo
  • Theodoriana
  • Velentziko
  • Vigla
  • Vlacherna
  • Vourgareli

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/3
    3 251 416
    7 988 007
    24 413 900
  • The Renaissance: Was it a Thing? - Crash Course World History #22
  • The Agricultural Revolution: Crash Course World History #1


Hi, Iím John Green, This is Crash Course: World History and today weíre going to talk about something that ought to be controversial: The Renaissance. So you probably already know about the Renaissance thanks to the work of noted teenage mutant ninja turtles Leonardo, Michelangelo, Donatello, and Raphael. But that isnít the whole story. Mr. Green, Mr. Green. What about Splinter? I think he was an architect. Ugh, me from the past, youíre such an idiot. Splinter was a painter, sculptor, AND an architect. He was a quite a Renaissance rat. [Intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] Right, so the story goes that the Renaissance saw the rebirth of European culture after the miserable Dark Ages, and that it ushered in the modern era of secularism, rationality, and individualism. And those are all in the list of things we like here at Crash Course. Mr. Green. I think youíre forgetting Cool Ranch Doritos? Yeah, fair enough. Then whatís so controversial? Well, the whole idea of a European Renaissance presupposes that Europe was like an island unto itself that was briefly enlightened when the Greeks were ascendant and then lost its way and then rediscovered its former European glory. Furthermore, Iím going to argue that the Renaissance didnít even necessarily happen. But first, letís assume that it did. Essentially, the Renaissance was an efflorescence of arts (primarily visual, but also to a lesser extent literary) and ideas in Europe that coincided with the rediscovery of Roman and Greek culture. Itís easiest to see this in terms of visual art, Renaissance art tends to feature a focus on the human form, somewhat idealized, as Roman and especially Greek art had. And this ìclassicizingî is also rather apparent in the architecture of the Renaissance which featured all sorts of Greek columns and triangular pediments and Roman arches and domes. In fact, looking at a Renaissance building you might even be able to fool yourself into thinking youíre looking at an actual Greek building, if you sort of squint and ignore the fact that Greek buildings tend to be, you know, ruins. In addition to rediscovering, that is, copyingóGreek and Roman art, the Renaissance saw the rediscovery of Greek and Roman writings and their ideas. And that opened up a whole new world for scholarsówell, not a new world, actually since the texts were more than 1000 years old, but you know what I mean. The scholars who examined, translated, and commented upon these writings were called humanists, which can be a little bit of a confusing term, because it implies they were concerned with, you know, humans rather than, say, the religious world. Which can add to the common, but totally incorrect, assumption that Renaissance writers and artists and scholars were, like, secretly not religious. Thatís a favorite favorite area of speculation on the Internet and in Dan Brown novels, but the truth is that Renaissance artists were religious. As evidence, let me present you with that fact that they painted the Madonna over and over and over and over and over and STAN! Anyway, all humanism means is that these scholars studied what were called the humanities. Literature, philosophy, history. Today, of course, these areas of study are known as the so-called dark arts. What? Liberal arts? Aw, Stan, youíre always making history less fun. I WANT TO BE A PROFESSOR OF THE DARK ARTS. Stan (O/C): The Dark Arts job, itís a dangerous position. John: Yeah, I guess thatís true, so weíll stick with this. Right so here at Crash Course, we try not to focus too much on dates, but if Iím going to convince you that the Renaissance didnít actually happen, I should probably tell you, you know, when it didnít happen. So traditionally the Renaissance is associated with the 15th and 16th centuries. Ish. The Renaissance happened all across Europe, but weíre going to focus on Italy, because I want to and I own the video camera. Plus, Italy really spawned the Renaissance. What was it about Italy that lent itself to Renaissancing? Was it the wine? The olives? The pasta? The plumbers? The relative permissiveness when it comes to the moral lassitude of their leaders? Well, letís go to the Thought Bubble. Italy was primed for Renaissance for exactly one reason: Money. A society has to be super rich to support artists and elaborate building projects and to feed scholars who translate and comment on thousand-year-old documents. And the Italian city states were very wealthy for two reasons. First, many city states were mini-industrial powerhouses each specializing in a particular industrial product like Florence made cloth, Milan made arms. Second, the cities of Venice and Genoa got stinking rich from trade. Genoa turned out a fair number of top-notch sailors, like for instance Christopher Columbus. But the Venetians became the richest city state of all. As youíll remember from the Crusades, the Venetians were expert sailors, shipbuilders, and merchantsóand as youíll remember from our discussions of Indian Ocean trade, they also had figured out ways to trade with Islamic empires, including the biggest economic power in the region: the Ottomans. Without trading with the Islamic world, especially in pepper, Venice couldnít have afforded all those paintersónor would they have had money to pay for the incredibly fancy clothes they put on to pose for their fancy portraits. The clothes, the paint, the painters, enough food to get a double chinóall of that was paid for with money from trade with the Ottomans. I know I talk a lot about trade, but thatís because itís so incredibly awesome, and it really does bind the world together. And while trade can lead to conflicts, on balance, it has been responsible for more peaceful contacts than violent ones because, you know, death is bad for business. This was certainly the case in the Eastern Mediterranean where the periods of trade-based diplomacy were longer and more frequent than periods of war, even though all we ever talk about is war because itís very dramatic, which is why my brother Hankís favorite video game is called Assassin's Creed, not Some Venetian Guys Negotiate A Trade Treaty. Thanks, Thought Bubble. So hereís another example of non-Europeans supporting the Renaissance: The Venetians exported textiles to the Ottomans. They were usually woven in other cities like Florence, and the reason Florentine textiles were so valuable is because their color remained vibrant. That is because they were dyed with a chemical called alum, which was primarily found in Anatolia, in the Ottoman Empire. So to make the textiles the Ottomans craved, the Italians needed Ottoman alum, at least until 1460. When Giovanni da Castro, Pope Pius IIís godson, discovered alum, in Italy, in Tolfa. And he wrote to his godfather, the Pope: ìToday I bring you victory over the Turk. Every year they wring from the Christians more than 300,000 ducats for the alum with which we dye wool various colors Ö But I have found seven mountains so rich in this material that they could supply seven worlds. If you will give orders to engage workmen, build furnaces, and smelt the ore, you will provide all Europe with alum and the Turk will lose all his profits. Instead they will accrue to you Öî So the Pope was like, ìHeck yeah.î More importantly he granted a monopoly on the mining rights of alum to a particular Florentine family, the Medicis. You know, the ones you always see painted. But vitally, Italian alum mines didnít bring victory over the Turks, or cause them to lose all their profits, just as mining and drilling at home never alleviate the need for trade. Okay, one last way contact with Islam helped to create the European Renaissance, if indeed it happened: The Muslim world was the source of many of the writings that Renaissance scholars studied. For centuries, Muslim scholars had been working their way through ancient Greek writings, especially Ptolemy and Aristotle, who despite being consistently wrong about everything managed to be the jumping off point for thinking both in the Christian and Muslim worlds. And the fall of Constantinople in 1453 helped further spread Greek ideas because Byzantine scholars fled for Italy, taking their books with them. So we have the Ottomans to thank for that, too. And even after it had become a Muslim capital, Istanbul was still, like, the number one destination for book nerds searching for ancient Greek texts. Plus, if we stretch our definition of Renaissance thought to include scientific thought, there is a definite case to be made that Muslim scholars influenced Copernicus, arguably the Renaissanceís greatest mind. Oh, itís time for the open letter? An Open Letter to Copernicus. But first, letís see whatís in the secret compartment today. Wow, the heliocentric solar system? Cool. Earth in the middle, sun in the middle, earth in the middle, sun in the middle. Ptolemy. Copernicus. Ptolemy. Copernicus. Right, an open letter to Copernicus. Dear Copernicus, Why you always gotta make the rest of us look so bad? You were both a lawyer and a doctor? That doesnít seem fair. You spoke four languages and discovered that the earth is not the center of the universe, come on. But at least you didnít discover it entirely on your own. Now, thereís no way to be sure that you had access to Muslim scholarship on this topic. But one of your diagrams is so similar to a proof found in an Islamic mathematics treatise that itís almost impossible that you didnít have access to it. Even the letters on the diagram are almost the same. So at least I can tell my mom that when she asks why Iím not a doctor and a lawyer and the guy who discovered the heliocentric solar system. Best wishes, John Green Alright, so now having spent the last several minutes telling you why the Renaissance happened in Italy and not in, I donít know, like India or Russia or whatever, Iím going to argue that the Renaissance did not in fact happen. Letís start with the problem of time. The Renaissance isnít like the Battle of Hastings or the French Revolution where people were aware that they were living amid history. Like, when I was eleven and most of you didnít exist yet, my dad made my brother and me turn off the Cosby Show and watch people climbing on the Berlin Wall so we could see history. But no one, like, woke their kids up in Tuscan village in 1512 like, ìMario, Luigi, come outside. The Renaissance is here!î ìHurry, weíre living in a glorious new era, where manís relationship to learning is changing.î ìI somehow feel a new sense of individualism based on my capacity for reason.î No. In fact, most people in Europe were totally unaware of the Renaissance, because its art and learning affected a tiny sliver of the European population. Like, life expectancy in many areas of Europe actually went down during the Renaissance. Art and learning of the Renaissance didnít filter down to most people the way that technology does today. And really the Renaissance was only experienced by the richest of the rich and those people, like painters, who served them. I mean, there were some commercial opportunities, like for framing paintings or binding books, but the vast majority of Europeans still lived on farms either as free peasants or tenants. And the rediscovery of Aristotle didnít in any way change their lives, which were governed by the rising and setting of the sun, and, intellectually, by the Catholic Church. In fact, probably about 95% of Europeans never encountered the Renaissanceís opulence or art or modes of thought. We have constructed the Renaissance as important not because it was so central to the 15th century. I mean, at the time Europe wasnít the worldís leader in, anything other than the tiny business of Atlantic trade. We remember it as important because it matters to us now. It gave us the ninja turtles. We care about Aristotle and individualism and the Mona Lisa and the possibility that Michelangelo painted an anatomically correct brain onto the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, because these things give us a narrative that makes sense. Europe was enlightened, and then it was unenlightened, and then it was re-enlightened, and ever since itís been the center of art and commerce and history. You see that cycle of life, death, and rebirth a lot in historical recollection, but it just isnít accurate. So itís true that many of the ideas introduced to Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries became very important. But remember, when we talk about the Renaissance, weíre talking about hundreds of years. I mean, although they share ninja turtledom, Donatello and Raphael were born 97 years apart. And the Renaissance humanist Petrarch was born in 1304, 229 years before the Renaissance humanist Montaigne. Thatís almost as long as the United States has existed. So was the Renaissance a thing? Not really. It was a lot of mutually interdependent things that occurred over centuries. Stupid truth always resisting simplicity. Thanks for watching. Iíll see you next week.

By municipality

See also

This page was last edited on 3 December 2016, at 00:52
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.