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List of rulers of Odisha

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The land of Odisha has undergone several changes in terms of its boundaries since ancient ages. It was also known by different names like Odra Desha, Kalinga, Hirakhanda, Mahakantara or Utkala in different eras. The year 1568 is considered a turning point in the history of Odisha. In the year 1568, Kalapahad invaded the state. This, aided by internal conflicts, led to a steady downfall of the state from which it didn't recover.

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Transcription

Contents

Ancient Period

Ancient Texts

One of the sons of Vaivasvata Manu known as Saudyumna could change genders according to changing cycles of a day. As a female and known as Ila she gave birth to the founder of the Lunar or Aila dynasty by the name Pururavas after her union with Budha. As a male he fathered three other sons Utkala, Gaya and Vinasva, each of who later established kingdoms by their own name in the eastern parts of India including some parts of Kuru kingdom.[1]

  • Utkala

According to Mahabharata and some Puranas, the prince Kalinga founded the kingdom of Kalinga, in the current day region of coastal Odisha, including the North Sircars.[2][3] The Mahabharata also mentions one Srutayudha as the king of the Kalinga kingdom, who joined the Kaurava camp.[4] In the Buddhist text, Mahagovinda Suttanta, Kalinga and its ruler, Sattabhu, have been mentioned.[5]

  • Kalinga
  • Odra

Mentioned in Mahabharata

Mentioned in Devi-Bhagavata Puran

  • Virasena

Mentioned in Buddhist and Jain Texts

  • Sudatta (?)
  • Sattabhu
  • Nalikira
  • Yavanaraj (contemporary of young Parshvanatha)
  • Dantavakkha or Dantavakhra (9th or 8th Century BCE)
  • Avakinnayo Karakandu (8th or 7th Century BCE)
  • Vasupala (8th or 7th Century BCE)

Kalinga Dynasty

This dynasty is mentioned in Chullakalinga Jataka and Kalingabodhi Jataka. The first king Kalinga I is said to have broken away from the Dandaka kingdom along with the kings of Asmaka and Vidarbha as its feudal states.

Unknown Dynasty Mentioned in Dathavamsha

  • Brahmadatta (5th Century BCE)
  • Kasiraja
  • Sunanda

Mentioned separately in continuity without any kings or their dynasty in the middle.

  • Guhasiva (4th Century CE)

Nanda Dynasty

Kalinga was believed to be briefly annexed by Mahapadma Nanda.

  • Mahapadma Nanda (c. 424 BCE – ?)
  • Pandhuka
  • Panghupati
  • Bhutapala
  • Rashtrapala
  • Govishanaka
  • Dashasidkhaka
  • Kaivarta
  • Mahendra
  • Dhana Nanda (Argames) (? – c. 321 BCE)

When Chandragupta Maurya rebelled against the Nandas, Kaligans broke away from the empire of Magadha.

Maurya Empire

Ashoka invaded Kalinga in 261 BCE. Kalinga broke away from the Mauryan empire during the rule of Dasharatha.

Mahameghavahana Dynasty

Hātigumfā inscription of Emperor Kharavela at Udayagiri Hills.
Hātigumfā inscription of Emperor Kharavela at Udayagiri Hills.

Mahamegha Vahana was the founder of the Kalingan Chedi or Cheti Dynasty.[6][7] The names of Sobhanaraja, Chandraja, Ksemaraja also appear in context.[8] But, Kharavela is the most well-known among them. The exact relation between Mahamegha Vahana and Kharavela is not known.[6]

  • Vasu
  • Mahamegha Vahana (?)
  • Sobhanaraja
  • Chandraja
  • Ksemaraja
  • Vakradeva (or) Virdhharaja
  • Kharavela (c.193 BCE-?)
  • Kudepasiri (?)& Vakradeva ll
  • Vaduka (?)
  • Galaveya

It is not known that, if Vakadeva was a successor or predecessor of Kharavela.[9] From the inscriptions and coins discovered at Guntupalli and Velpuru, Andhra Pradesh, we know of a series of rulers with the suffix Sada who were possibly distant successors of Kharavela.[10]

  • Mana-Sada
  • Siri-Sada
  • Maha-Sada
  • Sivamaka-Sada
  • Asaka-Sada

Satavahana Dynasty

Gautamiputra Satakarni is known to have invaded Kalinga during his reign.[11]

  • Gautamiputra Satkarni (78–102 CE)
  • Sri Yajna Satkarni (170–199 CE)

The history of the region is obscure for a while after the reign


Naga Dynasty

An inscription dating from 3rd to 4th century found in Asanpat village in Keonjhar revealed the existence of this dynasty.[12]

Nala Dynasty

Nalas and Kalinga, with their other contemporaries, c. 375 CE
Nalas and Kalinga, with their other contemporaries, c. 375 CE

For some time in 4th century, the region around modern-day Koraput was ruled by the Nalas.[11][13]

  • Vrishadhvaja (c. 400-420 CE)
  • Varaharaja (c. 420-440 CE)
  • Bhavadattavarman or Bhavadattaraja (441-446 CE)
  • Arthapatiraja (446-478)
  • Skandavarman (c. 480-?)

Parvatadvarka Dynasty

During the same period as the Nalas, the region around modern-day Kalahandi was ruled by them. Not much is known about them.[11]

  • Sobhanaraja (?)
  • Tustikara (?)

King Mentioned in Raghuvasham of Kalidasa

Gupta Empire

Gupta Empire 320 – 600 CE
Gupta Empire 320 – 600 CE

Samudragupta invaded Kalinga during his reign in c.350.[11] By c.571, most of Kalinga had broken away from the Gupta empire.[14]

Sura Dynasty

The later half of the 4th century, this dynasty was established in the South Kosala region.[11][15]

  • Maharaja Sura
  • Maharaja Dayita I (or Dayitavarman I)
  • Maharaja Bhimasena I
  • Maharaja Dayitavarman II
  • Maharaja Bhimasena II (c. 501 or 601-?)

Sharabhapuriya dynasty

Not much is known about this dynasty. Everything known about them, comes from the inscriptions on copper plates and coins. They may or may not have also been known as the Amararyakula dynasty.[16] This dynasty is supposed to have started by one Sarabha, who may have been a feudal chief under the Guptas. They ruled over the modern-day region of Raipur, Bilaspur and Kalahandi.[16]

  • Sharabha (Śarabha), c. 475-500 CE
  • Narendra, c. 500-525 CE
  • Prasanna, c. 525-550 CE
  • Jayarāja, c. 550-560 CE
  • Sudevarāja, c 560-570 CE
  • Manamatra alias Durgarāja, c. 570-580 CE
  • Sudevarāja, c. 570-580 CE
  • Pravarāja, c. 580-590 CE

Mathara Dynasty

The Mathara dynasty ruled during the 4th and the 5th centuries. The Mathara rulers include:[17]

  • Shakti-varman (Śaktivarman)
  • Prabhanjana-varman (Prabhañjanavarman)
  • Ananta-shakti-varman (Anantaśaktivarman)

Vishnukudina Empire

Anantasaktivarman lost southern part of his kingdom to Madhava Verma I and the Matharas never recovered it.[11]

  • Madhava Varma I (420-55 CE)
  • Indra Varma (?)
  • Madhava Verma II (461-508 CE)
  • Vikramendra Varma I
  • Indra Bhattaraka Varma (528–555 CE)

Indra Bhattaraka Varma possibly lost his Kalinga holdings to one Adiraja Indra, who possibly was Indravarma I of East Ganga Dynasty.[11][18]

Vigraha Dynasty

They ruled the region called South Tosali, around modern day Puri and Ganjam, during second half of 6th century.[13]

  • Prighivi Vigraha
  • Loka Vigraha (c. 600 CE-?)

Mudgalas Dynasty

They ruled the region of North Toshali, the river Mahanadi served as the border between North and South Toshali. In 603 CE, they captured South Toshali from the Vigrahas.[13]

  • Sambhuyasa (c. 580? CE-?)[14]

Durjaya Dynasty

In mid-6th century CE, a chief, Ranadurjaya, established himself in South Kalinga.[19] Prithivimaharaja probably defeated the Mudgalas by his time.[11][19]

  • Ranadurjaya (?)
  • Prithivimaharaja (?)

Gauda Empire

Shashanka invaded and possibly occupied northern parts of Kalinga during his reign around c. 615.[11][14]

Shailodbhava dynasty

They ruled from the region ranging from coastal Orissa to Mahanadi and to Mahendragiri in Paralakhemundi. This region was called the Kangoda mandala.[13] Sailobhava, the founder of dynasty, is said to have born of a rock, hence the name Shailodbhava.[20] Sailobhava was the adopted son of one Pulindasena, who was possibly a chieftain. They were possibly the subordinates of Shashanka during Madhavaraja II, then they later rebelled.[11][21]

  • Pulindasena (?)
  • Sailobhava (?)
  • Dharmaraja I (or Ranabhita)
  • Madhavaraja I (or Sainyabita I)
  • Ayasobhita I (or Chharamparaja)
  • Madhavaraja II (or Madhavavarman) (?-665 CE)
  • Madhyamaraja I (or Ayasobhita II) (665 CE-?)
  • Dharmaraja II

Harsha

Harsha invaded Kalinga and Kangoda, soon after the death Pulakesi II in 642 CE. Madhavaraja II was the vassal of Harsha until the death of later in 647 CE.[11]

Bhaumakara Dynasty

The Bhauma or Bhauma-Kara Dynasty lasted from c.736 CE to c.940 CE.[22] They mostly controlled the coastal areas of Kalinga. But by c.850 CE, they controlled most of modern Orissa. The later part of their reign was disturbed by rebellions from the Bhanja dynasty of the Sonepur and Boudh region.[23]

The Mandala States

Between the 8th and 11th century, Orissa was divided into mandalas which were feudal states ruled by chieftains.[13] These chieftains swore allegiance to the Bhaumakaras.

Bhanjas of Khinjali Mandala

Khinjali refers to modern-day Balangir, Sonepur and Phulbani.

  • Silabhanja Deva (or Angadi) (?)
  • Satrubhanja (or Gandhata and Nettabhanja I) (?)
  • Rangabhanja (?)
  • Nettabhanja II (or Kalyankalasa) (?)
  • Silabhanja II (or Tribhuvana Kalasa) (?)
  • Vidhyadharabhanja (or Amogha Kalasa and Dharma Kalasa) (?)
  • Nettabhanja III (or Kalyan Kalasa and Prithvi Kalasa) (c. 933 CE-?)
  • Satrubhanja II (or Tribhubana Kalasa) (c. 934-?)
  • Bettabhanja IV (or Tribhuvana Kalasa) (c. 949-?)

Bhanjas of Khijjinga Mandala

This refers to modern-day Mayurbhanj and part of Kendujhar

  • Kottabhanja
  • Digbhanja (alias Durjayabhanja)
  • Ranabhanja (c.924-?)
  • Prithvibhanja (alias Satrubhanja) (c. 936-?)
  • Rajabhanja (alias Rajabhanja)

Sulkis of Kodalaka Mandala

Kodalaka refers to the modern-day district of Dhenkanal.

  • Kanchanastambha who was succeeded by his son Kalahastambha.
  • Ranastambha (c.839-?)
  • Jayasthambha
  • Kulastambha II

Later, the mandala was divided into two parts, Yamagartta Mandala and Airavatta Mandala. The Bhaumas allowed the Tunga and the Nandodbhava families to rule over Yamagartta Mandala and Airavatta Mandala respectively.

Tungas of Yamagartta Mandala

The Mandala refers to the northern part of modern Dhenkanal district. Jayasimha was ruler of the mandala before the Tungas, he was not a member of the Tunga dynasty.

  • Jayasimha (c. 864 )
  • Khadaga Tunga
  • Vinita Tunga
  • Solana Tunga
  • Gayada Tunga
  • Apsara Deva.

It is not clearly known if Apsara Deva belonged to the Tunga family or not.

Nandodbhavas of Airavatta Mandala

This region extended over the territory comprising southern part of Dhenkanal district, some western portion of Cuttack district and almost the entire Nayagarh district.

  • Jayananda
  • Paramananda
  • Sivananda
  • Devananda I
  • Devananda II (c. 920-?)
  • Dhruvananda (c. 929-?)

Mayuras of Banei Mandala

This region roughly comprised the modern-day Banei sub-division and parts of Panposh subdivision of Sundergarh district.

  • Udita Varsha
  • Teja Varsha
  • Udaya Varsha

Gangas of Svetaka Mandala

The capital of Svetaka known as Svetakapura has been identified with modern Chikiti.

  • Jayavarma Deva
  • Anantavarman
  • Gangaka Vilasa
  • Bhupendra Varman
  • Mahendravarman
  • Prithivarman
  • Indravarman I
  • Indravarman II
  • Samantavarman (c. 909-921?)

Somvanshi Dynasty

The Soma or Kesari Dynasty originates in South Kosala, but by the reign of Yayati I, they controlled most of modern Orissa.[24]

  • Janmejaya I (c. 882-992)[25]
  • Yayati I (c. 922-955)[25]
  • Bhimaratha (c. 955-80)
  • Dharmarstha (c. 980-1005)
  • Nahusa (c. 1005-1021)
  • Indranatha (c. 1021-1025)
  • Yayati II (c. 1025-1040)
  • Udyotakesari (c. 1040-1065)
  • Janmejaya II (c. 1065-1080)
  • Puranjaya (c. 1080-1090)
  • Karnadeva (c. 1090-1110)

Janmejaya, the predecessor of Karnadeva and the son of Janmejaya II,[13] was not considered a ruler by his successors, as he captured the throne in a violent coup and soon-after lost it.[25]

Early Medieval Period

Chindaka Naga Dynasty

The Chindaka Nagas are believed by certain historians to have arrived in the Chakrakota Mandala region (Bastar and Koraput) with the expedition of Rajendra Chola. The Telugu Chodas who invaded the region later, settled as their feudal rulers. This dynasty continued to rule the region till the thirteenth century with not much details known about their rulers excepting a few.[26]

  • Nrupati Bhushana (1023 - ?)
  • Jagadeka Bhushana or Dharavarsha
  • Madhurantaka
  • Somesvara
  • Kanhara

Eastern Ganga Dynasty

Narasimhadeva I built the Konark temple
Narasimhadeva I built the Konark temple

Indravarman I is earliest known king of the dynasty. He is known from the Jirjingi copper plate grant.[11][18]

  • Indravarman I (c. ?-537?)[11]
  • Samantavarman (c. 537-562)
  • Hastivarman (c. 562-578)
  • Indravarman II (c. 578-589)
  • Danarnava (c. 589-652)
  • Indravarman III (c. 589-652)
  • Gunarnava (c. 652-682)
  • Devendravarman I (c. 652-682?)
  • Anantavarman III (c. 808-812?)
  • Rajendravarman II (c. 812-840?)
  • Devendravarman V (c. 885-895?)
  • Gunamaharnava I (c. 895-939?)
  • Vajrahasta II (or Anangabhimadeva I) (c. 895-939?)
  • Gundama - (c. 939-942)
  • Kamarnava I (c. 942-977)
  • Vinayaditya (c. 977-980)
  • Vajrahasta IV (c .980-1015)
  • Kamarnava II (c. 1015–6 months after)
  • Gundama II (c. 1015-1038)
  • Vajrahasta V (c. 1038-1070)
  • Rajaraja Deva I (c. 1070-1077)
  • Anantavarman Chodaganga (c. 1077–1147)
  • Jatesvaradeva (c. 1147–1156)
  • Raghava Deva (c. 1156-1170)
  • Rajaraja Deva II (c. 1170-1190)
  • Anangabhima Deva II (c. 1190–1198)
  • Rajraja Deva III (c. 1198-1211)
  • Anangabhima Deva III (c. 1211-1238)
  • Narasimha Deva I (1238–1264)
  • Bhanu Deva I (1264–1278)
  • Narasimha Deva II (1279–1306)
  • Bhanu Deva II (1306–1328)
  • Narasimha Deva III (1328–1352)
  • Bhanu Deva III (1352–1378)
  • Narasimha Deva IV (1378–1414)
  • Bhanu Deva IV (1414–1434)

Gudari Kataka Eastern Ganga Rulers

According to Gangavansucharitam written in sixteenth or seventeenth century, Bhanu Deva IV also known as Kajjala Bhanu founded a new small princedom in southern Odisha at Gudari in modern Rayagada district after he was toppled from power by his general Kapilendra Deva.[27]

  • Kajjala Bhanu or Bhanu Deva IV
  • Svarna Bhanu
  • Kalasandha Deva
  • Chudanga Deva
  • Harimani Deva
  • Narasimha Deva
  • Ananta Deva
  • Padmanabha Deva
  • Pitambara Deva
  • Vasudeva
  • Purrushottama Anangabhima Deva or Bhima Deva

Parlakhemundi Ganga Rulers

Parlakhemundi Zamindari or Princely state rulers were the direct descendants of the Eastern Ganga dynasty rulers of Odisha.[28]

  • Sibalinga Narayan Bhanudeo (1566-1590)
  • Subarna Kesari Govinda Gajapati Narayan Deo (1590-1630)
  • Mukunda Rudra Gajapati Narayan Deo (1630-1656)
  • Mukunda Deo (1656-1674)
  • Ananta Padmanabh Gajapati Narayan Deo I (1674-1702)
  • Sarbajgan Jagannatha Gajapati Narayan Deo I (1686-1702)
  • Narahari Narayan Deo (1702-1729)
  • Bira Padmanabh Narayan Deo II (1729-1748)
  • Prataprudra Gajapati Narayan Deo I (1748-1751)
  • Jagannatha Gajapati Narayan Deo II (1751-1771)
  • Goura Chandra Gajapati Narayan Deo I (1771-1802)
  • Purushottam Gajapati Narayan Deo (1802-1805)
  • Jagannath Gajapati Narayan Deo III (1821-1851)
  • Prataprudra Gajapati Narayan Deo II (1851-1855)
  • Goura Chandra Gajapati Narayan Deo II (1855-1904)
  • Krushna Chandra Gajapati Narayan Deo (1913-25th May,1974) *Gopinath Gajapati Narayan Deo (25th May,1974-10th January,2020) *Kalyani Gajapati(10th January,2020-)

Early Chauhan Rulers

This Rajput dynasty had arrived from Mainpuri or Garh Sambhor amidst a conflict with the Muslim rulers of Delhi around 13th or 14th century. The founder Ramai Deva was still in the womb of his mother when his father was murdered by the Yavanas and she fled to the hilly and forest terrains of western Odisha to seek refuge. The early 17th Century works by the Poet Gangadhar Mishra (a descendant of the famous Sanskrit poet Sambhukara from Puri) known as Kosalananda and early 18th century work by the Chauhan king Vaijala Deva known as Probodha Chandrika and Jayachandrika give detailed descriptions about their origins and foundation of the state first at Patna and then Sambalpur.[29]

Ramai Deva was first adopted by a local priest or Brahmin chief known as Chakradhara Panigrahi who provided shelter and refuge to his fleeing mother during her pregnnacy. Ramai Deva later won over other local chiefs and established the Patna state. He married the daughter of the Eastern Ganga King Bhanudeva III

Patna (Bolangir)

  • Ramai Deva (1360-1412)
  • Mahalinga Deva
  • Vastsaraja Deva
  • Bhojaraja Deva
  • Prataprudra Deva
  • Vikramaditya Deva
  • Vaijala Deva
  • Hiradara Deva
  • Narasingha Deva

Sambalpur

  • Balarama Deva (1575- ?)
  • Hrudayanarayan Deva
  • Balabhadra Deva
  • Madhukara Deva
  • Anirudha
  • Ananata
  • Madana Gopala
  • Baliara Deva
  • Phate Sing
  • Vikram Sing
  • Ratan Sing
  • Raghunatha Sai
  • Chhatra Sai
  • Budha Ray
  • Haribans Sing
  • Balabhata Sai
  • Ajita Sing
  • Abhaya Sing
  • Jayanta Sing
  • Padman Sing

Medieval Period and After

Gajapati Dynasty

Govinda Vidyadhara, the general of Prataparudra, killed Prataparudra's remaining sons in c.1541 and began the Bhoi Dynasty.[30][25]

Silavamshi Rulers of Nandapur, Koraput

Silavamshi rulers are said to be the descendants of the Saila Vanshi rulers from Nadivardhana region near today's Nagpur.[31]

  • Ganga Raja (1353 - ?)
  • Viswanadha Raja or Bhairava Raja
  • Pratap Ganga Raja (?-1443)

Shankara Rulers of Koraput

The Shankara Dynasty rulers are said to be the descendant of the Raja Kanaka Sena of Jammu and of ancient Solar dynasty lineage who married the daughter of the last Silavanshi ruler of Nandapur Pratap Ganga Raja and became a legitimate heir to the throne.[32]

Nandapur

  • Vinayak Deo  (1443–1476)
  • Viziachandra Krishna Deo (1476-1510)
  • Bhariva Deo (1510-1527)
  • Vishwanadha Deo (1527-1571)
  • Balarama Deo (1571-1597)
  • Yeshovanta Deo (1597-1610)
  • Krishna Deo (1610-1648)

Jeypore

  • Vikram Deo I (1648-1669)
  • Krishna Deo (1669-1672)
  • Vishwambhara Deo I (1672-1676)
  • Mallakimardhana Krishna Deo (1676-1681)
  • Hari Deo (1681-1684)
  • Balarama Deo I (1684-1686)
  • Raghunath Krishna Deo (1686-1708)
  • Ramchandra Deo I (1708-1711)
  • Balarama Deo II (1711-1713)
  • Vishwambhara Deo II (1713-?)
  • Lala Krishna Deo (1752-1758)
  • Vikram Deo II (1758-1779)
  • Ramchandra Deo II (1779-1825)
  • Vikram Deo III (1825-1860)
  • Ramchandra Deo III (1860-1889)
  • Vikram Deo IV (1889-1920)
  • Ramchandra Deo IV (1920-1931)
  • Vikram Deo V (1931-1951)

Bhanja Rulers of Middle Princely States [33][34]

The palm leaf manuscripts like Bhaja Vansa Malika and Rayakula Vamsanu give the details about the first Bhanja king Adi Bhanja of Hariharpur state comprising both erstwhile Mayurbhanj and Keonjhar princely states. The according to the documents and folklore, Jaisingh the son of Mansingh (the Rajput general of Akbar from Jaipur) married the daughter of Gajapati King of Odisha and received the Hariharpur region in dowry. He had two sons by the name Adi Singh and Jyoti Singh. Adi Singh was given the title Bhanj by the Gajapati of Puri after he defeated a local ruler.

  • Adi Bhanja
  • Santai Bhanja
  • Chhakai Bhanja
  • Lakshman Bhanja
  • Kalpi Bhanja
  • Surjya Bhanja
  • Ramachandra Bhanja
  • Batuli Bhanja

Keonjhar

  • Govind Bhanj(1480- ??)
  • Jagannath Bhanj (1688-1700)
  • Raghunath Bhanj (1700-1719)
  • Gopinath Bhanj (1719-1736)
  • Narsingh Narayan Bhanj(1736-1757)
  • Daneswar Narayan Bhanj (1757-1758)
  • Jagatedwar Narayan Bhanj (1758-1762)
  • Pratap Balabhadra Bhanj (1762-1792)
  • Janaradan Bhanj (1797-1832)
  • Gadadhar Narayan Bhanj Deo (1825-1861)
  • Dhanurjai Narayan Bhanj Deo (1861-1905)
  • Gopinath Narayan Bhanj Deo (27.10.1905 - 12.8.1926)
  • Shri Balabhadra Narayan Bhanj Deo (12.8.1926 - until accession)

Mayurbhanj

  • Jagannath Bhanja (Received Baripada Dandpat as dowry from Gajapati after marrying his daughter)
  • Biswanath Bhanja (??)
  • Nilakantha Bhanja (??)
  • Baidyanath Bhanja (?? – 1630)
  • Harihar Bhanja (??)
  • Krushna Bhanja (??- 1660)
  • Tribikram Bhanja (1600-1688)
  • Savesvara Bhanj Deo (1688 – 1711)
  • Viravikramaditya Bhanj Deo (1711 – 1728)
  • Raghunath Bhanj Deo (1728 – 1750)
  • Chakradhar Bhanj Deo (1750 – 1761)
  • Damodar Bhanj Deo (1761 – 1796)
  • Rani / Queen Sumitra Devi (1796 – 1811)
  • Tribikram Bhanj Deo (1811 – 1822)
  • Rani/ Queen Jamuna Devi (1811 – 1813)
  • Jadunath Bhanj Deo (1822 – 1863)
  • Shrinath Bhanj Deo (1863 – 1868)
  • Krishnachandra Bhanj Deo (1868 – 29 May 1882)
  • Sriram Chandra Bhandeo (9 May 1882 – 1912)
  • Purnachandra Bhanj Deo (22 Feb 1912 – 21 April 1928)
  • Pratapchandra Bhanj Deo (21 Apr 1928 – 15 April 1947)
  • Pradeep Chandra Bhanj Deo
  • Praveen Chandra Bhanj Deo

Baudh

The Baudh princely state had gradually become a small state after it had ceded away large sways of territories in the west and south to the Chauhans of Sambalpur and Daspalla region in Nayagarh which became a separate Bhanja princely state later.[35]

  • Ananga Bhanja
  • Siddhabhanja Dev (Siddheswar Dev)
  • Pratap Dev
  • Bishwamabar Dev (1778-1817)
  • Chandra Shekhar Dev (1817-1839)
  • Pitamber Deo (1839- 1879)
  • Jogendra Deo (1879- 1913)
  • Narayan Prasad Deo (1913 - until accession)

Daspalla

The Daspalla Bhanja state was established by Sal Bhanja from the territories gifted to his father Narayan Bhanja Deo by his brother, the ruler of Baudh.[36]

  • Narayan Bhanja Deo
  • Sal Bhanja
  • Chakradhar Deo Bhanja (1653-1701)
  • Padmanav Deo Bhanja (1701-1753)
  • Trilochan Deo Bhanja (1753-1775)
  • Makunda Deo Bhanja (1775-1795)
  • Guri Charan Deo Bhanja (1795-1805)
  • Krishna Chandra Deo Bhanja (1805-1845)
  • Madhusudhan Deo Bhanja (1845-1861)
  • Narsimha Deo Bhanja (1861-1873)
  • Chaitan Deo Bhanja (1873-1897)
  • Narayan Deo Bhanj (1897-1913)
  • Kishor Chandra Deo Bhanja (1913- until accession)

Bhoi Dynasty

  • Govinda Vidyadhara (1541–48)[37]
  • Raghubhanja Chhotray (nephew of Govinda Vidyadhara)
  • Chakrapratap (1548–57)[38]
  • Narasimha Jena
  • Raghuram Jena

Bhoi dynasty was short lived but during their reign Orissa came into conflicts with the invaders from Golconda.

Mukunda Deva

Mukunda Deva come to throne by a bloody coup but his reign was cut short by the armies of Sulaiman Khan Karrani which were led by Kalapahad. Ramachandra Bhanja, a feudal lord of Sarangagarh of Kandhamal, took the opportunity to rebel.

  • Mukunda Deva (1559–68)[30]
  • Ramachandra Bhanja (1568)

Karranis of Bengal

Instigated by Mukunda Deva's alliance with Akbar, Sulaiman's army led by Kalapahad and Bayazid invaded Orissa in 1568.

During the reigns of these leaders, Ismail Khan Lodhi of Prithimpassa was made the Governor of Orissa. In the Battle of Tukaroi, which took place in modern-day Balasore, Daud was defeated and retreated deep into Orissa. The battle led to the Treaty of Katak in which Daud ceded the whole of Bengal and Bihar, retaining only Orissa.[39] The treaty eventually failed after the death of Munim Khan (governor of Bengal and Bihar) who died at the age of 80. Sultan Daud Khan took the opportunity and invaded Bengal. This would lead to the Battle of Raj Mahal in 1576.[39][40]

Mughal Empire

  • Qutlu Khan Lohani (former officer of Daud, ruler of North Orissa and south Bengal) (1590)[20]
  • Nasir Khan (son of Qutlu Khan, Mughal vassal) (1590-1592)
  • Man Singh I (Mughal Subahdar) (1592-1606)

Man Singh I attacked Nasir Khan when the later broke a treaty by attacking the temple town of Puri. Orissa was annexed into the Bengal subah (province).

The Mughal rule was weak in the region, this allowed local chieftains to somewhat enjoy a semi-independence.

Subahdars of Orissa

Under Jahangir, Orissa was made into a separate subah.[41]

  • Quasim Khan (Mughal Subahdar) (1606-?)[42]
  • Kalyan Mal (Mughal Subahdar, son of Todar Mal) (c. 1610-1617)[41][42][43]
  • Mukarram Khan (1617-1620)[42]
  • Ahmad Beg (1620-1628)
  • Baqar Khan (1628-1632)
  • Shah Shuja(son of Shah Jahan, Subahdar of Bengal) (1639-1660)[42]
  • Zaman Teharani (deputy of Shah Shuja) (1642-1646)
  • Mutaqad Khan Mirza Makki (deputy of Shah Shuja) (1646-1648)
  • Mirza Jan Beg (deputy of Shah Shuja) (1648-1651)
  • Khan-i-Duran (Subahdar under Aurangzeb) (1660-1667)
  • Murshid Quli Khan (initially Subahdar of Orissa, later Nawab of Bengal) (1714–1727)
  • Shuja-ud-Din (initially Subahdar of Orissa, later Nawab of Bengal) (1719–1739)
  • Taqi Khan (deputy of Shuja-ud-Din) (1727-1734)
  • Murshid Quli Khan II (deputy of Shuja-ud-Din) (1734-1741)
  • Sarfaraz Khan (Nawab of Bengal) (1727 and 1739–1740)
  • Alivardi Khan (Nawab of Bengal, acquired Orissa in 1741) (1740–1756)

The later part of the Mughal empire was frequently marred with rebellions from local chieftains. The neighbouring subahs also encroached areas from Orissa.[11]

Later Chauhan Rulers

Sonepur

The territory of Sonepur was procured by the Chauhans of Sambalpur from the Bhanja kings of Baudh.

  • Madan Gopal Singh Deo (1556- 1606)
  • Lal Saheb Deo (1606-1635)
  • Purushottam Singh Deo (1635-1673)
  • Raj Sing Deo (1673-1709)
  • Achal Singh Deo (1709-1725)
  • Divya Singh Deo (1725-1766)
  • Jarwar Sing Deo (1766-1767)
  • Sobha Singh Deo (1767-1781)
  • Prithvi Singh Deo (1781-1841)
  • Niladhar Singh Deo Bahadur (1841-1891)
  • Pratap Rudra Singh Deo (1891-1902)
  • Sir Bir Mitrodaya Singh Deo (1902-1937)
  • Sudhansu Shekhar Singh Deo (1937- until accession)

Raj Khariar

The third branch of Chauhan rulers descended in the line of Patna's Ramai Deva started their separate rule from Raj Khariar in the seventeenth century.[44]

  • Gopal Rai (1600-1625)
  • Ramsai Deo I
  • Padman Rai
  • Vishnu Rai
  • Ghansi Rai Deo
  • Gopinath Sai Deo
  • Ramsai Deo II
  • Balabhadra Sai
  • Prataprudra Singh (1793-1818)
  • Ratan Singh Deo (1818-1835)
  • Sudarsan Singh Deo (1835-1849)
  • Krishna Chandra Singh Deo (1849-1867)
  • Padma Singh Deo (1867-1889)
  • Brajraj Singh Deo (1889-1907)
  • Vir Vikram Singh Deo (1907-1913)
  • Artatran Singh Deo (1913-1946)
  • Anup Singh Deo (1946 - until accession)

Rajas of Khurda

After 1592, the centre of power had shift from Katak to Khurda. During the reign of Purusottam Deva, relations with the Mughal Subahdars soured.[41]

  • Ramachandra Rath I (Mughal vassal, ruler of Khurda) (?-1607)[41]
  • Purusottam Rath (ruler of Khurda) (1607-1622)
  • Narasimha Rath (ruler of Khurda) (1622-1645)
  • Gangadhara Rath (nephew of Narasimha Rath) (1645-murdered in 4 months)
  • Balabhadra Rath (brother of Narasimha Rath) (1645-1655)
  • Mukunda Rath I (1655-1690)
  • Dibysingha Rath I (c. 1700-1720)
  • Harekrushna Rath (1720-1725)
  • Gopinath Ratha (1725-1732)
  • Ramachandra Rath II (converted to Islam after marrying Shehzadi Razia Begum (sister of Taqi Khan),[41] alias Hafiz Qadar Muhammad) (1732-1742/43)[41]
  • Bhagirathi Mardaraj Bira Rathan
  • Padmanava Rath (1736-1739)
  • Birakesari Rath (1739-?)
  • Birakishore Rath (Maratha vassal) (c. 1751-1780)
  • Dibyasingha Deva II (Maratha vassal) (1780-1795)
  • Mukundeva Deva II (Maratha vassal, later ceded to British empire)(1795-)

The Rajas of Khurda continued to rule the region well into the 1800s but by then their power had diminished. Then the Rajas along with other local chieftain led a series of rebellions against the British.

Maratha Empire

Maratha general, Raghoji I Bhonsle signed a treaty with Alivardi Khan, in 1751, ceding the perpetuity of Cuttack up to the river Suvarnarekha to the Marathas.[11]

Maratha Administrators

  • Seo Bhatt Sathe (1751)[45]
  • Bhawani Pandit (1764)
  • Sambhaji Ganesha (1768)
  • Madhaji Hari (1773)
  • Rajaram Pandit (1778)
  • Sadasiva Rao (1793)

British Colonial Period

Mukundeva Deva II was discontent under Maratha rule, so he agreed to help British troops to march through his territory without resistance.[41] In 1803, Maratha ceded Orissa to the British empire. The Rajas and other local chieftains lead a series of rebellions against the British. Notable among the rebellions is that of Surendra Sai.[11]

Odia speaking people at this time were placed in different provinces. Around 1870, a movement was started to unify the Oriya-speaking within a state. In 1936, the new state of Orissa was formed. About 25 princely states, remained independent but they were later integrated by 1947.

See: List of Governors of Bihar and Orissa

Post Independence

See: List of Governors of Orissa
See: List of Chief Ministers of Orissa

See also

References

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Bibliography

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