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List of rulers of Monaco

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a list of rulers of Monaco. Most belong to the House of Grimaldi; exceptions, which consist primarily of the principality's administrators under periods of foreign occupation, are noted.

History

The House of Grimaldi, descended from Otto Canella, a statesman from the Republic of Genoa, and taking their name from his son Grimaldo, were an ancient and prominent Guelphic Genoese family. Members of this family, in the course of the civil strife in Genoa between the Guelphs and Ghibellines, were banned from Genoa in 1271 and took refuge in Monaco.

François Grimaldi seized the Rock of Monaco in 1297, starting the Grimaldi dynasty, under the sovereignty of the Republic of Genoa. The Grimaldis acquired Menton in 1346 and Roquebrune in 1355, enlarging their possessions. These two towns (some 95% of the country's territory) were eventually ceded to France in 1861, according to the Franco-Monegasque Treaty.

The Grimaldis used the title of Lord until 1612. Then, Lord Honoré II started using the title of Prince, thereby becoming the first Prince of Monaco. Afterwards, Honoré II secured recognition of his independent sovereignty from Spain in 1633, and then from France by the Treaty of Péronne in 1641. Since then the area has remained under the control of the Grimaldi family to the present day, except when under French control from 24 February 1793 to 17 May 1814.

Rulers of Monaco

Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Reign start Reign end Notes
François Grimaldi
(Died 1309)
Malizia.jpg
8 January 1297 10 April 1301
  • François Grimaldi was the leader of a group of Genoese that seized the Rock of Monaco.
  • His cousin Rainier was the first Grimaldi ruler of the area now known as Monaco.
Rainier I, Lord of Cagnes
(1267–1314)
Raniero I de Mónaco.jpg
Under Genoese control from 10 April 1301 to 12 September 1331
Lords of Monaco
Charles I
(died 1357)
Charles Grimaldi de Monaco.jpg
12 September 1331 August 1357
  • Son of Rainier I, he retook the Rock from the Genoese.
  • Won Menton (1346) and Roquebrune (1355).
  • After 29 June 1352 co-rulership with
Rainier II
(1350–1407)
No image.png
29 June 1352 15 August 1357
  • Son of Charles I
  • Co-ruler since 29 June 1352
  • Yielded Monaco to the besieging Genoese for 20,000 fl. but retained Menton and Roquebrune.
Under Genoese control from 15 August 1357 to January 1395
Louis
(died 1402)
No image.png
January 1395 19 December 1395
  • Son of Charles I
  • Ruled jointly with Jean I
Jean I
(1382–1454)
No image.png
  • Son of Rainier II
  • Ruled jointly with Louis
Under Genoese control from 19 December 1395 to 11 May 1397
Louis
(died 1402)
No image.png
11 May 1397 5 November 1402  
Under Genoese control from 5 November 1402 to 5 June 1419
Jean I
(1382–1454)
No image.png
5 June 1419 8 May 1454
  • Sons of Rainier II, Jean, Ambroise and Antoine, bought back Monaco from Genoa and ruled it jointly until 1427. After Antoine's death, Jean bought out his brothers in exchange for the rule over Menton and Roquebrune.
  • Monaco was occupied by the Duchy of Milan under the governorship of Genoese Biagio Assereto from 3 October to November 1436.
  • On 20 November 1441, Jean gained sovereignty for Monaco.
  • Jean's testament replaced the Lex Salica with Male-preference primogeniture, thus allowing for female succession.
Ambroise
(died 1433)
No image.png
1427
Antonie
(died 1427)
No image.png
Catalan
(died 1457)
No image.png
8 May 1454 July 1457  
Claudine
(c. 1451–1515)
Claudina di monaco.jpg
July 1457 16 March 1458
  • Under the regency of her paternal grandmother Pomellina Fregoso
  • Abdicated in favour of her cousin Lamberto, whom she married in 1465.
Lamberto
(c. 1420–1494)
No image.png
16 March 1458 March 1494  
Jean II
(1468–1505)
Jean II de Monaco et Antonie de Savoie.jpg March 1494 11 October 1505
  • Son of Lamberto and Claudine
  • Murdered by his brother, Lucien
Lucien
(1487–1523)
Ambrogio de Predis - Lucien I - Prince of Monaco.jpg
11 October 1505 22 August 1523
  • Son of Lamberto and Claudine
  • Murdered his brother, Jean II
  • Murdered by his nephew, Bartholomew Doria of Dolceacqua
Honoré I
(1522–1581)
No image.png
22 August 1523 7 October 1581
  • Son of Lucien
  • During his minority under the regency of
    • Augustine Grimaldi, bishop of Grasse, 22 August 1523 – 14 April 1532
    • Nicholas Grimaldi, 14–23 April 1532
    • Blanche Grimaldi, baronne de Tourette (co-regent), 14 April– 1 July 1532.[1]
    • Étienne Grimaldi, 23 April 1532 – 16 December 1540
Charles II
(1555–1589)
Charles II de Monaco.jpg
7 October 1581 17 May 1589
  • Son of Honoré I
Hercule
(1562–1604)
HerculesMonaco.jpg
17 May 1589 29 November 1604
  • Son of Honoré I
  • Murdered
Honoré II
(1597–1662)
Honore II of Monaco.gif
29 November 1604 10 January 1662
Sovereign Princes of Monaco
Louis I
(1642–1701)
Portrait Louis I, Prince of Monaco by an unknown artist.jpg
10 January 1662 2 January 1701
  • Grandson of Honoré II
Antonio I
(1661–1731)
1706 - Antoine I Grimaldi (Monaco).jpg
2 January 1701 20 February 1731
  • Son of Louis I
Louise Hippolyte
(1697–1731)
Louise Hippolyte Grimaldi.jpg
21 February 1731 29 December 1731
Jacques I
(1689–1751)
Jacques I, Prince of Monaco.jpg
29 December 1731 7 November 1733
  • Husband of Louise Hippolyte
  • Regent for his wife since 21 February 1731
  • Left the country on 20 May 1732, with his brother-in-law, Antoine Grimaldi acting as regent.
  • Abdicated on 7 November 1733.
Honoré III
(1720–1795)
Honoré III, Prince of Monaco by Jean Baptiste van Loo.jpg
7 November 1733 19 January 1793
  • Son of Jacques I and Louise Hippolyte
  • Until 28 November 1784 under the regency of his uncle, Antoine Grimaldi
French occupation (19 January 1793 – 17 May 1814)
National Convention
Great coat of arms of the house of Grimaldi.svg
19 January 1793 24 February 1793 President: Joseph Barriera
Annexed by France
Flag of France.svg
24 February 1793 17 May 1814 Governed by:
Allied occupation (17 May – 17 June 1814)
Honoré IV
(1758–1819)
HonoriusIV.jpg
30 May 1814 16 February 1819
  • Son of Honoré III
  • Titular prince since 21 March 1795
  • Under the regency of
    • Joseph Grimaldi, his brother, 17–23 June 1814
    • the State Council, 23 June 1814 – 4 March 1819
      Members: Louis Millo-Terrazzani, Horace Pretti de Saint-Ambroise, Antoine Sigaldi, Joseph Rey, Honoré Albini.
    • Honoré Grimaldi, his son, 3 March 1815 – 16 February 1819
Honoré V
(1778–1841)
Honore V Monaco.gif
16 February 1819 2 October 1841
  • Son of Honoré IV
  • Regent for his father since 3 March 1815
Florestan I
(1785–1856)
FlorestanI-1-.png
2 October 1841 20 June 1856
  • Son of Honoré IV
Charles III
(1818–1889)
Karl III (Monaco).jpg
20 June 1856 10 September 1889
  • Son of Florestan I
Albert I
(1848–1922)
Albert I of Monaco.png
10 September 1889 26 June 1922
  • Son of Charles III
Louis II
(1870–1949)
Prince Louis II of Monaco 05670r.jpg
26 June 1922 9 May 1949
  • Son of Albert I
Rainier III
(1923–2005)
Prince Rainier III.jpg
9 May 1949 6 April 2005
  • Grandson of Louis II
  • From 31 March to 6 April 2005 under the regency of his son, Albert
Albert II
(born 1958)
Albert II February 2015 (cropped).jpg
6 April 2005 Incumbent
  • Son of Rainier III
  • Regent for his father from 31 March to 6 April 2005

See also

References

  1. ^ Saige, Gustave (1897). Monaco: Ses Origines et Son Histoire. Imprimerie de Monaco. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  • Burke's Royal Families of the World, Vol. 1: Europe and Latin America. London: Burke's Publishing Co., 1977. ISBN 0-85011-029-7
  • Cahoon, Benjamin. "Monaco". World Statesmen. Retrieved 16 March 2005.
  • Velde, François. "Monaco". Heraldica. Retrieved 25 March 2005.
This page was last edited on 8 February 2021, at 20:11
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