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List of rulers of Wales

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Before the Conquest of Wales, completed in 1282, Wales consisted of a number of independent kingdoms, the most important being Gwynedd, Powys, Deheubarth (originally Ceredigion, Seisyllwg and Dyfed) and Morgannwg (Glywysing and Gwent). Boundary changes and the equal division of patrimony meant that few princes ever came close to ruling the whole of Wales.

The names of those known to have ruled over one or more of the kingdoms are listed below. The only person known to have ruled all of Wales was Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c. 1010-1063), a prince of Gwynedd who became King of Wales from 1055 to 1063.

Map of medieval Wales
Map of medieval Wales


The kingdom of Deheubarth was formed by the union of the kingdoms of Ceredigion, Seisyllwg and Dyfed. Ceredigion was absorbed into Seisyllwg and Dyfed was merged with Seisyllwg to form Deheubarth in 909.


  • Ceredig ap Cunedda (424–453)[1][2][3]
  • Usai (453–490)
  • Serwyl (490–525)
  • Boddw (525–560)
  • Arthfoddw (560–595)
  • Arthlwys (595–630)
  • Clydog I (630–665)



House Manaw


Deheubarth was in the possession of the Normans from 1093 to 1155

From 1234 to 1283, Deheubarth was subject to the princes of Gwynedd

  • Rhys the Hoarse's son, Rhys Mechyll (1234–1244) ruled a portion of Deheubarth
  • his brother, Maredudd ap Rhys (1244–1271) ruled a portion of Deheubarth
  • his son, Rhys ap Maredudd (1271–1283) ruled a portion of Deheubarth


Kings of Gwynedd

Prince of the Welsh

Princes of Aberffraw and Lords of Snowdon


The kingdom of Morgannwg was formed by the union of the kingdoms of Morgannwg and Gwent. Over time, in a few instances, the kingdoms were separate and independent.


  • Eugenius, son of Magnus Maximus
  • Marius, son of Eugenius
  • Solar, son of Marius
  • Glywys, son of Solar (c. 470–c. 480), who gave his name to the kingdom
    • Gwynllyw, son of Glywys, ruler of Gwynllwg (c. 480–523), cantref of Glywysing
    • Pawl, son of Glywys, ruler of Penychen (c. 480–540), cantref of Glywysing
    • Mechwyn, son of Glywys, ruler of Gorfynydd (c. 480–c.500), cantref of Glywysing
  • Cadoc, son of Gwynllyw, ruler of Gwynllwg (523–580) and Penychen (540–580), died without heirs

Glywysing is ruled by the Kings of Gwent until Rhys ap Ithel

Iestyn was the last ruler of an independent Morgannwg, which was thereafter in the possession of the Normans and became the lordship of Glamorgan


  • Anwn Ddu (the same person as ruled Dyfed at this time). Welsh legend claims he was appointed by Magnus Maximus, who later became Roman Emperor (and hence referred to in Welsh as Macsen Wledig - Maximus the Emperor). Some genealogies claim him to be Magnus' son. His realm was divided upon his death between his sons Edynfed and Tudwal.
in Caer-Went
  • Edynfed ap Anwn - also ruler of Dyfed
  • Ynyr ap Dyfnwal [cy] ap Ednyfed, and his wife - St Madrun ferch Gwerthefyr (Welsh rendering of Honorius)
  • Iddon ap Ynyr (480 - 490)
  • Caradog (Strongarm)
  • Meurig ap Caradog and his wife - Dyfwn ferch Glywys
  • Erbic ap Meurig ?
in Caer-Leon
  • Tudwal ap Anwn
  • Teithrin ap Tudwal
  • Teithfallt ap Teithrin (Welsh rendering of Theudebald)
  • Tewdrig, son of Teithfallt (490 – 493/517) (Welsh rendering of Theodoric). Traditionally, Tewdrig had a daughter - Marchell verch Tewdrig - for whom he carved out Brycheiniog as a dowry.
  • Meurig ap Tewdrig King of Gwent (493/517 – 530–540)
  • Athrwys ap Meurig King of Gwent (530–540 - 573)
  • Frioc ap Meurig, with Idnerth ap Meurig ?
  • Ithel ap Athrwys
  • Morgan the Great ?
  • Morgan the Courteous and Benefactor ? (-654)
  • Anthres ap Morcant ? (654-663)
  • Morgan the Generous (-730)
  • Ithel ap Morgan (710/715 - 735/740/745/755)
  • Ffernfael ab Idwal (-774/777)
  • Athrwys ap Ffernfael (774-810)
  • Idwallon ap Gwrgant (810-842)
  • Ithel ap Hywel or ap Athrwys ?(842-848)
  • Meurig ap Hywel or ap Ithel ? (848-849)
  • Meurig ap Arthfael Hen (849-874)
  • Ffernfael ap Meurig (874-880)
  • Brochfael ap Meurig (880-920)
  • Arthfael ap Hywel (-916/927)
  • Owain ap Hywel (920-930)
  • Cadell ap Arthfael (930-940/943)
  • Morgan the Old, Morgan Hen or Morgan ab Owain or Morgan Hen Fawr (940/943–955) united the former kingdoms of Gwent and Glywysing in 942 under the name of Morgannwg but they were broken up again immediately after his death and remained separate until about 1055
    • Nowy ap Gwriad ap Brochfael ap Rhodri ap Arthfael Hen ruled Gwent (c. 950–c. 970) while Glywysing was ruled jointly by brothers of Owain ap Morgan (dates unknown), probably under Morgan the Old
  • his son, Arthfael ap Nowy (about 970–983)
  • his cousin, Rhodri ap Elisedd (983–c. 1015) who ruled jointly with his brother,
  • Gruffydd ap Elisedd (983–c. 1015)
  • his cousin (?) Edwyn ap Gwriad (1015–1045)
  • Hywel ab Owain's son, Meurig ap Hywel (1045–1055) who ruled jointly with
  • his son, Cadwgan ap Meurig (1045–1055)
  • Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, invader and prince of Gwynedd (1055–1063)
  • Cadwgan ap Meurig (1063–1074) who was also King of Morgannwg, ruling Glywysing through
  • Gruffydd ap Rhydderch's son, Caradog ap Gruffydd (1075–1081) who seized Gwent and the Kingdom of Morgannwg
  • Iestyn ap Gwrgan(t) (1081–1091)

Iestyn was the last ruler of an independent Morgannwg, which was thereafter in the possession of the Normans and became the lordship of Glamorgan

  • Owain ap Caradog (1081-1113/1116)


Kings of Powys

House of Gwertherion

House of Manaw

Mathrafal Princes of Powys

From 1160 Powys was split into two parts. The southern part was later called Powys Wenwynwyn after Gwenwynwyn ab Owain "Cyfeiliog" ap Madog, while the northern part was called Powys Fadog after Madog ap Gruffydd "Maelor" ap Madog.

See also


  1. ^ a b c A history of Wales
  2. ^ The Cambrian
  3. ^ a b c Encyclopaedia of Wales
  4. ^ a b Lloyd, John Edward (1912). A History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest. Longmans, Green, and Co. p. 257 and note. Retrieved 5 February 2012. Lloyd history of Wales.
  5. ^ Heritage Consulting. Millennium File [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2003.
  6. ^ Davies, John A History of Wales, the title Princeps Wallensium


This page was last edited on 19 February 2021, at 16:36
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