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List of proposed amendments to the United States Constitution

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hundreds of proposed amendments to the United States Constitution are introduced during each session of the United States Congress. From 1789 through January 3, 2017, approximately 11,699 measures have been proposed to amend the United States Constitution.[1] Collectively, members of the House and Senate typically propose around 200 amendments during each two-year term of Congress.[2] Most however, never get out of the Congressional committees in which they were proposed, and only a fraction of those that do receive enough support to win Congressional approval to actually go through the constitutional ratification process. Some proposed amendments are introduced over and over again in different sessions of Congress. It is also common for a number of identical resolutions to be offered on issues that have widespread public and congressional support.

Since 1789, Congress has sent 33 constitutional amendments to the states for ratification. Of these, 27 have been ratified. The framers of the Constitution, recognizing the difference between regular legislation and constitutional matters, intended that it be difficult to change the Constitution; but not so difficult as to render it an inflexible instrument of government, as the amendment mechanism in the Articles of Confederation, which required a unanimous vote of thirteen states for ratification, had proven to be. Therefore, a less stringent process for amending the Constitution was established in Article V.

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  • ✪ The US Constitutional Amendments Explained
  • ✪ United States Constitution · Amendments · Bill of Rights · Complete Text + Audio
  • ✪ ALL 27 AMENDMENTS (in four minutes)
  • ✪ The US Constitutional Amendments: Easy Ways to Remember
  • ✪ Buffet's Proposed 28th Amendment - Time to Enact?

Transcription

Here in the United States, we have a government, that government is regulated by the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution doesn’t always make everyone happy, so we have these things called amendments that help us periodically tweak (or amend) our constitution to help keep up with the times, kind of like software updates. So, what are these amendments? Though the first two amendments are perhaps the most famous of them all (particularly the second for its controversiality) the US Constitution actually has 27 amendments. 27! How many guns do you even need? Amendments can be made either by Congress, and voted on by two-thirds of each house (Senate and Representatives) and 3/4 of the state legislatures, or the state governments can call for a constitutional convention, although the latter has never happened. Here are my attempts to explain them all one-by-one, and dumb them down in the way at least I can personally understand them. The 27 amendments can range in all sorts of areas, including: The 1st Amendment, established in 1791, which establishes the rights to freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition. This means that Americans can practice any religion (or lack thereof), speak their mind, newspapers can talk about whatever, groups can assemble for protests, and Americans can make petitions for the government. The 2nd Amendment, also in 1791, establishes the right to bear arms. This amendment has come under heavy fire (pun partially intended) in recent years, as to the advent of mass shootings, and the NRA. The amendment was established with a “well-regulated militia” in mind, as America wasn’t the superpower it is today, but a small, scrappy collection of states that had only recently become a country. The 3rd Amendment establishes that, during a time of peace, soldiers cannot be quartered in someone’s household, unless consent is given by the homeowner. So, if the US government wanted to station some US Army troops in my house (essentially living here), then unless our country is at war, I have the right to say, “Guys, what the hell are you doing here?! Go find a Motel 6!” The 4th Amendment protects Americans against unfair and unreasonable searches and seizures of property. This means that, if the police or the government wanted to search through my stuff and my messages, they will need a warrant, and/or reasonable cause for suspicion in advance. So, if the police broke into my house to search through my stuff, and didn’t have a warrant, or a good reason… no, they actually can’t break into my house like that. Don’t do that. The 5th Amendment is famous for the well-known phrase, “I plead the Fifth”. This basically establishes the right to remain silent (i.e. to not say anything that would incriminate yourself). It also establishes that private property cannot be taken by the government, without just compensation (this is called eminent domain). The 6th Amendment basically guarantees the right to a speedy, public trial, overseen by a neutral jury from the state and district the crime was committed in. This is what would make that one part of Idaho an interesting place to take your exes and rivals. Well, okay, if you want to murder someone in Idaho, just do it, who even lives there? Sorry, what were we talking about? The 7th Amendment establishes the right of trial by jury, which is a cornerstone of the American legal system. This is the reason why Americans are shocked to hear about how some countries, like Germany, don’t use juries. Oh, also, it makes it so that, once a case has been seen by a jury, the exact same case cannot be re-seen. The decision is final, for better or for worse. The 8th Amendment protects against excess bail, fines, or cruel and unusual punishment; basically just a giant “calm your titties” sign for law enforcement. So, if I accidentally swore in a video, the authorities decided that they didn’t like that, and if I was fined $9,500, was then thrown in prison, and forced to eat toothpaste, all the while the Multnomah County Prison charged $84 million in bail, that would be completely unreasonable. And thankfully, the Eighth agrees with me, because seriously, who the f**k would even do that? The 9th Amendment is pretty interesting. It’s essentially a safeguard against rights not specifically listed in the Constitution. If the government, say, tried to invade my privacy, that wouldn’t be allowed, despite the Right to Privacy not being an official constitutional right. Just the fact that it obviously should have been is enough (I’m not a lawyer, though) The 10th Amendment established that the states have the right to govern themselves, and that the federal government could only do to the states what the Constitution said it could do. This has allowed for states to legalize things deemed federally illegal (most famously cannabis, which is not to be confused with KhAnubis). Now, what’s important to realize is that these first 10 amendments were all actually put into place in 1791, and this is because these 10 amendments are actually the amendments that make up the US Bill of Rights. So, if you wanted to be all picky about it, you could say that the US Constitution has only 17 amendments, in addition to the Bill of Rights. Except, as an American, I’m not going to go around saying that any time soon. The 11th Amendment, established in 1795, basically makes it so that one cannot sue a state for something if you don’t live in it. It’s basically a way of saying, “hey, you don’t live here, this is none of your business!” The 12th Amendment was established in 1804. You know roughly how US Presidential elections work? Like, with the electoral college, and the delegates, and the losing the popular vote, and stuff like that? Yeah, no one really does, but that was all the work of the Twelfth. The 13th Amendment, put into place in 1865, abolished slavery in the US, in the wake of the Civil War. Keep watch, you might notice a pattern with the next two. The 14th Amendment. effective 1868, was a big one. It established a lot of things, but by far the most important was that it established what a US citizen is, i.e. black people are also citizens. The 15th Amendment, established in 1870, now allowed men of any race/color to vote. How progressive. The 16th Amendment, made effective in 1913, was taxing for the US Congress to establish, and now quite taxing on us, as it gave Congress the power to collect income taxes. The 17th Amendment, also made effective in 1913, established direct, popular voting when voting for people like senators (as opposed to the electoral college we use to elect our presidents) The 18th Amendment, put into effect in 1919, made alcohol illegal nationwide. This was the start of the infamous prohibition era, which banned the manufacturing or importing of alcoholic beverages in the US for the 1920s. That’s right, prohibition wasn’t just a national law, it was part of our constitution! The 19th Amendment was also established in 1919 (funny how that worked out), and, yeah, you remember how I said that the 15th allowed all MEN to vote? Yeah, women couldn’t vote until the 19th was passed. So that took care of that. The 20th Amendment, established in 1933, established the commencement of presidential terms and succession. This basically moved the inauguration day from 4.March, when it was warm enough for stage coaches to get to DC, to 20.January, closer to the start of the year. The 21st Amendment, was actually the amendment that repealed the 18th amendment, and was also put into place in 1933, and made alcohol legal in the US again, even though 1933 probably wasn’t the best year to take up drinking. By the way, a useful way to remember which amendments applied to prohibition is how 18-year old Americans cannot drink alcohol, and have to wait until they’re 21, despite being legal adults (I’ve heard exchange students hate this). The 22nd Amendment was put into effect in 1951, not long after FDR served three terms, and died early in his fourth, in 1945, and it formally limited the terms a US President could serve to two. The reason presidents before FDR limited themselves to two terms is because that was what George Washington did, when he refused to run for a third term, but until the 50’s, not running for a third term was merely a formality. Washington and Cleveland could have run for a third term, but Reagan and Obama could never have done so. Must have sucked for Truman, but oh well (actually, this really, essentially means that you can only win two US presidential elections, so Truman might have been fine). The 23rd Amendment established, in 1961, the right for residents of Washington DC to vote for the President of the United States. This is actually part of the reason why DC has never voted Republican, since, unlike neighboring Maryland and Virginia (who have both voted Republican in the past), its streak doesn’t go back to the Colonial Age. Unfortunately, people in DC (and other territories) do not have a voting representative in Congress, and citizens living in territories cannot vote in the presidential election, but (confusingly) can vote in the primaries. The 24th Amendment, in 1964, abolished the poll tax requirement in federal elections, which actually meant that a US citizen could still vote in elections, even if they didn’t pay any taxes, be they homeless or a billionaire CEO. The 25th Amendment, filed out in 1967, established the presidential line of succession, and what to do when the President was either killed, or still alive, but unable to serve. Considering what happened 4 years earlier, and what was still happening then, I don’t blame them for wanting to sort a few things out in advance, instead of making it all up as they go, what with the lingering Communism, and all that. The 26th Amendment, established by Nixon in 1971, lowered the age to vote from 21 to 18, which now meant that students could vote for the president. And finally, the 27th Amendment was the most recent amendment, passed in 1992, and prohibits any law that increases the Congress’ salary from taking effect until the start of the next set of terms. Yeah, not the most glamorous, but I suppose that’s what you get when you work somewhere where a pay raise would require the creation of the 28th Amendment. Thanks for watching! I hope I’ve helped you out with your knowledge of America, and if you already were an expert on the Constitution, and I got anything wrong, please let me know, school tests are on the line! But anyways, if you were to establish the 28th Amendment, what would you suggest? As always, be sure to like, share, and subscribe to learn something new every Sunday.

Contents

Amending process

Amending the United States Constitution is a two-step process. Proposals to amend it must be properly adopted and ratified before becoming operative. A proposed amendment may be adopted and sent to the states for ratification by either:

or
  • A national convention, called by Congress for this purpose, on the application of the legislatures of two thirds (presently 34) of the states.[3][4]

The latter procedure has never been used. To become part of the Constitution, an adopted amendment must be ratified by either:

  • The legislatures of three-fourths (presently 38) of the states, within the stipulated time period, if any;
or
  • State ratifying conventions in three-fourths (presently 38) of the states, within the stipulated time period, if any.[4]

The decision of which ratification method will be used for any given amendment is Congress' alone to make, as is the decision to set a ratification deadline.[3] Only for the 21st amendment was the latter procedure invoked and followed. Upon being properly ratified, an amendment becomes an operative addition to the Constitution.[4]

19th century proposals

  • Dueling Ban Amendment, proposed in 1838, after Representative William Graves killed another congressman, Jonathan Cilley, in a duel, would have prohibited any person involved in a duel from holding federal office.[5]
  • The Crittenden Compromise, a joint resolution that included six constitutional amendments that would protect slavery.[6] Two weeks after  South Carolina seceded, the proposals were introduced to the Senate as a whole. It was defeated in a 25-23 vote.[6]
  • An amendment to eliminate the presidency so as to have two elected officials in their place, was proposed by Virginia Representative Albert Jenkins in 1860. Jenkins saw the amendment as a way for both the Northern and Southern states to be represented equally in the government at a given time.[7]
  • Christian Amendment, first proposed in February 1863, would have added acknowledgment of the Christian God in the Preamble to the Constitution.[8] Similar amendments were proposed in 1874, 1896 and 1910 with none passing. The last attempt in 1954 did not come to a vote.
  • Blaine Amendment, proposed in 1875, would have banned public funds from going to religious purposes, in order to prevent Catholics from taking advantage of such funds.[9] Though it failed to pass, many states adopted such provisions.[6]
  • An amendment allowing property-owning unmarried women to vote was proposed by Representative William Mason. It was reportedly proposed because husbands could vote for the married women but the others "love their country, having no husband to love better than themselves," and the women were referred to as "spinsters and widows."[7]
  • Congressman Lucas Miller proposed renaming the United States of America to the United States of Earth in 1893, as well as abolishing the Army and Navy.[10]

20th century proposals

  • An amendment abolishing the Senate was proposed by socialist Representative Victor Berger in 1911, due to his belief that the House was corrupt as well as useless to the country as a whole.[11]
  • Anti-Miscegenation Amendment was proposed by Representative Seaborn Roddenbery, a Democrat from Georgia, in 1912 to forbid interracial marriages nationwide. This was spurred when black boxer Jack Johnson garnered much publicity when he married a white woman, Lucille Cameron.[12][13] Similar amendments were proposed by Congressman Andrew King, a Missourian Democrat, in 1871 and by Senator Coleman Blease, a South Carolinian Democrat, in 1928. None were passed by Congress.
  • Anti-Polygamy Amendment, proposed by Representative Frederick Gillett, a Massachusetts Republican, on January 24, 1914, and supported by former U.S. Senator from Utah, Frank J. Cannon, and by the National Reform Association.[14]
  • Ludlow Amendment was proposed by Representative Louis Ludlow in 1937. This amendment would have heavily reduced America's ability to be involved in war. Public support for the amendment was very robust through the 1930s, a period when isolationism was the prevailing mood in the United States.[15][16][17]
  • An amendment that no person should accumulate more than $1 million was proposed by Representative Wesley Lloyd in 1933. In the wake of the Wall Street Crash and the beginnings of the Great Depression many Americans developed more socialist values and believed that personal wealth should be limited to avoid such an issue from happening again.[18]
  • An amendment to limit investment income was proposed by Representative J. Buell Snyder in 1933.[7]
  • Multiple attempts to repeal the 21st Amendment ending Prohibition were proposed by Representative Morris Sheppard, introducer of the 18th Amendment originally banning alcoholic beverages, from 1935 to 1938, followed by attempt to outlaw drunkenness after his first proposals failed.[7]
  • Bricker Amendment, proposed in 1951 by Ohio Senator John W. Bricker, would have limited the federal government's treaty-making power.[19] Opposed by President Dwight Eisenhower,[20] it failed twice to reach the threshold of two-thirds of voting members necessary for passage, the first time by eight votes and the second time by a single vote.[21]
  • Twenty-second Amendment repeal, would eliminate term limits for presidents. Outgoing Presidents Harry Truman.[22] Ronald Reagan[23] and Bill Clinton[24] all expressed support for some sort of repeal. The first efforts in Congress to repeal the 22nd Amendment were undertaken in 1956, only five years after the amendment's ratification. According to the Congressional Research Service, over the ensuing half-century (through 2008) 54 joint resolutions seeking to repeal the two-term presidential election limit were introduced; none were given serious consideration.[25] The most recent attempt was launched by Representative José Serrano (D-New York) in 2013, during the 113th Congress.[26]
  • School Prayer Amendment to establish that "The people retain the right to pray and to recognize their religious beliefs, heritage, and traditions on public property, including schools. Proposed by Robert Byrd of West Virginia in 1962, 1973, 1979, 1982, 1993, 1995, 1997, and 2006.[27] Representative Ernest Istook, a Republican from Oklahoma's 5th congressional district, proposed the amendment in the house on May 8, 1997.[28]In March 1998, the Judiciary Committee passed the bill by a 16-11 vote.[29] On June 4, 1998, the full House voted on the amendment, 224-203 in favor. The vote was 61 short of the required two-thirds majority.[30]
  • Flag Desecration Amendment was first proposed in 1995 to give Congress the power to make acts such as flag burning illegal, seeking to overturn the 1990 supreme court ruling that such laws were unconstitutional.[31] During each term of Congress from 1995 to 2005, the proposed amendment was passed by the House of Representatives, but never by the Senate, coming closest during voting on June 27, 2006, with 66 in support and 34 opposed (one vote short).[32]
  • Bayh–Celler amendment was the closest the United States has come to passing an Electoral College abolition amendment. It was proposed during the 91st Congress (1969–1971).[33] The House Judiciary Committee voted 28 to 6 to approve the proposal[34] and was eventually passed the full House with bipartisan support on September 18, 1969, by a vote of 339 to 70.[35]. The Senate commenced openly debating the proposal[36] and the proposal was quickly filibustered.[37] On September 17, 1970, a motion for cloture, which would have ended the filibuster, received 54 votes to 36 for cloture,[37] failing to receive the then required a two-thirds majority of senators voting. Other proposals were made in 2005, 2009, and 2016, none of which were voted on by committee.
  • Human Life Amendment, first proposed in 1973, would overturn the Roe v. Wade court ruling. A total of 330 proposals using varying texts have been proposed with almost all dying in committee. The only version that reached a formal floor vote, the Hatch-Eagleton Amendment,[38][39] was rejected by 18 votes in the Senate on June 28, 1983.[40]
  • A balanced budget amendment, in which Congress and the President are forced to balance the budget every year, has been introduced many times[41] dating back to the 1930s.[42] No measure passed either body of Congress until 1982, when the Senate took 11 days to consider it and gained the necessary two-thirds majority.[42] The first and only time the House gave two-thirds approval to a balanced budget amendment was in 1995, when Members voted for the Contract with America. That was also the last time the House held a floor or committee vote.[42]

21st century proposals

See also

References

  1. ^ "Measures Proposed to Amend the Constitution". Washington, D.C.: United States Senate. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  2. ^ "C-SPAN's Capitol Questions". Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
  3. ^ a b "Constitution Day: Proposed Amendments". Morrow, Georgia: Clayton State University. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c "Constitutional Amendment Process". Washington, D.C.: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. 2016-08-15. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
  5. ^ Blackerby, Christine (Winter 2015). "Amending America: Exhibit Shows How Changes in the Constitution Affect the Way Our Democracy Works" (PDF). Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration. 47 (4): 10.
  6. ^ a b c Kleber, John (ed.). The Kentucky Encyclopedia. University Press of Kentucky. p. 241. ISBN 9780813128832.
  7. ^ a b c d "10 Weirdest Failed Constitutional Amendments". HowStuffWorks. 2016-08-26. Retrieved 2019-04-05.
  8. ^ Goldstein, Jared (26 Feb 2017). "How the Constitution Became Christian". Hastings Law Journal. 68 (259): 270. SSRN 2739069.
  9. ^ Lash, Kurt T. (Apr 7, 2014). The Fourteenth Amendment and the Privileges and Immunities of American Citizenship. Cambridge University Press. p. 269. ISBN 9781107023260.
  10. ^ Novak, Matt. "Congress once considered renaming the US "The United States of Earth"". Gizmodo. Retrieved 2019-04-05.
  11. ^ "U.S. Senate: House Member Introduces Resolution to Abolish the Senate". www.senate.gov. Retrieved 2019-04-05.
  12. ^ Schaffner, Joan (2005). "The Federal Marriage Amendment: To Protect the Sanctity of Marriage or Destroy Constitutional Democracy". GW Law Faculty Publications. 54 (1487): 10.
  13. ^ Wallenstein, Peter (March 24, 2015). Tell the Court I Love My Wife: Race, Marriage, and Law--An American History. St. Martin's Press. pp. 133–135.
  14. ^ Iversen, Joan (1997). The Antipolygamy Controversy in U.S. Women's Movements: 1880-1925: A Debate on the American Home. NY: Routledge. pp. 243–4. ISBN 9780815320791.
  15. ^ Ole R., Holsti (2004). Public Opinion and American Foreign Policy By. University of Michigan. ISBN 978-0-472-03011-8. Page 17-18
  16. ^ Robert C., Cottrell. Roger Nash Baldwin and the American Civil Liberties Union.Page 236
  17. ^ Chatfield, Charles (May 1969). "Pacifists and Their Publics: The Politics of a Peace Movement". Midwest Journal of Political Science. 13 (2): 298–312. doi:10.2307/2110180. JSTOR 2110180.
  18. ^ "Five "unusual" amendments that never made it into the Constitution - National Constitution Center". National Constitution Center – constitutioncenter.org. Retrieved 2019-04-05.
  19. ^ Critchlow, Donald T. (2005). Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism: A Woman's Crusade. Princeton University Press. pp. 85–86. ISBN 9780691070025.
  20. ^ Tananbaum, Duane (Sep 19, 1988). The Bricker Amendment Controversy: A Test of Eisenhower's Political Leadership. Cornell University Press. pp. 263 pages. ISBN 9780801420375.
  21. ^ "Bricker Amendment". Ohio History Central. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
  22. ^ Lemelin, Bernard Lemelin (Winter 1999). "Opposition to the 22nd Amendment: The National Committee Against Limiting the Presidency and its Activities, 1949-1951". Canadian Review of American Studies. University of Toronto Press on behalf of the Canadian Association for American Studies with the support of Carleton University. 29 (3): 133–148. doi:10.3138/CRAS-029-03-06.
  23. ^ Reagan, Ronald (January 18, 1989). "President Reagan Says He Will Fight to Repeal 22nd Amendment". NBC Nightly News (Interview). Interviewed by Tom Brokaw. New York: NBC. Retrieved June 14, 2015.
  24. ^ "Clinton: I Would've Won Third Term". ABC News. December 7, 2000. Retrieved March 26, 2018.
  25. ^ Neale, Thomas H. (October 19, 2009). "Presidential Terms and Tenure: Perspectives and Proposals for Change" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
  26. ^ "Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to repeal the twenty-second article of amendment, thereby removing the limitation on the number of terms an individual may serve as President. (2013; 113th Congress H.J.Res. 15) - GovTrack.us". GovTrack.us. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
  27. ^ "Sen. Byrd introduces amendment allowing school prayer". Associated Press. 2006-04-30. Archived from the original on 2009-01-25. Retrieved 2009-01-31.
  28. ^ Seelye, Katharine Q. (1996-07-16). "Republicans in Congress Renew Push for Vote on School Prayer Amendment". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-01-31.
  29. ^ Van Biema, David (1998-04-27). "Spiriting Prayer Into School". Time. Retrieved 2009-01-31.
  30. ^ "Votes in Congress". The New York Times. 1998-06-07. Retrieved 2009-01-31.
  31. ^ Pieper, Troy (June 1996). "Playing With Fire: The Proposed Flag Burning Amendment and the Perennial Attack on Freedom of Speech". Journal of Civil Rights and Economic Development. 11 (3). 25.
  32. ^ Staff Writer (June 28, 2006). "Senate Rejects Flag Desecration Amendment". The Washington Post.
  33. ^ For a more detailed account of this proposal read The Politics of Electoral College Reform by Lawrence D. Longley and Alan G. Braun (1972)
  34. ^ "House Unit Votes To Drop Electors". The New York Times. April 30, 1969. p. 1.
  35. ^ "House Approves Direct Election of The President". The New York Times. September 19, 1969. p. 1.
  36. ^ "Senate Debating Direct Election". The New York Times. September 9, 1970. p. 10.
  37. ^ a b Weaver, Warren (September 18, 1970). "Senate Refuses To Halt Debate On Direct Voting". The New York Times. p. 1.
  38. ^ "Abortion Amendment Voted by Senate Panel". The New York Times. Associated Press. March 26, 1983.
  39. ^ ROBERTS, STEVEN (April 4, 1983). "FULL SENATE GETS ABORTION MEASURE". The New York Times.
  40. ^ Granberg, Donald (June 1985). "The United States Senate Votes to Uphold Roe versus Wade". Population Research and Policy Review. Springer. 4 (2): 115–131. doi:10.1007/BF00127547. JSTOR 40229744.
  41. ^ James V. Saturno, "A Balanced Budget Amendment Constitutional Amendment: Procedural Issues and Legislative History," Congressional Research Service Report for Congress No. 98-671, August 5, 1998.
  42. ^ a b c Istook, Ernest (July 14, 2011). "Considering a Balanced Budget Amendment: Lessons from History". Heritage Foundation. Heritage Foundation.
  43. ^ Cosgrove-Mather, Bootie (24 October 2003). "The 'Arnold Amendment'". CBS News. Archived from the original on 23 October 2017. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  44. ^ "'Amend for Arnold' campaign launched". www.sfgate.com. 2004-11-18. Retrieved 2016-08-01.
  45. ^ Associated Press (30 November 2004). "Foreign-Born President Amendment Sought". Fox News. Archived from the original on 23 October 2017. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  46. ^ Hulse, Carl; Kirkpatrick, David D. (July 9, 2004). "The 2004 Campaign: The Marriage Issues; Conservatives Press Ahead on Anti-Gay Issue". The New York Times.
  47. ^ Cillizza, Chris (January 22, 2014). "How Citizens United changed politics, in 7 charts". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  48. ^ 112th Congress, H.J.Res. 88 at Congress.gov
  49. ^ Remsen, Nancy (December 8, 2011). "Sen. Bernie Sanders, I–Vt., offers constitutional amendment on corporate "citizenship"". The Burlington Free Press. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012.
  50. ^ Saving American Democracy Amendment
  51. ^ Saving American Democracy Amendment. 8 Dec 2011. Sanders Senate web site
  52. ^ "H.J.Res. 29, 113th Congress - Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States providing that the rights extended by the Constitution are the rights of natural persons only". Congress.gov. Library of Congress. 2013-02-28.
  53. ^ "H.J.Res. 48, 114th Congress - Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States providing that the rights extended by the Constitution are the rights of natural persons only". Congress.gov. Library of Congress. 2015-05-15.
  54. ^ "H.J.Res. 48, 115th Congress - Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States providing that the rights extended by the Constitution are the rights of natural persons only". Congress.gov. Library of Congress. 2017.

External links

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